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- ItemANALYSIS OF THE PALESTINIAN MATHEMATICS BOOK FOR THE EIGHTH GRADE WITHIN THE COMMON CORE STATE STANDARDS FOR MATHEMATICS (CCSSM)(An-Najah National University, 2022-03-10) AL-qasim, EnasThe current study aimed to determine on the availability of content standards determined by the Common Core American State for Mathematics (CCSSM) in the five following content areas: numbers, algebra, functions, geometry and measurement, statistics and probability, in the content of the mathematics curriculum for the eighth grade. The researcher utilized the descriptive analytical approach. To achieve that, the researcher translated the Common Core American Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) for the eighth grade, and then prepared a list of those standards that were exploited in preparing a content analysis card which formed the study tool. The tool was used as a reference in elaborating on the content of the Math curriculum which is the Palestinian eighth grade primary applied in the year 2021-2022 AD, with two books. After ensuring the validity and stability of the tool, as well as conducting the convenient statistical treatments, the results of the study showed the availability of the content standards set by the Common Core American State for Mathematics (CCSSM) in the three content areas, namely: Numbers Algebra, geometry and measurement, where the field of algebra ranked first with a percentage of (62.2%), and the field of numbers ranked second with a percentage of 19%. The field of engineering and measurement ranked third with a rate of (18.8%), while the content standards set by the Common Core American State for Mathematics (CCSSM) were not available in the areas of: functions, statistics and probability. According to the aforementioned results, the study recommended the need to concentrate on the indicators of unfulfilled standards in the developed mathematics textbook for the eighth grade, which were identified by (CCSSM). Moreover, it suggested to reconsider the weaknesses in the mathematics textbook for the eighth grade and to work to address them. There is a necessity to focus on strengths, to enrich the new edition of the mathematics book for the eighth grade, and to monitor paragraphs belonging to the areas (functions, statistics and probability) recognized by (CCSSM).
- ItemApplication of Equity Cash Flow and Residual Income Approaches in Valuing Commercial Banks: A Case Study of Commercial Banks Operate in Palestine(جامعة النجاح الوطنية, 2018-09-09) Khazem, Majdal Nasser AhmadThe main idea of this study is examining the value of commercial banks operate in Palestine; excluding Islamic banks. The study presents guidelines to value banks and provides a framework for banks’ valuation based on two generally acceptable valuation models: model of discounted residual income (RI) and the model of discounted equity cash flows (ECF) applied for banks in Palestine. Both models are used to calculate the equity value of banks in Palestine and provide an equivalent results and they are highly recommended. Commercial Banking sector that are operating in Palestine has been chosen for conducting this research, excluding Islamic banks due to the analogy purposes of the sample, in which thirteen (13) commercial banks remain as research sample as in 2016. All the necessary data are collected from each bank’s annual audited financial statements and Palestinian Monetary Authority PMA annual Reports. This data is collected from 2008 to 2016 and future data is forecasted for the next five years. High correlation between both models is a consequence of the T-Test analysis for the difference between values of banks using the recommended models. This result is similar to previous studies such as (Halsey, 2001) which discussed that the discounted residual income model is equivalent to the discounted equity cash flow model. The significant 2 tailed is less than 0.05, this insures that there is no difference between values of banks using the two models. All factors in both models affect the bank’s value except the depreciation in ECF model. The main two factors that affect value in ECF model are net income and net increase in loans. For the RI model, NI and RI are the main two factors that affect value. Due to estimation issues, the equity banks values for both models were equivalent not the exact.
- ItemThe Association Between Agricultural Development and Free Political Will "Palestine as a Model"(2012) Maher Tahseen Nayef Saleh; Prof. Abdul Sattar KassemThe association between agricultural development and free political will is a controversial issue, achieving free political requires agricultural development that provides food security, and form the basis for comprehensive economics and social growth, in return cannot move towards agricultural development without the free political will, and the nation remains depends in food security on the others, with the threat for loss of independent decision. First, the study focus at the theoretical level, in order to build a base we can build on them to understanding the reality dialectic of the relationship between free political will and agricultural development, then the study discus the Palestinian reality as a model for the loss of free political will and its relation to the absence of agricultural development. The study is looking for the importance of agriculture to achieve food security as part of national security, and its role for building strength, and its economic role as a biggest economic operating segments, and the base for the industrial development. The study explain the importance of agriculture in Palestine, as The best way to keep the land in the face of the Zionist project, which defined its strategic objectives in making Palestine as an empty land of its inhabitants, the study is looking for problems of agriculture reality in Palestine, and introduce some basic rules to build a strategy for agricultural development in Palestine, that gives the Palestinian people an able to achieve the minimum food security, which would enable them to bear the pressure exerted on them by the occupation forces to dissuade them from their national rights. The study assumed that the Palestinian resolution to be independent, and the Palestinian national will could not be free without the development of the agricultural sector to ensure food security, and operation of the labor force in the productivity works, that install the Palestinian people over their land, by providing food, employment and emotional attachment to the land. The researcher adopted a descriptive approach to describe and review the basic concepts, a concept of self-reliance, and agricultural development of self-reliant, and sustainable agricultural development, and free political will, as well as describe the various classes. Then using the analytical approach to provide an analysis about the ways to achieving free political will by sustainable agricultural development and self-reliant, and analyze the possibilities in a Palestine, and things required for this development. The study concludes that building a sustainable agricultural development strategy in order to achieve the national free will has become as the compulsory way towards strengthening the steadfastness of the Palestinian people over their land, and promoting adherence to their national rights, or subjected to blackmail from the occupation and the donor countries, this is can be done by promoting the self-reliance culture, and mobilization of local resources that are available and possible, at the highest degree of efficiency and rational use and effective as the basis for building development. and consider an agricultural development as a national priority and allocate sufficient resources to achieve it.
