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- Itemإصدار العملة الفلسطينية: الواقع والآفاق(2000) عبد الفتاح احمد يوسف نصر الله;The importance of this study comes from the necessity of demonstrating a clear vision of the monetary arrangement in Palestine after the end ofthe transition phase within the available resources. The study reviewed the banking and the monetary development beginning from the British mandate to the end ofthe zo"century. We found that the Palestinian territories have experienced simultaneous changes of the three-used currencies in the Palestinian economy- jordaman Dinar, US Dollar, and Israeli Shequl According to the nature of the currency and its function. The researcher used descript ion methoclolgy on this study and we benefited from the previous studies and the monetary experience ofthe palestinian Pound, the Egyptian Pound, and the lebanese Pound in addition to the experience of Lactivia and Estonia Because of the lack of the official statistics about the amount of the used currencies in palestine, the researcher these amounts based all the similarity of the monetary system of palestine and Jordan. Itwas found that the money supply for the year 1998 is 1525.17 milion US Dollar and its dcstribution regarding the kind of the currency was 717 million Dollar as Shequl, ]88 million Dollar as Jordan Dinar, 415 million as US Dollar and 2.5 million Dollar as other currencies. The money supply (m2) W,lS estimated at ]253J)<) million Dollar destributed of which 842.9 million Dollar as Shequl, 831.22 million Dollar as Jordan Dinar, 1554.57 million as US Dollar, and 25 million Dollar as other currencies. We find that the Palestinian economy faced direct and indirect losses, from using these currencies. The direct loss was estimated between 1707.087 -•2276.118 million US Dollar during the period 1968 -•-1<)98. l.e-annual loss of a bout 55.067- 73.423 million US Dollar, In addition to the loss, which comes from invisting the currency reserves. Whichwas estimated of about 50 million dollar p.a. The indirect lose represented by the volal ility orthese curraucics and the devaluation orthese currencies against the US Dollar in addition to unefficientrnouctary policy and it is impacts on the Palcstininn economy The economists estimated the Palestinian indirect losses from using the isreali shequal between 500-600 million US Dollar without any isreali compensation. The study also clarified that the performance ofthe Palestinian economy improved in the past few years but still facing difficulties, which is represented by th full compliance to the Economic Paris. Accord specially the article, which prevent the Palestinian from issuing their currency during the transion period. The researcher also demonstrated the future monetary alternatives under the situation of not issuing the national currency. It isevident that the best choice is to keep the current monetary arrangements through an agreement with the issuing countries to insure that the resulting returns will not be lost, and to inusure that issuing countries will not implement a policy that would affect the palestinian economy .ln addition it was proposed the using of accounting currency beside these arrangements. Finally, this study demonstrated the managerial and the institutional arrangements, which are essential for issuing the national currency. 1twas clear that by following the currency Board "constant exchange rate" would be the best choice, and by taking the US Dollar as areserve currency to have a powerful and stable national currency. To replace the used currencies, the national currency should be issued inthe right way and the right time, without any confusion that may destroy it at the beginnig of the issuance.
- ItemForeign Loans And Their Role In Economic Development Of Palestine(2001) ميساء وليد أحمد عبادي;This study is an attempt to shed light on Palestinian foreign borrowings and the role of these loans in Palestinian economic development. The study gives first a theoretical background on foreign borrowings and its importance in helping the country to fill the gap between local saving and investments. The experiment of both Jordan and Egypt in foreign borrowing was discussed. It was found that both countries did not benefit from foreign loans .On the contrary these loans are still a burden on both countries despite several rescheduling agreements and forgiveness of certain percentages of their debt. The debt burden of foreign loans was analyzed for each loan, and was found that the debt service is rather low due to the nature of these loans. Most of them are soft loans (long period and low interest rate). In addition, the total amount of outstanding debt is still low estimated at $ 605 million, which represent 12.5% of GDP and 85.4% of total exports of goods and services. The sources of Palestinian foreign borrowings as well as the authorities responsible for signing, receiving and following up of these loans were discussed. It was found that the main sources of borrowings are: the World Bank, which lends 43.3% of the total loans and the European Investment Bank 28% . PECDAR and the Ministry of Finance were the major Palestinian authorities signing and responsible for foreign borrowing accounting for 84% of the total foreign loans. There are some discussion about the distribution of these loans among various sectors in Palestine. It was found that 45.5% of the total loans were used to finance infrastructural projects and in major cities. Productive sectors and rural areas received a rather very small amount of these loans. Finally some recommendations have been of offered to help Palestinian authorities better managing and controlling their foreign debt
- Itemالترخيص الصناعي في الضفة الغربية: الواقع والدور المرتقب في إحداث تنمية صناعية(2001) عزمي لطفي محمد عبد الرحمن;This study deals with the policy of manufacture licensing in Palestine, and the affect of this policy on the development of the manufacture sector. The study comprises seven chapters, the first of which illustrates the methodology of the study and its objectives. The second chapter of the study deals with the theoretical background of manufactural licensing, with focus on its goals. The "Open Market Policy" is presented as an alternative of the manufactural licensing system, in accordance to the theorists of this policy. This chapter also deals with the manufactural licensing system in the realistic, practical state, as it appears that this system may deviate from the goals it's supposed to achieve. The third chapter presents the Palestinian economic reality in general, and the state of the manufactural sector in Palestine, in particular. The fourth chapter studies the procedures of manufactural licensing carried out by The Ministry ofIndustry, and the legal succession of these procedures, beginning with the Ottoman era and up to the present Palestinian Authority. The chapter discuses the manner of evaluating the manufactural projects, the licenses required starting a manufactural project in Palestine and the different parties involved in the four licenses required. In addition, this chapter presents two models, Egypt and Jordan, in regard to manufactural licensing. The fifth chapter deals with the state of working manufactural firms regarding licensing, and its relevance to some general indicators such as capital, employment and geographical distribution of these firms. The sixth chapter studies the real reasons for not embarking upon manufactural licensing. After a random sample was selected,• focusing on the firms that have dangerous affects on the environment, a questionnaire was prepared and then filled by the working manufactural firms in the West Bank. The seventh and last chapter concludes the results and recommendations of the study. And it's worth mentioning that the data in the study was analyzed by using the quantitative and inductive method, as the data of the sixth chapter was entered to the statistical program "spss". Following are there sults concluded by the study: - Manufactural licensing is a method that can achieve important economic goals. - The Palestinian economy still suffers from systematic faults due to the long period of the Israeli occupation. - The Palestinian history is characterized by having a great diversity in the legal systems. Moreover, until this minute,the legal system in the West Bank differs from that in the Gaza Strip. - The manufactural licensing procedures currently used suffer from complexity, inflexibility, contradiction and repetition. - The Egyptian and Jordanian models,regarding manufactural licensing, are very rich and canb every inspiring to the Palestinian situation. - 60% of the Palestinian manufactures work without licenses, and exist in manufactural and non-manufactural areas as well. - There is a group of reasons that hinder embarking upon manufactural licensing.
