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EFFECT OF PERIMETER BRICK-CONCRETESTONE-MASONRY INFILL WALLS ON THE DEFLECTION AMPLIFICATION FACTOR FOR INTERMEDIATE MOMENT RESISTING FRAMES
(An-Najah National University, 2024-06-12) Masarwa, Khalid
Constructing of multi-story buildings using perimeter walls with stone cladding is very common in Palestine. The stone cladding provides an architectural aesthetic to the exterior facades of the buildings. The traditional method in Palestine to construct these walls is to fill the reinforced concrete frames with a three-layer wall. These layers are: brick, concrete, and stone. The walls may affect the behavior of the structure under an earthquake excitation. This results from their additional mass, lateral stiffness and strength that these walls add to the building. Neglecting the effect of these walls on the structural response can lead to a poor structural analysis prediction of the real structural behavior. Therefore, this study focuses on studying the effect of perimeter brickconcrete-stone-masonry (BCSM) infill walls on the deflection amplification factor (Cd) for intermediate moment resisting frames. The research methodology started by designing 36 cases according to ASCE7-16 and ACI 318-14 codes. In every case, the building is designed as an intermediate moment resisting frame. Nonlinear static pushover analysis is performed to generate load-deflection curves for different parameters using SAP2000 computer program. The results are used to estimate the Cd-factor under the variation of the parameters. In this study, it was found that the Cd-Factor is very sensitive to the presence of BCSM infill walls; it can lead to a significant change in the Cd-Factor compared to what is suggested by the ASCE7- 16 code. The results of this study showed that the increase of the BCSM infill walls opening ratio leads to a decrease in the Cd-Factor, and the increase of the BCSM infill walls length leads to a decrease in the Cd-Factor. Also, in this study, it was found that the Cd-Factor is not fixed with varying the number of stories of a building. In other words, it is not true that the increase in the number of stories will always increase the Cd-Factor and vice versa. Results were used to develop two simple formulas to estimate the Cd-Factor, and to help engineers in Palestine to estimate the Cd-Factor for buildings that have BCSM infill walls. Keywords: Macro modeling; Fiber hinges; BCSM infill walls; Cd-Factor; R-Factor; Equivalent compression struts; Overstrength.
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DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF THE ANTICANCER, ANTIOXIDANT, AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF CYPRESS OIL NANOEMULGEL
(An-Najah National University, 2024-07-01) Shahin, Aya
Background: Cypress oil is a potent essential oil known for its wide range of therapeutic activities. Objectives: This study aimed to incorporate cypress oil into nanoemulgels to overcome their low solubility and high volatility. Methodology: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry identified the chemical composition. The cypress oil nanoemulsion was optimized, and then it was incorporated with Carbopol hydrogel to produce cypress oil nanoemulgel. DPPH scavenger technique measured the cypress oil and its nanoemulgel antioxidant activity. Then, the droplet size, PDI, zeta potential, rheology, antimicrobial, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory activities were evaluated utilizing reference methods. Results: The chemical composition of cypress oil is predominantly composed of monoterpene hydrocarbons, with α-pinene as the major component (50.72%), followed by 3-b-carene (27.57%). The ternary phase diagram revealed that the nanoemulsion containing 40% Tween, 10% Span, and 50% cypress oil had an optimized droplet size of 105.28 ±2.12 nm and a PDI of 0.112 ±0.016 nm. The cypress nanoemulgel formulation showed no significant change in droplet size or PDI, while it has a zeta potential of -33 mV. Moreover, the antioxidant efficiency of cypress oil was IC50 = 14.7 ±0.3 μg/mL, while it was reduced to more than half for nanoemulgel with IC50=6.6 ±0.13 µg/ml. Potent antibacterial activity was reported against several gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, with inhibition zones in the 11–36 mm range. Also, effective antifungal activity was noticed against different species of Candida albicans in the range of 16–24 mm. The formulated nanoemulgel had better activity compared to the oil alone. Furthermore, it was more potent than the oil as an anticancer agent against Hep-G2 cells, with an IC50 of 39.81 µg/ml, followed by 58.88 and 61.65 µg/ml for MCF-7 and HeLa cell line. It also demonstrated an anti-fibrotic effect with an IC50 of 63.09 µg/ml against LX-2 cell line. The cypress oil nanoemulgel was more selective for COX-2 than COX-1. In addition, the IC50 of the nanoemulgel toward COX-2 (13.96 µg/ml) was almost half the value for the oil (28.78 µg/ml). Conclusion: The overall findings suggest that cypress oil nanoemulgel holds promise to counteract several skin infections and cancer cell lines. However, further in vivo studies are needed.