- ItemAuthority and State Study of the experience of Salam Fayyad’s government(2012) Mais Name Dsoqe Qaise; Dr. Ra'ed N'eratAbstract This study investigates the problem of the "Establishing the State and Finishing the Occupation" Proposal submitted by the government of Dr. Salam Fayad as a course to establish a Palestinian state. The researcher started by testing her hypothesis stating that "The proposal and its policies collectively shall not pave the way to establish a Palestinian state, but they will promote the growth of the Palestinian Authority establishments by creating a new de facto." The researcher selected to investigate this topic as a result of several factors that collectively represented the significance of this study. The first element is the birth of a Palestinian government through a birth-labor and exceptional circumstances during which it underwent several political phases. The second element comprises the resulting policies that put the issue of establishing a Palestinian state as a top priority of the strategic objective. Such elements encouraged the researcher to study the details of establishing a Palestinian state and ending the occupation in order to reach the objective of the study in highlighting the effectiveness and capabilities of such policies to achieve their strategic objective through assessing them and measuring the range of distance that separates the objective (i.e. the state" and the policies (i.e. the mechanisms). In her study, the researcher investigated the government's background and its philosophy; the environmental circumstances and surrounding factors; the nature of the Palestinian political system establishments; and identifying the identity of the problem and its policy. The problem is identified as general and historical whereas the policies brought by the proposal are symbolic, materialistic and organizational. The researcher determined the appropriate instrument to evaluate the policies of the thirteenth government. The DAY instrument consists of three categories of questions: the first contains descriptive questions; the second comprises the reasons; and the third contains the impacts of the general policies. Some links and criteria were added to expand the range of analysis with the six links that discuss the reciprocal effect of the general policy. Scientific criteria were added to evaluate and judge the extent of usefulness of the general policy according to the strategic objective. With this scientific combination, we obtained an instrument to evaluate the policies including its three basic constituents: the descriptive, analytical and evaluative. The researcher examined the policies and programs adopted by the government in order to achieve its announced objective related to establish the state and end the occupation. This is done by the descriptive basis. Following this, the researcher investigated the other two constituents: the analytical and evaluative through interpreting the general policy according to the reciprocal relationship of influence between the environmental forces and elements and the general policy. The first main question of the study, i.e. (To what extent is the thirteenth government general policy effective towards achieving its objective in establishing the Palestinian state and ending the occupation?) was answered through what the researcher reached by the process of analysis and evaluation of the proposal that showed the following: The general policy and the mechanisms adopted within the plan of establishing the state and ending the occupation do not achieve the strategic objective. Hence, the occupation has not been ended and neither has the state been established. However, it has been able to maintain the establishments of the Palestinian National Authority that were constructed during the time of the Oslo Agreement. On the other hand, few establishments have been built to keep up the requirements of the stage. In addition, it is not possible to establish the Palestinian State without embodying the demographic and geographic elements. The general policies were concerned with the local and international dimensions. The issue of managing the internal dimension suffered from political fragmentation without being able to achieve a consensus on the topic. In the international dimension, the outcome of voting for the complete membership of Palestine at the United Nations Organization showed that the compass of the international movement to promote the proposal was set inaccurately. Such policies had negative impacts upon the Palestinian community. The Palestinian political life and public freedoms were affected in several locations in one way or another. The researcher gave several recommendations, the most prominent of them are: The Palestinian leadership shall promote the Palestinian internal cohesion through reuniting the two parts of the homeland. The Proposal's instruments and mechanisms are to be developed so that it contains real and radical solutions for the demographic and geographic dimensions to establish the Palestinian State. In addition, it shall not ignore the fact of supplying a real effective political life. It is necessary to reform the PLO in order to become able to hold its responsibilities since the Palestinian National Authority does not possess the instruments or the capabilities to bear the proposal of establishing the Palestinian State. It is important to review the Palestinian diplomacy and the negotiation mechanisms with Israel and the agreements signed with it that reinforce the occupation.
- ItemBoard Composition, Board Committees, Firm Characteristics and Voluntary Disclosure: Evidence from Palestinian listed companies(An-Najah National University, 2019-02-20) Abdelhaq, Raed ImadThe purpose of this study is to investigate the extent and nature of voluntary disclosure (VD) of the Palestinian companies listed on the Palestine Exchange (PEX). Furthermore, the impact of board composition, board committees and firm characteristics on the level of VD is examined. Data was collected from a sample of 45 companies' annual reports -which constitute 93.7% of Palestinian listed companies- for the period 2013-2017. In order to measure VD, a disclosure index including 55 items of voluntary information was constructed and applied. To achieve the objectives of the study, multiple regression was used. The results of the study reveal that, on average, a company discloses 56.31% of the items included in the disclosure index. In addition, a significant positive relationship between board gender diversity, audit committee, governance committee, nomination and compensation committee and firm size and VD exists. In contrast, there is a significant negative relationship between board size, CEO duality and VD. Furthermore, board independence, director ownership, ownership concentration, financial leverage, firm profitability, audit firm and firm age were found to have no effect on VD. The study recommends that policy makers and regulators are encouraged to establish an official Palestinian VDI that can be used to evaluate and compare voluntary practice and disclosure among Palestinian companies. Furthermore, the policy makers and managers have to motivate the presence of board committees in companies and activate their rules.