- Itemواقع التمويل في الصناعات الفلسطينية(2001) زياد احمد علي حمدان;This study has discussed funding issue in Industry factors in cities the basic core to develop old industries and build new ones. In conclusion this leads to enlarge production base, to help in having the needs of local market and also in creating industry base, which is capable to produce huge production and exports. This study has limited the obstacles that face funding in the Palestinian industry factor in the practical application. This could be achieved by limiting the relationship between industrial institution and funding institution especially the percentages of industrial funding, the guarantees that are needed, the capacity of such industries to have them. In addition, it discusses the difficulty of lending from commercial banks and other lending institutions. This study showed the shortage in industry funding percentages from commercial banks, (the most important source) which provides % from the whole facilities given the industry. It also showed the little participants of the specialized lending institutions that don't aim for profits comparing to financial institutions like banks. This share is only 3.5from the whole recent lending average and so the role of these institutions in meeting the needs is very little. The evaluations of international bank in 1999showed that west bank and Gaza strip suffer from funding gab. And so these institutions cover21.2% from the needed funding seekers and especially concerning the little funding. And it has also been noticed that1.35%fromthewhole expenditures from the international fund goes to industry's development and 5.33% goes to production in the industrial factor. In contrast the shares of the insurance projects through shares and sharing in some related projects. And it has also been noticed the little role of money-market in industrial funding, such fact comes from the pre cautions of the funding institution to give funds for the following reasons: the political conditions especially instability of the future, the difficulty of having guarantees because of the back of the needed scraps, lack of financial awareness which refers to little experience in this fields the lack of specialized institutions to fund industry. In addition most Palestinian Deposits are invested abroad. For all the above-mentioned reasons self-funding hascontrolled capital or the industrial institutions. It resulted shortage in the finding comparing to industry's need, which has been evaluated according the needed capitals about 63% till 2000, the funding of the loans about 11%ofthePalestinian establishing capitals according to the industrial search in 1997. In order to achieve such facts, the researcher has done reach work on arbitrary sample from 44 businessmen working in industry as indicative sample. He made a questionnaire aimed to knee their problems in funding and their finding tend and their capacities to give the needed guarantees and the alternatives to the industrial funding. to be sure of the obstacles he depended 011 studies and Publications and also surveys of the central system of Palestinian static and the ministry of industry and the results of this study.Using ANOV A analysis there were no difference of statically indications in the level of 5% between middle term and long-term funds. And when testing the relationship between the percentages of donor institutions, there are no differences at statically indications in the needed funding percentages and the funding institutions, as are sultthe owners of manufactories should be distinguish those institutions, Concerning the relation between the kinds of industrial activities and the needed funded it has been noticed after analyzing the results that there arc also no differences in the level 5% between findings percentages and industrial activity and that refers to the need of needed funding percentages, As a result most fund goes to the important operations (activities). To solve funding issue we should determine the rote of all related parties, which are owners of industry, financial institutions, and governmental institutions, The role of industry owners should be concentrated 011 establishing research and consultation industrial institution ill order to limit the inability to give guarantees. uncorporation between some industrial institutions, It should also establish public limited company for similar industries in order to reduce costs and increase profits, The role or funding institution needs to work III social responsibility because gain is not the only goal.It should also increase the recent funding percentage, reduction of guarantees and focusing 011 the economical benefit of each project. Establishing industrial institutions and announce 1()I" individuals to share in them, to polarize foreign capitals. And no doubts than banks have more capacity than individuals to achieve these goals through their communications, and lastly establishing comprehensive banks that give financial and economical consultations. The importance of government's role is to plan and decide developmental economical plans, by establishing large industrial institutions that need huge capital and announce subscription. Then by gradual withdrawal from these projects after they have achieved success, we could solve the issue of needed guarantee, through establishing public limited company to guarantee loans, and establishing industrial growth bank which gives long and middle term funding, and also participates in preparing plans related to industry.
- Itemتحليل وقياس إنتاجية العامل في الصناعات التحويلية في الضفة الغربية(2001) عائشة علي عبد القادر الطيبي;This study aimed at measuring the interest of the industrial manufacturing as a hole and as a branch in the West Bank on the average wage of labor, the worker's average shave of capital , motivations and rewards , workers of production versus the total workers , skilled workers versus the total production workers, the average of university works, and training , and the effect of this interest on the lab productivity at the industrial manufacturing companies and its branches. The results of the statistical analysis , which were collected from the Palestinian Ministry of Industry through a questionnaire of the industrial file for the year 1997, showed that the industrial manufacturing companies do not care with these factors The most effective factors on the labor productivity is the average wage of labour, and the worker's average shave of capital, The other factors such as rewards and motivations ,workers of production versus the total workers ,skilled wokers versus the total production workers, the average of university works ,and training, did not have statistically significant relationships with labor productivity. Concerning the branches of the industrial manufacturing, results showed that the most effective factors on the labour productivity was the average wage of labor. This study also came up with a group of recommendations aim at increasing the interest of the labor productivity.