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EXPLORING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE DEFLECTION AMPLIFICATION FACTOR AND THE TIME PERIOD OF REINFORCMENT CONCRETE – MOMENT RESISTING FRAME STRUCTURES
(An-Najah National University, 2024-06-12) Bsharat, Murad
The deflection amplification factor (Cd) is an important parameter in seismic design. Cd is essential in seismic design according to the American Society of Civil Engineers minimum design load standards (ASCE7-16) especially for the drift check and for the calculation of the seismic separator distance. Contractors face difficulty in implementing seismic separation, especially in high-rise buildings. The seismic separator is computed in ASCE7-16 depending on the Cd factor by calculating the inelastic displacement, which is crucial for calculating the seismic separation. Cd remains constant for the same structural system, as per ASCE7-16, regardless of the building characteristics such as (time period which depends on span length, story height and numbers of bays). The goal of this work is to obtain a Cd value for each building based on the building’s characteristics, which helps in reducing the width of the seismic separator, especially for high-rise buildings. To achieve this goal, various parameters associated with building characteristics that may influence Cd value were studied. 36 case studies of square-shaped building models with varying numbers of floors, floor height, span length, and the number of bays were analyzed using both linear and nonlinear time history analysis. Three-time history records that match the response spectrum in SAP2000 and seismomatch are used to compute Cd. On the other hand, the computer software, ETABS was used for the structural design considering both gravity and seismic loads. Results from the analysis show that ASCE 7-16 is conservative in presenting Cd values and that Cd varies depending on the characteristics of the building. The results show that the value of Cd decreases with increasing span length, story height, number of bays, and time period (Tn). The results of this study were used to develop an equation to estimate Cd based on the building characteristics. Keywords: Deflection amplification factor, Cd, SMRFs, Time history, Response Spectrum, nonlinear displacement, liner displacement, fiber hinge.
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KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE AMONG PHARMACISTS ABOUT BREASTFEEDING AND INFANT FORMULA USE IN QALQILYA DISTRICT/WEST BANK IN 2022
(An-Najah National University, 2024-03-16) Nazzal, Rana
Breastfeeding is universally recognized as the optimal method for meeting infants' nutritional needs, with significant implications for health, social, and economic outcomes. Inconsistent or unclear advice and support from healthcare professionals, including pharmacists, can act as barriers to breastfeeding. This research delves into the contribution of local pharmacies to health education on breastfeeding formulas in the Qalqilya area, using a quantitative, cross-sectional approach. The goal is to evaluate pharmacists' participation in promoting healthy infant feeding practices. A survey, comprising both multiple-choice and open-ended questions, was administered to 160 pharmacists in Qalqilya. The questionnaire utilized a Likert scale to measure their attitudes, practices, and knowledge about breastfeeding and infant formula. The findings indicate that the participants' average age is under 30 years. They exhibited a moderate level of awareness (67%), low positive attitudes (34%), medium appropriate practices (61%), and limited knowledge regarding breastfeeding and infant formula use (40%). The study highlights the crucial need to integrate breastfeeding education into the professional development of both local and national pharmacy associations. Pharmacists, particularly those in community settings, should address gaps in their knowledge to deliver accurate information to healthcare providers and better assist breastfeeding patients. The critical role of pharmacists in promoting and supporting breastfeeding requires them to be aware of their competencies and ethical duties in this area. The results indicate the importance of understanding the existing relationships, power structures, and varying interests in community pharmacies. Additionally, appreciating the specialized knowledge within the pharmacy profession can help researchers design effective interventions that encourage pharmacists' active participation, providing valuable insights. In conclusion, this study emphasizes the vital role of pharmacists in breastfeeding promotion and recommends incorporating breastfeeding education into professional development programs. Addressing knowledge gaps and ethical responsibilities will enhance pharmacists' ability to support breastfeeding patients effectively. Furthermore, understanding the dynamics within community pharmacies is essential for designing interventions that align with practitioners' needs and contribute to meaningful research embedded within practice.
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Candle Craft Line
(2024) Asmaa T. Saleh; Dalia H. Dwaikat
We observe a growing trend in artisanal projects, particularly in candle making. Candles play a significant role in home decor, enhancing ambiance, and providing pleasant scents. Due to the increasing demand and presence of handmade candles on various occasions, manual production can become burdensome, especially for large orders. Our project aims to establish a production line for candles in transparent cups, tailored to user preferences. Users, as project owners, can specify the number of cups, colors, and scents desired. The candle production process involves multiple stages, starting with wax mixture preparation based on the required cup quantity. The mixture is then melted, colored, scented, and thoroughly mixed to achieve a homogeneous blend. The cups undergo a simple heating process to facilitate the pouring without errors. Finally, the cooling stage is to dry the wax inside the cups. Initially, we will develop a comprehensive project design and ensure a detailed plan is in place. Then, the hardware component will be constructed, and the project will be implemented, integrating it with a mobile application for seamless communication between all components. This will be achieved through the creation of an ”Automatic Wax Mixing and Pouring System in Cups” based on Arduino technology. The system utilizes Arduino programming to control and manage the entire process, integrating various components such as sensors, motors, relay switches, heaters, and other relevant elements. This project aims to streamline candle production to meet large-scale demand while accommodating specific customer preferences, thereby addressing the growing market demand for these handmade artisanal products. 8