- ItemBuilding the Innovation Strategy of the Palestinian Industrial Sector based on a Triple Helix Model (Industry, University and Government)(An-Najah National University, 2017-12-19) حج حمد, هنا; مرار, رابحThe triple helix model is a model that clarifies university, industry and government collaboration relationships. The contribution of the industrial sector to the gross domestic production (GDP) is only13.4% (BCBS, 2015), which attributed to the lack of research and development (R&D) and the lack of technological innovations. This has lead the Palestinian industrial firms to find innovative solutions to bridge the knowledge gap for better product development. Moreover, the industrial firms, with their own capabilities, are not able to fulfill their needs for knowledge and technology. Therefore, the triple helix model is considered one of the most important solutions where universities- as a centre of excellence and knowledge- can provide the industrial firms with the required knowledge, technological competences and R&D. This will be supported and facilitated by the institutional competencies of governmental bodies including laws, regulations, technological infrastructure, financial and non-financial subsidies, and environmental investment. The triple helix model will provide a conceptual framework for exploring innovation dynamics and for forming national innovation and development policy-making for the industrial sector. This study works out the degree of interaction between the triple helix elements (industry, university and public sector) and their impact on the performance of the Palestinian industrial firms, and their ability to develop new innovation. In this regard, a collection of primary data was collected from a sample for 340 industrial firms in the West Bank. Then, a set of quantitative measures and econometric models were applied to answer the research questions in light of the data collected. Data analysis was based on a number of methods including the Ordinary Least Square regression (OLS), Robust Least Square, Generalized Linear Model (GLM), and Logit Model. The descriptive statistics show that 17.94% of the industrial firms collaborate with Palestinian universities in order to develop new innovations. 25.29% of the industrial firms collaborate with the Palestinian government in order to acquire knowledge necessary for the development of the innovation process. In addition, 4.71% of the industrial firms collaborate with non-governmental organizations (NGOs). The analysis of the relationship of collaboration between the triple helix members and product innovation found that the existence of an organizational body as the Higher Council for Innovation and Excellence, (HCIE) regulates the cooperation relationships between triple helix model actors. This is necessary for the triple helix model to succeed as a non-conventional solution for the lack of knowledge and technologies that might be important for industrial firms to grow and compete in an open international economy.
- ItemCompetitiveness in the Palestinian Food Industries Horizons and Development(2005) Luai Sadeq Al-Haj Mustafa; Dr. Suleiman M. AbbadiCompetitiveness has been considered as one of the important topics which have been significantly targeted by economists, politicians, businessmen, and many researchers in several fields such as economics, management, statistics, law, politics, industry, and engineering. In the first chapter of this dissertation, we discussed many of the theoretical frames which have given arise to relative theories, proposals, and concepts. Consequently, seeking competitive potential and process according to Porter’s suggestions is a major factor that revealed ambiguity and interpreted the reasons beyond some firm’s success and other firm’s failure. In spite of some criticisms that have been directed to Porter’s suggestions, they still represent a reference that could be honestly relied upon. We browsed the Palestinian economy and its structure in general, the private sector and the industry sector specifically, and food industry in details. We concluded that the Palestinian economy, though it has been partially released from Israeli constraints, is still imprisoned by the Israeli economy. In addition, this economy is constantly susceptible even to the minimum political changes, hence this defectiveness in the economy structure and the impact of this defectiveness on performance. Concerning the food industry, we deliberated the growth phases of this industry. In this we found the strong fetters of Israeli occupation that negatively influence this industry as much as the Palestinian National Authority positively influence it. The research indicated that this industry is one of the most fast sectors in growing, notably in the last decade of the last century. We observed the notable growth of plants and the number of employees, and the growth in the market share in the local market. The impact of this industry over the Palestinian consumer purchasing basket has been targeted by the research paper. The relative large size of investment in this sector and the satisfying number of employed labors have also been depicted. It is worth mentioning that we discussed the characteristics of this industry by which we found that the most of these plants are individually owned and the nature of ownership is inherited. With regard to employment size in these plants, it is under requirement level which indicates the small size of these factories. An obvious characteristic of this industry is its dependency on the foreign and the Israeli raw materials, and the shortage in engineers, professionals, specialized labs, and the up-to-date managerial and industrial mechanisms. In addition to competitive potential and process approach, we built a statistical model that is considered as an estimation of two regression equations; the first studies the producers, and the second studies the consumers. Through experimenting of some variables that are expected to have a direct influence on increasing competitiveness of Palestinian food industries, we found that lots of variables we suggested are really relative. Finally we drew some conclusions in this research and listed down our recommendations for the people in charge to do their best in solving the plethora of problems that we came up with through our results in this research.