- Itemظاهرة عمالة الأطفال في الضفة الغربية وسياسات مكافحتها(2002) رائد احمد محمود زيد;The study discussed, the child labour phenomenon in the Wet bank , and its treating policies, aiming to understand the different sides of the phenomenon , through its volume , causes and tile effects resulting from. The study significance arises from tile necessity of forming a clear view of its nature in the West Bank , the definition of its spreading through the Palestinian society , at a time when the subject suffers from the dearth of the studies concerning this phenomenon. The study concentrated , mainly , on identifying the actual children's employment in the West Bank, analyzing all the domain sides ,besides defining the policies that have to be followed in order to limit its rampancy through the society , and getting rid of its negative effects. The researcher depended on tile descriptive method, assisted by the statistical tables and frames. The study depended, mainly, on the process of surveying the children's work and activities at the age of (5 – 17) years that had been conducted by the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics, between October to December 1998, where tile results of the mentioned survey as a main source of the data and statistical indicators used in this study. This study consisted of an introduction and seven chapters. The introduction elaborated on the study's problem, its aims, methods used on implementing the study , besides a review of previous studies related to the subject. In 1J1Pfirst Chapter, the researcher dealt with the children's employment concept , where he explained what is meant by children's employment ,and the criteria used for distinguishing between what is accepted and the rejected of the duties conducted by children. The researcher explained that the children's employment medicates 10 harmful! ,unaccepted works that deprive the child of his childhood , as the child is pushed in for long, daily hours of work, for very low wages, this forbids the child from having his opportunity for enough education. Child's employment shows also the ugly exploitation, and hard and brutal treatment by tile employer . In the second chapter of the study, the case of the actual children's employment on the international and regional scales was dealt with in order to make sufficient comparison of the phenomenon's scale and volume within some Arab and foreign countries. Then the researcher's discussed the relationship of this phenomenon with the economic changes ,which have swept the world since the end of the last century, has so explained the role of the industrial countries in employing children as a means of enforcing their industrial supremacy and ensuring their share in the international markets in the face of many developed countries, The third chapter dealt with the different characteristics distinguishing the children's employment in the West Bank, concerning its volume , the age of children involved in this phenomenon, and the characteristics. The study revealed that there are 63600 children, of the age of (5 - 17) years, are employed in Palestinian territory, that's equivalent to 6.2% of the whole children of this age ,of these children there are 48000 are working children in the West Bank, equivalent to 7.4%of the whole number of children at this age, the phenomenon concentrate at the northern part of the West Bank, 53,8°(0besides,the employed children are mainly employed in the agricultural domain ,making up to 40,8%of the whole number of employed children. The fourth chapter dealt with the causes of this phenomenon, economic, educational, demographic, social and political factors, causing the children's employment, It was cleared that the hard economical situation of the families ,is considered to bean important factor in leading the children to work, in addition to the principal role of children's leaking of schools. The fifth chapter dealt with the negative effects of the phenomenon on the child, his family and the whole society, The study concentrated on the economic effects of the children's employment, where it was explained effects of the children's employment , where it was explained that the phenomenon averages in the West Bank, and the wages of the adult workers, is known to be as lightone,because50.4% of employed children are working within the families activities, with no wages "family work" ,and 42.5% work at simple works considered as neglected and undesired by adult workers. In the sixth chapter, the needed way and executive procedures for treating the phenomenon and limiting its spreading were discussed ,whereas mechanics followed by Palestinian ministry of laboring dealing with children working were cleared, and so were the projects put by the Palestinian ministry of education to limit the phenomenon of leaking children from school which is considered one of the main reasons which force children to work. In addition to programs encountering poverty and projects of creating job opportunities as a means of limiting this phenomenon by stopping spread of poverty among the Palestinian society. Finally, the researcher discussed the most prominent results and recommendations of the study, where he assured that the final elimination of this phenomenon ,related to several variations, will never achieved in one step, especially during the incapacity of the economical and social circumstances ,the matter that shows the need for dealing with this problem as a united team ,who can confront it through integral policies in all domains ,economical, educational health, legal, and social welfare, aiming to eliminate it thoroughly ,as treatment of this phenomenon can't be achieved through legal regulations alone.
- ItemThe Role Of Industrial Estates In Solving The Problems Of Industrial Sector: A Study Case Concerning Stone Industry In Jenin Governorate(2003) Yousef M. Yassir Yousef AL Sae' d; Dr. Basim MakhoolThis study has been concentrated on the role of the industrial estates in solving the problems of the industrial sector: a case study about stone industry in Jenin Governorate. This study consists of seven chapters: the first chapter discussed the methodology of study and its objectives. The second chapter discussed the connotation of industrial estate and its types, its objectives and its role in development. It has been clear that the industrial estates share in supporting development in general and supporting the industrial sector in particular. It helps as a planning of rural and urban areas. The third chapter discussed the strategy of the industrial estate through its program as well as the factors and criteria of its success and failure. It is clear that unless the governments share or help in a well - established scientific studied sketch. The existence of industrial estates may become more exposed to success or failure. Its effects may be limited by the objectives for which they were erected to support the procedure of development for these countries. The fourth chapter discussed the status of the stone industry in Palestine, because it has been clear that stone industry is one of the most sensitive sectors in Palestine: which was adversely affected by the Israeli policy that aims at eradicating Al- Aqsa Uprising , this has a negative reflection on the productivity and profitability of this vital industry . The fifth chapter discussed the study of the opinions of the owners of the stone industry. It focused on the research method, the society, the sample of the study and the statistical treatment of the results. The sixth chapter discussed the results of the survey and identifying the role of the variables included in the study .To realizes this, a questionnaire has been developed and proved. After collecting data and after it has been proved to be true, it has been symbolized and introduced to the computer and it has been tested statistically by using the statistical package for social sciences (spss) . Analyzing and testing these hypotheses have been done and several results have been achieved. In the seventh chapter the results and the recommendations of the study have been supplied. This study accomplished the following results: - Industrial estates are an efficient means capable to achieve a great number of economical objectives. - The successes of the industrial estates are limited unless the countries care for sharing or helping in laying a scientific and well studied planning for these estates. - Stone industry is still suffering from damages which results from the Israeli tyranny and injustice which aims at eradicating Al- Aqsa Uprising; this has a negative policy concerning the productivity and profitability of this vital industry. - About 90% of the locations of this stone industry is built on agricultural and housing land in Jenin Governorate. - About 56.5% of those who were surveyed refuse to move to the industrial estates and prefer to remain where they are this reinforce that moving which must be accomplished by groups of motives. The degree of support of the owners of stone industry which is licensed is greater than not licensed for the role of industrial estates in solving the problems of the industrial sector in stone industry in Jenin Governorate. -The degree of support of the owners of stone industry for the role of industrial estates in solving the problems of industrial sector in stone industry in Jenin Governorate does not differ concerning the following variables : the land on which the project is done , the location of the project , the size of capitalism, the classification of the location of the project , the age of the project ,the type of the project , the legal shape, the type of the stone , moving to industrial estates , stability , ways of getting rid of solid wastes , ways of getting rid of liquid wastes and number of workers in the project . -The degree of support from the owners of stone industry is great to the role of industrial estates in solving the problems of industrial sector in Jenin Governorate. The relative importance to entire degree is 78% and this is a high degree.
- ItemPrivatization in the Palestinian Economy (Applied Study in the Palestinian Institutions)(2003) Haytham Yousef Mohammad Owideh; Prof. Abed lfateh Abu-ShokorThis study aimed at acquainting to the factors that push us to resort to privatization, and the required targets of it’s application financially, administratively, socially and legally in the Palestinian institutions, and also acquainting to hindrances which it faces and what may be expected to face the mechanism of Privatization application in the Palestinian institutions (group of hindrances). Add to this, acquaintance to the most important positives and negations in the process of privatization at these institutions. Privatization is applied to the Palestinian Telecommunications Company, the Palestinian Energy sector, the Palestinian securities Exchange, Palestinian cities and industrial zones, International Gaze airport and seaport water sector, Palestine Investment fund. The study came to a result that Privatization achieves its economical, administrative and financial targets through the increase of economical growth and general investments, and improvement of the government financial status, and productivity increase, improvement of service levels and the administrative aspect, the growth of man power; and of the financial aspect in the reduction of payments balance deficiency, and reduction of general expenditure size, and the help of granting the financial independence of the general institutions and helps it in the reduction of the general debt. Privatization does not achieve it’s social targets from achieving the social welfare, reduction of unemployment averages, processing poverty problem and achieving justice in distribution. The study reached to recommendations of which are supplying stable political legal, and economical environment characterized in the political initiative , and law mastery and protection of the individual property, and development of securities exchanges as being considered an important control means to the institutions deed and graduation and selectivity in achieving policies of privatization application, and forming an independent corporation for Privatization that has wide authorities with experienced and independent members, and limiting positives and negations for privatization cases and processing studies and comparisons to the Arab states experiences that followed policy of Privatization in their economics.
- ItemThe Elections and the Municipal and Village Councils in the Era of the Palestinian Authority 1994 - 2000(2003) Ali Mohammed Shati Nabhan; Prof. Abul-Sattar QasimThis research paper conducted a historical and legal review for the municipal and village councils in Palestine. IN addition, it defined the terms of the municipal and village councils, and distinguished between both patterns of local administration and local government as well as the basic requirements which enable such councils to conduct this role and the related duties. Also, this study gave prominence to the reasons which prompted the Palestinian Authority to adopt an appointment policy instead of elections. The Palestinian Authority hinged its reasons of not holding elections for the municipal and village councils on the Israeli occupation, non-completion of withdrawals, and the stalemate in the political process. The real reasons behind such a behavior were set out in a memorandum put forward by the former head of the preventive security forces in Gaza. The authority feared of the possible sweeping victory of the Islamic Resistance Movement (Hamas) in the elections of these councils. Such victory would provide legitimacy for Hamas to replace the official Palestinian Authority in the representation of the Palestinian people. What came in this memorandum was substantiated by interviewing many people representing many Palestinian political spectrum; the persons interviewed are listed within this study with their whole names. The policy of appointment resulted in the failure of many municipal and village councils which were unable to carry out their duties. Many of them came to a point of financial bankruptcy; a thing which made the elections a matter of urgent necessity in view of the benefits to be gained by the Palestinian people. Above all these benefits is giving the Palestinian people the opportunity to take part in the political life.
- ItemThe Role of Students' Councils in Palestinian University in Prompting Political Participation of Palestinian Students' Movement and the Effect of this Role on Making Political Development in Palestine(2003) Jehad Yousif Abd Alrahman Isaid; Prof. Abd Asattar QassemThis dissertation chronicles and analyzes the role of students' councils in leading the Palestinian students' movement through different stages, mainly before Oslo agreements and after it, at the time period 1979-2000. I chose Al najah University and Beirzeit University for two reasons: First, they are the largest two universities in two main geographical areas. Second, most of the Palestinian students' organizations, university councils and even the student movement were born in those two universities. The main objective of this study is to measure the political behavior of students' councils, as an elected leadership for the students' movement in Palestinian universities, according to the concept of political participation. Elements of the study concentrate on discussing the following topics: Students movement yearly elections, students' movements' political behavior after the elections, students movement leadership and finally the future of the Palestinian students movement. The study is preceded by a theoretical discussion about students' movements in the world, in addition to an identification of concepts. Very few studies are available about the students' movement in Palestine, this thesis is the first about the subject. I collected and analyzed hundreds of documents which are related to the students' movement from 1979, when it started to be organized and politically active until 2000.And I interviewed most of the student previous leaders who led the students' activism in different stages. The results of the study show that students' movement in Palestinian universities is not particularly identified, we are talking about unorganized movement but largely politicized. The political parties and movements in Palestine, Islamic and national movements, affected the students' movement to be politicized in away that those parties and movements want; also it affected the students' movement to be not united. Students' council's yearly elections are a step forward towards political participation, but it couldn’t create full legality for the students' councils to represents the students' movement. The Students' movements' political behavior after the elections is neither organized nor united, and made the speech of the students' movement also different. This fact is mainly caused by the political movements which support the students' organizations that form the students' movement. A great responsibility lays upon students leaders. They need to create new "culture of dialogue" between the students' organizations. The conflict comes from leaders' belongingness to political movements and parties and membership in the students' movement. I clarified the difference between the role of political movement and the role of students' movement as a social group. A student leader can benefit from his experience and activities in a political movement to promote the role of the student movement in the society, but a student leader mustn’t change the student movement into political party which can serve his personal or political aims. Most of the Palestinian student movement leaders were members in political movements and they served their aims through students' activism. Students' councils could not lead the students' movement to play an active role in political participation after the elections or what is called "participatory democracy". For example they could not succeed in organizing protests against the Palestinian Authority's bad behavior although they don't agree with the PA in their speech. The results also show that Oslo Agreements played a critical role in dividing the students' activism into "with or against Oslo". Students' organizations that has different ideologies, Islamic movements and Marxist movements, succeeded to build an agreement against "Oslo Groups" who are supported by PN. Within this struggle between political movements, which used their supporting students' organizations, the students' movement didn’t balance between political objectives and democratic objectives as a social group. For example they didn’t show concern in students female interests, no female student led a university council except once in 1970s when the leadership of Beirziet University council were arrested. I think that students, through a well organized movement can play a main role in creating political participation and then promoting political development. I suggest that students' councils must be united into a comprehensive and fixed establishment which can lead the students' movements independently to achieve the students' interests and participate in making politics in Palestine. This establishment could be the existing but not working Palestinian Students Union. The Palestinian Students Union is related historically with the PLO. Islamic movements are not implied in it since they are not sharing in the PLO. As the recent, not elected, leadership of the Union says "they are ready to change many point in the unions system that make problems for the Islamic groups, such as considering the union as a PLO organization. Long negotiations were held between all parts including the Islamic groups to rebuild and renew the role of the union, but no success was achieved. The PN affected this fail. I suggested that negotiations must be renewed to achieve this goal.