- ItemCOMPLIANCE WITH COVID-19 PROTECTIVE MEASURES AMONG HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS IN MATERNITY WARDS AND REVIEWING THE RELATED HOSPITAL POLICIES AND GUIDELINES IN WEST BANK GOVERNMENTAL HOSPITALS, 2021(جامعة النجاح الوطنية, 2022-04-10) Bsharat, DuaaBackground: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged as most arguable worldwide danger facing global health at present time .Healthcare workers (HCWs) particularly nurses, midwives, and doctors are at higher risk of infection from occupational exposure in different healthcare settings . Following standard precautions(SPs) in all situations would be one of the most effective ways to reduce cross-transmission, regardless of whether the patients are suspected or confirmed to be infected Objectives: The study aimed at evaluating the compliance with COVID-19 Infection prevention and control (IPC) measures and identifying associated factors among health providers in maternity wards in west bank hospitals Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted in maternity departments at 12 west bank governmental hospitals. Data were collected from 267 participants using a convenient sampling method. Using a pre-validated questionnaire developed from combining the contents of 3 different literature questionnaire .The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22was used to analyze data and the study hypotheses were examined at the level of statistical significance (a ≤0.05) Results: The results showed that the majority (85.1%)of the participants had a high level of compliance regarding IPC (infection prevention and Control ) measures for COVID-19.The results found no significant differences in IPC measures between compliance ,sociodemographic factors ,individual factors and institusional factors . Conclusions: Despite that the majority of the participants had high level of compliance of IPC measures for COVID-19.Good compliance came from avaliabilty of suffiecient supplies for hand washing and availability of Personal Protective equipments ( PPEs ). However , Complete non-compliance among healthcare providers was due to IPC guidlines and protocols for COVID-19 in the maternity wards were not clear,not always known by them ,and there were no always monitoring and evaluation of it. More observational studies are recommended to evaluate the adherance of IPC measures for COVID-19 and holding regular training courses about current and any up dated information of IPC measures for COVID-19 to inform the health care providers of all that is new and assure compliance through rigorse monitoring
- ItemCONTENT ANALYSIS OF 10TH GRADE MATH CURRICULUM ACCORDING TO THE 17TH SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS(جامعة النجاح الوطنية, 2022-01-16) Saleh, AyaThis study aims at investigating the availability of the goals of the sustainable development -which comprise 17 goals- in the mathematics in the Palestinian curriculum. This is done through analyzing the content of the Palestinian mathematics curriculum including: goals, content, activities, teaching methods and assessment. This study is an attempt to answer the following questions: 1. To what extent does the 10th grade Palestinian mathematics curriculum cope with the 17 sustainable development goals. From this main question, there is the following sub-question: 2. How do the composers of the Palestinian mathematics curriculum cope with the 17 goals of sustainable development? In order to achieve the goals of this study, the researcher followed the descriptive analytical methods specifically content analysis by using quantitative and qualitative tools. In other words, the researcher has used content analysis card tool for mathematics curriculum as well as well as interviews with five of the authors of the curriculum. The researcher has found that there are variations in abiding with the goals of sustainable development in the mathematics Palestinian curriculum of the 10th grade. It results has been as the following: It is found that the percentage of the presence of the goals of the sustainable development ranges from (0.08%) to (14.63%). Furthermore, the highest percentage is given to the 4th goal which is guaranteeing a good, fair and comprehensive education for all and granting education opportunities all lifelong for all. Also, it has turned out that the 14th goal which is preserving oceans, seas and sea resources using them sustainably” is not considered. Besides, the 15th goal stating the protection the ecological system and restoring it to be used sustainably. Also, it stated woods management sustainably in order to resist deforestation and stop the loss of the biological diversity is not considered either. In other words, both goals have got (0%). Concerning the content of the 10th grade curriculum, the researcher has found out that the goals of the sustainable development are available in the activities and teaching methods (10.62%) and lesser in the rest of the goals (1.73%) that the percentage of the content is (3.18) and evaluation is (6.3%) of the content and evaluation in order . Also, the socio-economic dimension of the goals of sustainable development has been considered more than the environmental ones. . In light of these important results, it is concluded that the authors of the curriculum are unfamiliar with the goals of the sustainable development which explain the results of the content. In light of this study, the researcher recommends giving the priority to the goals of sustainable development whenever a curriculum is developed. This is done by being guided by the model presented by the researcher based on the goals of sustainable development. Also, it is recommended to hold course for teachers to introduce the goals of sustainable development to them and the ways of merging them in the educational curricula.
- ItemThe Credit Policy in the Palestinian Banks(2004) Amjad Azat Abed-Almazoz Issa; Dr. Nur Abu - RubThe aim of this study is to know the banks in Palestine are aware of the standards of the credit which known all over the world, and the effects of these standards on the credit policy in the Palestinian banks. It is found that these standards have deferent effects in these banks. So, that reaches (75.27%). But the level take interest in this standard to reach (87.77%). Also, the reputation of the agent and his morals are very important as credit standards. All over the world. So, the collateral this standard becomes very high in the Palestinian banks to reach (83.07%). But the power of the agent doesn't have high consideration from the banks in Palestine. So, this standard has a middle level to be (76.39%). The banks in Palestine take interest in the economic conditions with high level to be (75.02%). Other factors were added to the these standards that affect the accepting or refusing the credit form. For example demand of sector (type of sector)the agent's work has a very important role in affecting the credit policy in the Palestinian banks. This factor has a high level to be (72.02%). But having cash in the bank and its effect in accepting or refusing the credit forms has a high level to reach (71.70%). It is noticed above that the ability of income has the highest consideration among the other standards motioned. The banks in Palestine consider that this standard has high importance so, it is important to study the ability of income of the agent before accepting the credit form and his ability to pay bank. The loan in the fixed time. The reputation of the agent and his morals is the second factor in accepting or refusing the credit forms in the Palestinian banks. So, it doesn't help if the agent doesn't intend to pay bank the loan in spite of the other standards. Finally, accordions to this analyzing above, the theories in the study are rejected because they show the effect of all the factors in the credit policy but not equally, and this result comes after collecting the information from the banks in the west bank.