- ItemThe Economic Effects of Imposing the Minimum Wages for the Employees in the Palestinian Economy(2003) Ibrahim Mohamed Abu-Hantash; Prof. Abed Al Fattah Abu-ShokurThe study dealt with the theoretical framework for minimum wages study. A clarification for the concept of minimum wages, and the main goals for its imposements were introduced. It discussed the economic impacts resulted from imposing the minimum wages in three cases: -in its simplest form. -in the existence of two sectors (covered and uncovered). -in the different market forms. It broached some, studies that dealt with minimum wages that raised controversy between supporters and opposers of such issue, each trying to prove their argument. The study explored the wages situation in Palestine, and it was approved that there is a variation in lahor wages obtained among the different Palestinian territories on one side, and the different economic sectors on the other. The study tied the two concepts of the existing wage rates and the minimum wages.it reached a number of criteria to minimum wages specification such as: unemployment rate in the Palestinian economy, poverty line, currency,the differences ,among the economic sectors in many fields, and the differences among the wage rates in the different areas. It explored the financial loads that might he imposed on the economic sectors resulting from minimum wages implement. lt was clear that there are differences in such financial loads among the different sectors. lt revealed the financial changes that may occur on the established profit levels due to minimum wages implement. The study also dealt with the economic impacts resulted from imposing the minimum wages in Palestine. it pointed out that although the beneficiaries from applying minimum wages will reap its advantages as a result of the increase in the purchasing power, which accordingly will boost the Palestinian economy, there are several risks resulted from imposing the minimum wages such as: decreasing the employment level and the increasing official products and services prices. Finally, the study reached several results such as: the existing of different impacts of imposing the minimum wages among different sectors, it was clear that services sector was the most at affected. The study introduced several recommendations that might contribute towards benefiting from minimum wages imposing, the most important one was regarding the speeding of forming the wage committee and applying, gradually, thr minimum wages in the different economic sectors and areas.
- ItemThe Effect of Escalation of Political Official Violence on the Level Islamic Political Participation in the Arab World After Sep.11.2001(2003) Nasser Fahed Ali Khbbass; Prof. Abd Asattar QassemThis study tackles the Arab official political violence and its effect upon Islamic Political participation after Sep. 11th 200l. At the beginning, concepts and idioms related to the target study is tackled e.g. the concept of political violence, terrorism and political participation. The study shows that there has been great misconception and deliberate misunderstanding among these concepts by interior and Arab parts in addition to other exterior ones benefiting from this misconception and deepen it to serve their aims in the Arab territory. Such conceptions, terrorism for example, include many different meanings which are jumped over to describe some countries failing to notice that these characteristics are found more in such accusing countries rather than the accused ones. The Arabic territory with its countries is considered the unique model concerning the form and the content of relation between the official or non-official political violence and the political participation of the social sectors in these countries. The official political violence took the form of tyrany, which was clear in tyrant political decisions and encircling, penetrating civil social activities in Arab countries in addition to security pursuit to everyone, organization. .. etc. thinking of change of development to keep the Arab region as stable pool attracting those ambitious people under the motto of change and democracy. The relation between Islamic and the Arab official systems vibrated during the last three decades in the twentieth century. Political violence got more ethel more after Sep. 11lh2001through financial and security pursuit and security coordination with the Americans... etc in the American campain on "terrorism". This campain resulted 1Il the Islamic and their supporters through their rushing in political participation 1I1 any elections in every Arab country and practising armed violence against exterior fores. This fact shows that lslamics felt that they were the target of the American war on "terrorism" and emphasizes the absence of Arab social voice and the extreme need for it. So I believe that there is an urgent need to have areal political development comprising all the political to give the chance for energies and inventions to overcome tyrany and aggression falling upon Arab societies by political systems.
- ItemThe Wage Structure and Determinants In the Palestinian Industry and Their Impact on Competitiveness(2004) Bader Fahim Salem Alhusoon; Prof. Basim MakhoolThe importance of this study comes through wages and labor cost (production cost) which are composing an important rate in production cost of Palestinian Industry. It registered 16.8% of the total of production cost and occupied the second grade in 1999. Therefore, it plays a basic role in determining competition power for the Palestinian produce. This study is aiming at assessing wage function and wage efficiency function in the Palestinian Industry to be acquainted with the impact of labor’s productivity and his share in the capital. To achieve study objectives, the author had analyzed the main economic indicators that linked to wage and its existing interrelations by using the description method based on industrial survey findings released by PCBS for the periods between (1994- 2002) while the qualitative analysis was based on the assessment of wage function and wage efficiency function by regression analysis of the raw data of industrial survey of 1999. The final findings of this study of 1999 shows a different in wage average between male laborers and female laborers in industry in favor to male laborers with an increase reached to 57% of the female wages. There is also variations in wage average according to kind of work, where workers in the administrative jobs are receiving wages higher than those who work in the production with an increase reached 86%. In addition, there is a variation in wage average in the various industrial activities. It is noticed that an increase in the laborers productivity in Palestinian Industries with a rate of 271% of their wage average. The most important results of estimated wage function was represented in the decrease of the impact of each laborers productivity and their share in the capital from the wage average in industry as a whole, where this impact which represented 20.1% and 6% respectively. The difference in the impact of laborers productivity and their share in the capital was clear on the laborers wage according to various industrial activities, which reflects the differences in the nature of these industrial activities and the surrounding environment. As for the estimated results of wage efficiency function, there is an obvious positive impact of wages on laborers productivity in Palestinian industry, where the rate of impact reached 8.6% with a difference in this impact according to the economic activity. It is worthy to mention that there are other factors which have impact on laborers wage, in addition to their productivity and capital share, and they are presented basically in the characteristics of the laborers & land lords which requires to implement a special survey as attached with the annual industrial survey which is done by Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS) to enable us to study the various factors and determinants that affect the laborers wages in Palestinian industry in more comprehensive way. According to the final results of the study, I have summed up the following recommendations that are aiming at improving the productivity level and improving competitiveness power which affects laborers’ wages. And these recommendations are as follows: Developing effective administrative regulations adopting regulations of wages to matching with the nature of the these industrial establishments and the changes in living standards through abiding to the Palestinian Labor Law, increasing their human capital (training and vocational rehabilitation), in addition to applying the Total Quality Management (TQM) and the ISO regulations. Industrial Associations must play their roles. Applying and encouraging a taxation policy for investment purposes in the Palestinian industry. Focusing on capital as aiming to reduce production cost, producing more quantities of goods with high quality a long with improving skills of laborers and training them on suitable modern equipments, tools and technology which are necessary to the production process specially to labor intensive industries. And encouraging self expansion or amalgamation between small industries which leads to increase laborers productivity and their wages so far due to the impact it may be accomplished by these establishments through it’s savings of the volume. Besides to other policies to improve the environment of work in the Palestinian industry.
- ItemAn Econometric Analysis of Production Function: The Case Study of Palestinian Industry(2004) Nasr Abdallah Qasim Abd- Alhkaleq; Dr. Basim MakhoolThe main objective of this study was to estimate the production function of the Palestinian industry. The empirical results have been utilized to estimate production elastic ties, and elasticity of substitution. In addition, the study sought to calculate marginal productivity and the production technology and find out, whether the Palestinian industry was labor intensive or capital intensive. To these ends, the research used two methods for data analysis: descriptive and qualitative. The descriptive analysis was based on calculation of economic indicators United Nations Industrial Development Organization in 2000. The qualitative analysis estimated production function by using the analysis of regression crosssuction data, collected published by Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS) have been collected. The empirical results showed that the technology applied by Palestinian industry was labor intensive. The share of labor cost of total production accounted for 72%, while the cost of capital amounts to 28% of total output. Furthermore, production elasticity, with the respect to labor, was found to be highly greater than production elasticity with respect to capital. However, the marginal productivity of labor and capital was found to be 7.2 and 0.4 respectively. This implies that employing additional labor (head) will increase output by $7,200. On the other hand, output will increase only by $400 if capital increases by $1,000. This result suggests that cost of capital in Palestinian industry was very high. The performance of large firms was found to be similar to the total firms. The marginal productivity, with respect to labor for large and total firms, was about $7,290 and $7,200 respectively. Also, marginal productivity of capital, for large and total firms was $500 and $400 respectively. The marginal substitution average in the Palestinian industry was about 17.96. this mean that increasing labor elements (factor) by one unit will require a sacrifice of some 17.96 units of capital. Pertaining to large firms, they were found to be generally labor intensive. The contribution of labor element to production in their firms was 71%, whereas the share of capital was 29%. The marginal product of the labor element in large firm was about 7.29 while that of capital was 0.50, thus reflecting low efficiency of capital employed in large firms in the Palestinian Territories, on the other hand, and the important role played by labor element in production and manufacturing process, on the other hand, the average of marginal substitution of labor element was 14.5. Based on the empirical results the following recommendations have been drawn: 1- Job creation in the Palestinian Territories could be achieved through establishing labor- intensive firms. 2- Labor productivity should be upgraded and rehabilitated to operate with capital efficiently. 3- Research and development should be enhanced to improve the performance of the Palestinian industrial sector. 4- The performance of the infrastructure should be developed and maintained. 5- Other measures should be applied to create appropriate environment required to activate the role of the industrial sector in the Palestinian economy.estine
- ItemThe Role of Fisical Policy in Increasing Labor Absorptive Capacity for the Palestinian Economy(2004) Shadi Mohammed Ibraheem Othman; Dr. Atef AlawnehThis study aimed at acquainting with the role of the financial policy adopted be the Palestinian authority in increasing the comprehendible capability for the Palestinian economy. The study started in limiting the comprehendible capability of the Palestinian economy on the whole level during the period (1968-2001) so that it was divided into three periods like the following: (1968-1987), (1978-1996), (1996-2001). The study referred to the decrease of the comprehendible capability volume, where it reached during the three mentioned periods respectively to 20.7%, 75.7%, 58.7%, of the acting labor forces volume in the same period. The study returned the cause of comprehend dibble cop ability decrease volume to the rise of growth average of the work in a uniform manner faster than its demand growth and that led to the rise of gap volume between the capability and the acting forces volume, where as volume of that gap during the three periods respectively reached to 24%, 34.4%, 33%, of the acting forces volume. Then the role of tax policy was analyzed in increasing the comprehendible capabilities to the Palestinian economy through studying aims and directions of the tax policy and a group of policies and measures which the policies and measures which the Palestinian followed to influence the Palestinian tax system, and the extent of its applicability to achieve the aim of comprehendible capability increase to the Palestinian economy. The study showed that the tax policy adopted by the Palestinian Authority was applicable for encouraging the private sector to invest in Palestine. But the study showed the influencing the comprehendible capability volume to the Palestinian economy and whole investment volume because of the reiterate and security laxity of the political and security atmosphere which limited the hopeful role the tax policy may play in encourages and motivating the in and out investments that negatively affected its capability on widening the local production base of the Palestinian economy. After that the role of public expenses in increasing the comprehendible Palestinian economy was analyzed through studying the aims and directions of public expenses of the Palestinian authority. And the study also showed that the policy of public expenses the Palestinian authority followed was suitable for increasing the comprehendible capability. Whereas expenditure of the infrastructure removed various obstacles before the investment, and the volume of capital formation reached to 37.7% of the whole local income. This was because of the increase of public investment importance as the public investment rate rose to the public expenditure volume from 16% in 1996 to 20% in 2001, in comprehending great volume employment in the Palestinian economy during 1996-2001. And in spite of this the Palestinian authority remained limited in the field of public expenditure because of the limits imposed by the temporary stage agreements from one side and measured of occupation of the other.