- ItemCRISIS MANAGEMENT AND ITS RELATION TO THE SCHOOL ENVIROMENT FROM THE EMERGENCY COMMITTEE POINT OF VIEW IN THE NORTHERN GOVERNORATES(جامعة النجاح الوطنية, 2022-03-23) Khaleel, HalaBackground: Educational managements take care of all educational institutions' components to serve the educational process since it is the most important in the educational institutions, and because it's one of the educational managements it aims to overcome the difficulties in schools by crises management and predicting it before happening, and trying to find a suitable school climate for all educational institutions' components in order to achieve the goals perfectly. Exceptional circumstances usually provokes decisions makers to make procedures and measures to reduce the effects of crises. Recently, COVID 19 pandemic has invaded the world and the countries had to impose the emergency status that affected all life aspects. The aim: This study aimed to recognize the crises management and its relationship to the school climate from the point of view of the emergency committee in the northern governates, clarifying the means and methods that must be followed to reduce the effects of crises and making sure that they won't affect the school climate and getting to the right solutions to overcome the urgent crises especially COVID 19. Method: The researcher used the descriptive correlative method in quality and quantity, the study sample consisted of 197 educational experts from the emergency committee who were selected using the available sample .the researcher has developed a questionnaire that consisted of 49 paragraphs and the validity and reliability have been checked Results: The researcher has reached the following results: • There's a strong and positive relationship between crises management and the school climate from the point of view of the emergency committee in the northern governates. • There are no statistically significant differences at the level of significance (a=0.05) between the averages of responses of the study sample towards the level of crises management in the northern governates due to the variables (gender, school type) While it was found that there were differences due to the variables (school level, school location, professional occupation). • There are no statistically significant differences at the level of significance (a=0.05) between the averages of sample responses towards school climate in the northern governates due to the variables (gender, school type) while there were differences due to the variables (school level, professional occupation, school location) Conclusion: This study resulted the following points: • To provide the managers with training courses that enable them to deal with crises when occuring. • To increase the amount of the exchanging visits between the managers in order to exchange experiences used in every school to get benefited and use it in other schools.
- ItemCultural Globalization and the Arab Political Culture: Democratic Reform Programs and Participatory Arab Political Culture(2005) Omar Mustafa Mohammad Samha; د. باسم الزبيديThe current study aimed at examining the consequences of the western political reform programs, imposed through cultural globalization and the global face man on Arab political culture in its participant dimension, especially in the new world order which witnessed numerous changes, from the beginning of the last decade, lead to control over the world by the united states. With the tremendous advances and revolution in communication technologies, many nations felt the threat of the imposition of American culture on the entire world and control over the consumer needs, wishes, desire and way of life. This fear has led to the concept of Americanization as an equivalent substitute to globalization. Communication between nations during the age of globalization is considered as the main powerful source of nations for the creation of there own figures and values and if one consider the changes among the main concerned institutes for the creation of such values – family and school – one can easily and deeply envisage the threat that facing the Arab culture. The infiltration of the international organizations and global companies by the Americans doubles these threats and increases the chances for the involvement and interference of countries internal affairs a situation might lead to a state of liquidity of the concept of sovereignty. Such a situation added more threat to the countries of the south in general and to the Arab World in particular as the aristocratic regimes of such countries failed to integrate its people within other social and political structures, a situation imposing a further threat for the return for older governmental regimes controlled by family, tribal and religious roles which in turn makes the possibility of political participation in decision and policy making out of question. The use of the western culture was one of the first to be used through the European colonization at earlier stages of our history through various missionary groups that imposed the culture of the invaders aiming at the maintenance of the status of the ruling groups even after the withdrawal of the colonizers. The main aim of colonization was the control over natural recourses of these countries in order to support the European industry. The history seems to repeat itself as culture seems to play an important role of the American strategy with the aim to take control over oil recourses and to create new markets for its products through global companies. All this takes place under the name of democracy and social reforms. It is clear that the alleged reforms has nothing to do with the well being of the nations of the area and includes a huge amount of heat ridge and racism through cultural tools with the alleged aim of reforms in favor of humanities and those behind these reforms aim at the divergence of the world towards the American vision of the world. This of course will lead to the destruction of the culture of the nations and prolong colonization. The American plans started after the events that took place in the cities of Washington and New York in September 11, 2001 under the name of fight against international terrorism were the USA announced an international state of emergency. This country that pretends to be the most democratic country over the world practiced many violations with respect to human rights and involvement of many Arab regimes in the fight against terrorism is a further involvement of such regimes in the violation of human rights and more oppression. Looking through the practices of the Libyan controlling regimes, which surrendered to the USA, one can clearly see how the USA no longer speaks of violations of the human rights in this country. Another clear example is the Iraqi situation as the USA promised a state of democracy in a country with the now believes that an aristocratic regimes is more merciful than the occupation, which came by the name of liberation. To impose its strategies, the USA announced the Great Middle East project, which will further divide the divided with the aim of creation rolling regimes that serve its ambitions for the control over oil recourses a situation that will never allow the creation of an opposing body on the international front. This will for sure destroy the civilization and the culture of the area and the involvement of other countries with Islam as a major cultural common factor (with the exception of Israel) and oil is being the economic common factor. These are the main two factors in the American strategy in the area, Islam is behind the terrorist attacks, and this issue is handled through political and cultural reforms. International terrorism gave the USA the rights to interfere with the internal affairs of area presenting Israel as a part of the solution and not as the problem of the area. The unlimited supporting role of the USA to Israel as well as to certain fascist’s regimes in the area created a deep hearted to this policy among the people of the area. The proposed Great Middle East project was designed to reverse the priorities of the Arab world through the American adoption of the Israeli concepts of terrorism.