- ItemThe Credit Policy in the Palestinian Banks(2004) Amjad Azat Abed-Almazoz Issa; Dr. Nur Abu - RubThe aim of this study is to know the banks in Palestine are aware of the standards of the credit which known all over the world, and the effects of these standards on the credit policy in the Palestinian banks. It is found that these standards have deferent effects in these banks. So, that reaches (75.27%). But the level take interest in this standard to reach (87.77%). Also, the reputation of the agent and his morals are very important as credit standards. All over the world. So, the collateral this standard becomes very high in the Palestinian banks to reach (83.07%). But the power of the agent doesn't have high consideration from the banks in Palestine. So, this standard has a middle level to be (76.39%). The banks in Palestine take interest in the economic conditions with high level to be (75.02%). Other factors were added to the these standards that affect the accepting or refusing the credit form. For example demand of sector (type of sector)the agent's work has a very important role in affecting the credit policy in the Palestinian banks. This factor has a high level to be (72.02%). But having cash in the bank and its effect in accepting or refusing the credit forms has a high level to reach (71.70%). It is noticed above that the ability of income has the highest consideration among the other standards motioned. The banks in Palestine consider that this standard has high importance so, it is important to study the ability of income of the agent before accepting the credit form and his ability to pay bank. The loan in the fixed time. The reputation of the agent and his morals is the second factor in accepting or refusing the credit forms in the Palestinian banks. So, it doesn't help if the agent doesn't intend to pay bank the loan in spite of the other standards. Finally, accordions to this analyzing above, the theories in the study are rejected because they show the effect of all the factors in the credit policy but not equally, and this result comes after collecting the information from the banks in the west bank.
- ItemImpact of Commercial Banks’ Credit Policy on Private Investment in Palestine(2004) Jaser Mohammed Sai’d Al-Khalil; Prof. Basim MakhoolThis thesis aimed at studying the credit policy of the operating commercial banks in Palestinian Territories. Moreover, this study aimed at finding its links and correlation with private investment as well as its impact on investment development and trends. Furthermore, this study aimed at finding out answers for following study’s key issues, in order to improve the hypothesis that the Commercial Banks’ Credit Policy has impact on Private Investment in Palestine: - What the concepts, determinants and aspects of the credit policy and its role to manage the risks and its impact on banking performance? - What are the important determinants of the credit’s supply and demand, whether in general level or on Palestine? - What is the role of the credit policy of the operating commercial banks in Palestine in supporting and directing the private investments? - What are the determinants and the relationships between credit policy and the private investment? And how to measure it? - What are the mathematical and econometric models that are used for studying and analyzing these relationships? What is the possibility of implementing it on Palestinian reality? - To what extend the credit policy is participating in determining the level, concentrations and structure of the private investment? - What are the needed approaches to support the positive aspects and to develop the corrective actions? To achieve the purpose of this study, the researcher used off-site research and analysis mode, which is based on periodic reports issued by Palestine Monetary Authority (PMA), official Statistics of Palestine Central Bureau of Statistics (PCPS), Palestine Economic Policy Research Institute (MAS), UNDP’s publications and Arab Monetary Fund’s reports as well as circulars, regulations and instructions that were issued by PMA or other related parties, which impact the credit facilities’ demand and supply. In addition, to the descriptive analytical approach, the researcher applied other quantitive analytical approaches, such as: means compare model, elasticity analytical model, sample regression model, multi-regression model and Granger-causality model. The SPSS and Shazam software analytical programs were used to apply these models. This study concludes to the necessity of focusing on orienting the efforts to promote and induce the demand on investments. This goal needs real support for investment and infrastructure. It also needs increasing the credit facilities and active credit policy, in a way that allows optimal use and allocation the fund resources to support private investment, as a result of the feedback relationship between these variables. The credit policy role for inducing investment is subject to various factors that command investment environment in Palestine and leads to limiting its developmental role in that respect. However, the credit policy has some negative effect on investment, as this study showed.This has negative impact on the credit policy vital direction and its funding role to motivate investment process. Whereas, banking sector is over liquid, it became as a channel to bleed the national savings. Related parties that are concerns with this issue did not worked enough to find out approaches to lead its activities toward medium and long term funding policy as well as banking sector did not play its economic- social role, as needed, as the economic development, and supporting the local investments are not included on its credit policy priorities, as well.