- ItemDeterminants of Credit Risk in the MENA Region: A Comparative Study Between Islamic Banks and Conventional Banks(An-Najah National University, 2021-04-03) قشتم, رناThis thesis investigates the determinants of credit risk in both Islamic banks and conventional banks. It concentrates on the differences of the determinant of credit risk between Islamic and conventional banks in the Middle East and North Africa region (MENA). Banks’ specific characteristics and country-level determinants were examined using two models to investigate this study's objectives. The credit risk was measured by the non-performing loans for an unbalanced sample of 197 Islamic and conventional banks in the MENA region for 2010-2018. The results show that bank-specific and country-level factors drive credit risk. The assumptions needed to be fulfilled for OLS were tested, and the model was found to fit the purpose. Using fixed effect panel regression, results showed that return on asset, bank size, capital adequacy, asset quality, inflation, and regulatory quality are the main determinants of the banks’ credit risk. Moreover, the results uncover that Islamic banks in the MENA region face higher credit risk than the conventional banks. There is a positive relationship between asset's poor quality and credit risk, while a negative relationship between bank size, return on asset, capital ratio and credit risk are observed. For country-level determinants, inflation and regulatory quality as focal determinants have a negative impact on credit risk. The results also show that the bank type's effect is negative on the relationship between asset poor quality and credit risk. It can be concluded that Islamic banks are less affected by asset poor quality than conventional banks. Other bank-specific and country-level independent variables appear to have the same impact on credit risk in both types of banks. Future research on credit risk determinants may consider the banking system's development and more institutional factors when explaining banks' credit risk in the MENA region. The overall findings indicate that both macroeconomic and bank-specific factors do have significant effects on credit risk.
- ItemDynamic Capital Structure and Country Level Corruption: Evidence from the MENA Region(Ayat A. Hakawati, 2020-11-26) Hakawati, AyatThis thesis aims to investigate the determinants of capital structure and to provide new evidence and shed the light on the impact of corruption on firm’s financial decision in Middle East and North Africa region. Firm specific characteristics as well as country level determinants were examined to provide new evidence on the role of both levels of determinants of capital structure from this region. The two levels of variants were examined according to the three main theories; tradeoff, pecking order, and agency theory. Throughout the achievement of previous goals; this thesis examined the speed of adjustments by which the non-financial firms in MENA region adjust back to the target capital structure. The sample consists of 861 non-financial firms in the period of 2005-2018. The results show that the financial decision is driven by both firm and country specific factors. The results reveal that profitable firm and firm with higher growth opportunity uses less debt to finance its assets. While a positive relationship between tangibility and size, from one side, and leverage ratio, from the other, is observed. For country level determinants GDP and inflation are found to positively affect the firm’s leverage on long run while corruption as a focal determinant has negative impact on firm leverage. Because the Corruption Perception Index (CPI) – an annual index on a scale of 0 to 100 with higher values indicating lower levels of corruption. Showes a positive relation but negative impact. Negative impact means the higher the corruption level in a country; the lower level of leverage used by firms as source of financing. The results also show that firms place a target capital structure at which they adjust gradually. However, slow speed of adjustment was recognized when using book leverage as proxy for capital structure. On the other hand speed of adjustment increases when the market leverage is used. It can be concluded that trade-off, agency and pecking order theories are all explain the capital structure decision of non financial firms. Furthermore, non-financial firms in MENA region use mix of internal and external resources of financing. In addition firm and country level independent variables appear to contribute to adustment towred target capital and corruption is one of these variables. The study recommend for further reseearch on MENA region using more detailes in mesuring proxies for capital structure and firms leverage. In addition to consider the development of financial markets when explaining the capital structure of the MENA region. And to add more macroeconomic factors as determinants of capital structure.
- ItemAn Econometric Analysis of Production Function: The Case Study of Palestinian Industry(2004) Nasr Abdallah Qasim Abd- Alhkaleq; Dr. Basim MakhoolThe main objective of this study was to estimate the production function of the Palestinian industry. The empirical results have been utilized to estimate production elastic ties, and elasticity of substitution. In addition, the study sought to calculate marginal productivity and the production technology and find out, whether the Palestinian industry was labor intensive or capital intensive. To these ends, the research used two methods for data analysis: descriptive and qualitative. The descriptive analysis was based on calculation of economic indicators United Nations Industrial Development Organization in 2000. The qualitative analysis estimated production function by using the analysis of regression crosssuction data, collected published by Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS) have been collected. The empirical results showed that the technology applied by Palestinian industry was labor intensive. The share of labor cost of total production accounted for 72%, while the cost of capital amounts to 28% of total output. Furthermore, production elasticity, with the respect to labor, was found to be highly greater than production elasticity with respect to capital. However, the marginal