- ItemThe Resoans That Call for Reforming The Palestaniane Indirect Taxation Laws(2004) Majid Mohammad Yousef Rabi; Dr. Atef alawnehThis study aimed to identify the reasons that calls for reforming the indirect taxes in Palestine, through identifying the indirect taxes which are applied in Palestine to what extent these taxes proper for the Palestinian economy, and going on the development of these taxes since the British Mandate Period, the Jordanian Governing Period, Then the Israeli Occupation, and Ending with the Palestinian Authority Period. There was a high lighting for the role of indirect tax revenues with all their parts (Value Added Tax, Purchase Tax, Custom & Excise), in tax revenues, domestic revenues and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) according to its contribution with absolute values and ratios .In order to achieve, data and information related to different revenues saved resources were such as the publication of the International Bank, the Ministry of Finance and others. The researcher used some taxes scales which are needed to identify the tax burden for indirect taxes, know how much are indirect taxes taking use of their tax bases, and then to compare them with several countries in which their economical levels are similar. To assure this, standard prices scale was used. Furthermore, the researcher depending on the achieved results put primary directions for adjusting or returning indirect taxes, such as adjusting custom ratio, value added tax, and purchase tax depending on a set of standards. This is done after listing the limitations of taxes situation in Palestine which has an influence on taxes role especially indirect ones, also a primary direction was put that the value added taxes would be imposed on a specified sector or classified one basis and showed briefly a group of countries which use this way with its special ratios. Also, this study reached a group of results, and some of these results that there is more than one tax system controls the Palestinian Government are as (West bank and Gaza strip), and that the aims which laws were put for differ from the aims of development in Palestine plus the direct taxes in Palestine and the tax burden increase of the indirect taxes that the base of these taxes was completely used over its capacity, and this is confirmed by the increase in the trade taxes standard price, and this base was completely used over its capacity as the over tax increased to reach about 100%. What supported the result which this study reached is that the indirect taxes for its present ratios do not necessary fit the level of Palestinian economy taking these results into consideration this study reached for a group of recommendations one of there imp recommendation is the importance of doing central adjustments on the indirect taxes especially its ratios and tax base volume and focus more on the direct taxes especially the property tax and fortune tax.
- ItemInformation Economies in Palestine Reality and Prospects(2004) Baker Yaseen Mohammed Shtayyah; Dr. Mahmood Abu-AlrubThis study aims at pointing at a research sight can be described by new in the Arab aria in general and the Palestinian in specific. Where it throws light in what is known worldly information –based economy, which the study dealt with throw seeing the worldly special literature. The study lighted on the Palestinian knowledge– based society structure, which can be considered the original base, and the row material of the information based economies. The researcher built cluster showed the Palestinian primitive knowledge, which starts from the family passing the educational sector, the movement of the educational research and the technical development reaching the invention on which the worldly new economics based on. By studying the international literature which is used for limiting and measuring the size of information activities, a Palestinian suggested classification could be made throw which the information economics divided on its base in tow primitive information sector and the other its secondary. The primary information sector includes the information activities which produce value added and it includes all the workers in the establishments which produces or affords services with knowledgeable content, and these activities can be divided in to four main groups: The activities of producing knowledge, the activities of preparing knowledge, the activities of the main structures of knowledge. The secondary information sector includes the internal information activities which doesn’t curry the market price and doesn’t produce value added, and it concerns all the workers in all other sectors, and the economic activities like agriculture, industry and services and they work in activities with knowledgeable content. The size of the primary information sector was estimated by separating the primary information economic activities from the other economic sectors in West Bank and Gaza stripe. And the result was that the value-added rates of the primary information sector to the gross Palestinian economic value added, reached in the years (1999-2002) (7.6%, 8.2%, 11.2%, and 12.1%) in succession. And the rate of the workers in the primary information sector, to the size of gross work force of the same period was (8.8%, 8.9%, 10.5%, and 12.5%) in succession. Concerning the secondary information sector, it was not estimated precisely because of having no enough data and the difficulty of separating the dissolved secondary information activities in the economic industrial and agricultural and service sectors from the main sectors, which needs an available detailed statistics and data. So, the size of the sector was estimated throw finding the worldly general average of the rate of the size of the secondary information sector, to the size of the primary information sector, which reached (78%), the estimation of the study of the gross of the Palestinian information sector size of the years (1999-2002) was (13.5%, 14.6%, 19.9%, 21.5%) in succession, in grade of annual growth nearly (17%). Concerning the communication information technology sector (ICT), -which represents the most developed information activities, and the most effective in the worldly economics- its separated from the Palestinian information sector and the estimation of it size with comparing the growth average with some economic sectors, and it appeared that the size of the sector is still small in the worldly measures, where the value added of the (ICT) activities formed (3%) from gross domestic production in the year 2002, with annual increase average considered the highest among the other economic sectors in the period (1999-2002) which reached (30%) while the workers in these activities formed 0.45% of the whole Palestinian work forces in the year 2002 by an annual increasing average considered the minimum among the other economic sectors in the same period which reached (4%) It is stated that the (ICT) sector in Palestine is mostly consumptive, and hardly has productive activities, except few software industries. But it achieved the highest average of the worker productivity with an observed difference from the other study sectors. Finally, we can say that the Palestinian condition is in argent need to activate the information knowledgeable activities, and insuring the knowledge society understanding in the public and governmental establishment, with increasing the interests of the (ICT) sector as it is the more able economic sector to overcome the changeable political economic circumstances which the Palestinian society lived and still lives with the necessity of insuring on the roll of the research scientific establishments in creating effective widespread Palestinian economy.
- ItemPoverty in Palestine and its Policy Resisting Study case (Jenin Governorate)(2005) Abdalah Sadiq Ameen Hasan; Dr. Mahmoud Abou AlrobThe current study dealt with the problem 0f poverty in Palestine and the strategies to face this phenomenon and find the way for adaptation with poverty and difficult economic situation among the inhabitance 0f Jenin district. The study population consiste of168 families selected randomly from the city of Jenin, its refugee camp and the villages of the district to achieve our aims, a specially designed questionnaire was used and included question related to income and ways for adaptation and copping with such hard economic situation by the families. Data were then collected and analyzed using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences). The following summarizes the main finding: 1. the result of the current study showed that 95.8% of the study population managed to cope with the hard economic situation through the reduction of consumption. 2. Aid provided by both governmental and nongovernmental organization substituted only 21% 0f the total financial requirements of poor families. 3. A significant decrease in monthly income of the studied families was found (from a mean of around 900 NIS before the Intifada to 117 after). 4. Most of the programs directed towards creating job opportunity for the poor were not well organized and 79% of these families did not get any help through such programs. 5. An increased income was associated with the level of educational level and years of experience of the head of the family. 6. A noticeable low level of education was observed among females compared to males among the study population (mean of 3.57 years for female compared to 6.8 years of study for male). 7. 88.7% of the study population believed that corruption in the various institutes is the reason behind their bad current economic situation. 8. 82.7% of the study population believes that Palestine authority has no active role in fighting poverty among poor families