productivity of labor and capital was found to be 7.2 and 0.4 respectively. This implies that employing additional labor (head) will increase output by $7,200. On the other hand, output will increase only by $400 if capital increases by $1,000. This result suggests that cost of capital in Palestinian industry was very high. The performance of large firms was found to be similar to the total firms. The marginal productivity, with respect to labor for large and total firms, was about $7,290 and $7,200 respectively. Also, marginal productivity of capital, for large and total firms was $500 and $400 respectively. The marginal substitution average in the Palestinian industry was about 17.96. this mean that increasing labor elements (factor) by one unit will require a sacrifice of some 17.96 units of capital. Pertaining to large firms, they were found to be generally labor intensive. The contribution of labor element to production in their firms was 71%, whereas the share of capital was 29%. The marginal product of the labor element in large firm was about 7.29 while that of capital was 0.50, thus reflecting low efficiency of capital employed in large firms in the Palestinian Territories, on the other hand, and the important role played by labor element in production and manufacturing process, on the other hand, the average of marginal substitution of labor element was 14.5. Based on the empirical results the following recommendations have been drawn: 1- Job creation in the Palestinian Territories could be achieved through establishing labor- intensive firms. 2- Labor productivity should be upgraded and rehabilitated to operate with capital efficiently. 3- Research and development should be enhanced to improve the performance of the Palestinian industrial sector. 4- The performance of the infrastructure should be developed and maintained. 5- Other measures should be applied to create appropriate environment required to activate the role of the industrial sector in the Palestinian economy.estine
- ItemThe Economic Effects of Imposing the Minimum Wages for the Employees in the Palestinian Economy(2003) Ibrahim Mohamed Abu-Hantash; Prof. Abed Al Fattah Abu-ShokurThe study dealt with the theoretical framework for minimum wages study. A clarification for the concept of minimum wages, and the main goals for its imposements were introduced. It discussed the economic impacts resulted from imposing the minimum wages in three cases: -in its simplest form. -in the existence of two sectors (covered and uncovered). -in the different market forms. It broached some, studies that dealt with minimum wages that raised controversy between supporters and opposers of such issue, each trying to prove their argument. The study explored the wages situation in Palestine, and it was approved that there is a variation in lahor wages obtained among the different Palestinian territories on one side, and the different economic sectors on the other. The study tied the two concepts of the existing wage rates and the minimum wages.it reached a number of criteria to minimum wages specification such as: unemployment rate in the Palestinian economy, poverty line, currency,the differences ,among the economic sectors in many fields, and the differences among the wage rates in the different areas. It explored the financial loads that might he imposed on the economic sectors resulting from minimum wages implement. lt was clear that there are differences in such financial loads among the different sectors. lt revealed the financial changes that may occur on the established profit levels due to minimum wages implement. The study also dealt with the economic impacts resulted from imposing the minimum wages in Palestine. it pointed out that although the beneficiaries from applying minimum wages will reap its advantages as a result of the increase in the purchasing power, which accordingly will boost the Palestinian economy, there are several risks resulted from imposing the minimum wages such as: decreasing the employment level and the increasing official products and services prices. Finally, the study reached several results such as: the existing of different impacts of imposing the minimum wages among different sectors, it was clear that services sector was the most at affected. The study introduced several recommendations that might contribute towards benefiting from minimum wages imposing, the most important one was regarding the speeding of forming the wage committee and applying, gradually, thr minimum wages in the different economic sectors and areas.
- ItemThe Effect of Applying Balanced Scorecard On Earnings Quality (Empirical Study of the Banks listed on Palestine Exchange)(جامعة النجاح الوطنية, 2021-02-27) وحيد عبد العزيز العملة, ليانتهدف هذه الدراسة إلى التحقق من أثر تطبيق بطاقة الأداء المتوازن على جودة الأرباح على البنوك المدرجة في بورصة فلسطين خلال الفترة (2011-2019). لتحقيق هذا الهدف، تم عمل نموذج للدراسةlيربط المتغير التابع (جودة الأرباح) والمتغيرات المستقلة (مكونات بطاقة الأداء المتوازن ) مع متغير التحكم (حجم الشركة). استخدم الباحثة التقارير المالية والإفصاحات الخاصة بالبنوك المدرجة في بورصة فلسطين كأداة لجمع البيانات بالإضافة إلى الكتب والمقالات والدراسات السابقة. استخدمت هذه الدراسة التصميم الوصفي الكمي للبحث.. تم استخدام البرنامج الإحصائي Eviews الإصدار 7 لتقدير العلاقة بين المتغيرات المستقلة والمتغير التابع ومتغير التحكم. كشفت نتائج الدراسة عن وجود تأثير سلبي ذي دلالة إحصائية لمنظور العملاء على جودة الأرباح، كما أظهرت النتائج وجود تأثير إيجابي ذي دلالة إحصائية لمنظور عمليات الأعمال الداخلية على جودة الأرباح. أظهرت النتائج أيضًا وجود تأثير إيجابي ذي دلالة إحصائية لحجم الشركة على جودة الأرباح. من ناحية أخرى، أظهرت النتائج عدم وجود تأثير ذي دلالة إحصائية للمنظور المالي والمنظور الاجتماعي ومنظور التعلم والنمو على جودة الأرباح . علاوة على ذلك، أظهرت النتائج عدم وجود مستوى عالٍ من جودة الأرباح في البنوك المدرجة في بورصة فلسطين، ولا يوجد تطبيق لبطاقة الأداء المتوزان في البنوك المدرجة في بورصة فلسطين. وأوصت الباحثة بضرورة أن تعتمد االبنوك على استخدام بطاقة الأداء المتوازن في منظوراتها الخمسة ولا تقتصر على المؤشرات المالية، وضرورة نشر الوعي بين مستخدمي القوائم المالية للبنوك الفلسطينية وعدم الاعتماد على المبلغ من صافي الربح في البيانات المالية نفسها. بدلاً من ذلك، يجب التركيز على معرفة مصادر ومكونات صافي الدخل، والنظر في أبعاد هذا الرقم، بما في ذلك التدفقات الفعلية والمبالغ المستحقة القبض التي يحتوي عليها.
- ItemThe Effect of Cultural Globalization on the Citizens of the West Bank(2012) Diana Ayman Haj Hamad; Prof. Abdel-Satar KhasemAbstract Cultural Globalization is considered one of the important dimensions of globalization as it comprises two models .The first model is objective and unavailable as people have to deal and many others . The second model is "Americanization" which markets the American culture in different ways among of which is the means of the objective methodology.This model , the second one , aims at replacing world different cultures with the American culture and thought through three aixes : Democracy , Human rights and woman status . The UAS seeks to create one cultural pattern to dominate the whole world and to build one world society that has the same customs , behavior and taste. Consequently , this will lead to the disappearance of national and local privacy of other communities , specially the developing countries among of which is Palestine where the policy of stick and carrot is noticeably used by America. Based on the aforementioned , this study is significant as it seeks to show the effect of cultural globalization on the different life aspects of the West Bank citizens specially the social and cultural textures. To highlight the effect on the people of the West Bank the descriptive methodology was emphasized to illustrate concepts such as globalization and cultural globalization as well as their philosophy and aims. Besides , the analytical methodology was used to show the instruments of cultural globalization and its effects on the people of West Bank , thus analyzing them in accordance with the topic of the study. It is worth mentioning that it is not easy to measure the effect of cultural globalization statistically .However , his study highlights the areas where the effects and instruments of cultural globalization in the West Bank are noticed. The findings of this study showed that the Palestinian citizen in the West bank has been affected by the American culture and thought. This can be observed in different spheres such as the spread of alienation and westernization among individuals , the spread of western customs and traditions like holidays and participation in in reality TV shows on Arab Space Channels, the spread of consumption and se x culture among the youth and finally replacing the national Palestinian concepts with Zionist and American ones. This led many Palestinian youths holding university degrees to travel abroad looking for a better living status. As a result of this, the chapter of this thesis verify the reliability of the hypothesis in this study which is cultural globalization invades the West Bank and leads to many effects in the social and cultural texture of the Palestinian Society. The researcher recommends that the Palestinian intellect should be developed as it is the only guarantee to face the effects of cultural globalization whether they are cultural or political . This doesn't mean cultural isolation but preserving national privacy while opening to world cultures.
- ItemThe Effect of Earnings Management on Dividend Payout and the Moderating Role of Financial Leverage: Evidence from Palestinian and Jordanian Banking Sector(جامعة النجاح الوطنية, 2021-02-20) يوسف شاكر ملحم, أسيليهدف هذا البحث الى التحقق من أثر ادارة الارباح على توزيعات الارباح مع بيان دور الرافعة المالية في هذا التأثير في قطاع البنوك في بورصة فلسطين وبورصة عمان خلال فترة (2009-2018)، تم الاعتماد في هذا البحث على البيانات السنوية في القوائم المالية ولتوضيح هذا الاثر تم استخدام واختبار المتغيرات من خلال استخدام coefficient, correlation and panel general least square بالإضافة الى استخدام Yoon et al, (2005) model لقياس ادارة الارباح والتي تم قياسها من خلال المستحقات الاختيارية (Discretionary accruals). أظهرت النتائج الرئيسية المتعلقة بالمتغيرات ادارة الارباح وتوزيعات الارباح في قطاع البنوك في السوق المالي الفلسطيني والاردني أن هناك اثر ايجابي بممارسة ادارة الارباح على سياسة توزيع الارباح ولكن هذا التأثير غير معنوي، علاوة على ذلك عند قياس ذلك الاثر في وجود الرافعة المالية تم ايجاد اثر من ادرة الارباح ايجابي ومعنوي على سياسة توزيع الارباح، وتوصل ايضا هذا البحث الى ان العلاقة بين ادارة الارباح وسياسة توزيع الارباح مهمة ووجود علاقة دليل على ان ذلك لا يناسب المستثمرين من جهة ،ونوصي بشدة بعدم وجود اي علاقة تربط بين ادارة الارباح وسياسة توزيع الارباح، ويمكن التقليل من هذه العلاقة عن طريق التحكم في الاستحقاقات التقديرية (الاختيارية) وسيساعد ذلك ايضا الادارة التي ستعمل على ادارة ارباحها بفعالية بإدارة رافعتها المالية لذلك يجب تقليل تأثير ادارة الارباح على سياسة توزيع الارباح.
- ItemThe Effect of Escalation of Political Official Violence on the Level Islamic Political Participation in the Arab World After Sep.11.2001(2003) Nasser Fahed Ali Khbbass; Prof. Abd Asattar QassemThis study tackles the Arab official political violence and its effect upon Islamic Political participation after Sep. 11th 200l. At the beginning, concepts and idioms related to the target study is tackled e.g. the concept of political violence, terrorism and political participation. The study shows that there has been great misconception and deliberate misunderstanding among these concepts by interior and Arab parts in addition to other exterior ones benefiting from this misconception and deepen it to serve their aims in the Arab territory. Such conceptions, terrorism for example, include many different meanings which are jumped over to describe some countries failing to notice that these characteristics are found more in such accusing countries rather than the accused ones. The Arabic territory with its countries is considered the unique model concerning the form and the content of relation between the official or non-official political violence and the political participation of the social sectors in these countries. The official political violence took the form of tyrany, which was clear in tyrant political decisions and encircling, penetrating civil social activities in Arab countries in addition to security pursuit to everyone, organization. .. etc. thinking of change of development to keep the Arab region as stable pool attracting those ambitious people under the motto of change and democracy. The relation between Islamic and the Arab official systems vibrated during the last three decades in the twentieth century. Political violence got more ethel more after Sep. 11lh2001through financial and security pursuit and security coordination with the Americans... etc in the American campain on "terrorism". This campain resulted 1Il the Islamic and their supporters through their rushing in political participation 1I1 any elections in every Arab country and practising armed violence against exterior fores. This fact shows that lslamics felt that they were the target of the American war on "terrorism" and emphasizes the absence of Arab social voice and the extreme need for it. So I believe that there is an urgent need to have areal political development comprising all the political to give the chance for energies and inventions to overcome tyrany and aggression falling upon Arab societies by political systems.