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(2023-02-26) Rania Abed Allatef
Curcumin is a natural substance that has a wide range of biological functions and is a source to several medications. It is becoming more difficult to produce a natural-based drugs that can prevent bacterial antibiotic resistance. To achieve this goal, Schiff bases were prepared by a one pot process that involves reacting curcumin with various amino acids. The amino acids selected for this work were those with heterocyclic functionality in addition to the amine and the carboxylic groups. The selected were histidine, lysine, cysteine, and arginine. The structures of the produced compounds were tested by FT-IR, H NMR, mass spectral analysis and antibacterial activity. Schiff bases was tested against gram-positive bacteria which are Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. And with gram-negative bacteria which are Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia. The Schiff base 5 which produced from reacting curcumin with arginine was the most effective MIC value of 200 µg mL-1. The Schiff base 2 which produced from reacting curcumin with histidine changed the DNA of E. coli strain, this could be attributed to the presence of many nitrogen atoms in the structure of the compound. Keywords: Schiff bases, natural substance, Curcumin, amino acids.
(2022-10-16) Abedalrahim Hilme Khrawish
The hospital sector can be described aslarge energy-consuming buildings, especially in the form of electrical energy, so, this energy is utilized in many forms in order to provide comfort, treatment, and safety for human beings by relying on energy management and renewable alternatives to produce energy. This studyis based on rationalizing energy consumption and exploits solar energy in providing energy to the hospitals in Palestine, specifically in the West Bank, where the electrical energy consumption in the hospitals can be reduced from 4057.7 MWh/year to 2888.6 MWh/year. Also, there is thereduction ofthe production of one of the most greenhouse gases that are responsible for global warming in the world. Researched CO2 production has been reduced by 1,292,134 kg of CO2/year. A set of detailed data was given regarding the proposed building, such as annual costs, annual cost per unit floor area, component cost as a percentage of total cost, annual energy and emissions summary (annual costs, annual energy consumption, annual emissions, annual cost per unit floor area, component cost as a percentage of total cost), annual energy costs - heating and cooling system, annual energy costs - new heating system, annual energy costs - new economizer system, annual energy costs - old cooling system and annual energy costs - old heating system, all these data appear in detail as shown in the Appendix (c). It is worth mentioning that energy consumption in the air conditioning system has also been rationalized from 2178.7 MWh/year to 1167.4 MWh/year, which results in reducing CO2 production to 1,092,139 kg/year. Using diesel to operate the heating system, 340,20 kg of CO2/year was produced, and the production of carbon dioxide gas was reduced to 31,069 kg of CO2/year as a result of modernizing the heating system. Depending on the design of the solar cell system, 148.8 Mwh/year of solar energy has beensaved and carbon dioxide emissions were reduced as a result of generating this energy from a non-renewable source 160,766 kg of CO2/year. Keywords: Energy Consumption, Energy Consumption, Greenhouse gases.
(2023-03-29) Ghossoun Zeyad Tawfiq Hamedallah
Abstract Developing unit hydrographs is critical for hydraulic structure design and water resource management in gauged catchments. Due to the lack of local data, engineers should strive to estimate discharges based on empirical (synthetic) methods that can predict runoff based on rainfall in the ungauged catchments. Synthetic unit hydrographs, such as the Snyder and Soil Conservation Service (SCS), are popular and play an essential role in hydrology. These methods are simple, requiring only catchment characteristics such as area, length of mainstream, and slope. Therefore, these methods serve as valuable tools to simulate runoff from the ungauged catchment to estimate peak discharge, time to peak, and runoff volume. This research study is Al-Bathan sub-catchment, which is located in the northeastern part of the West Bank in Palestine with an area of 83 km2. The study used a de-convolution matrix approach to develop an average one-hour unit hydrograph by selecting four significant rainfall events in the period (2005-2007), and the direct runoff hydrographs which are measured by Al-Bathan flume located in the outlet of the sub-catchment. By computing the characteristics of the average one-hour unit hydrograph with peak discharge is 4.52 m3/sec and time to peak is 5 hours, Snyder and SCS hydrographs were developed to suit Al-Bathan sub-catchment physical characteristics. The parameters were determined for the Snyder, where Cp = 0.88 and Ct = 1.26, and the SCS, where Cp = 1.90 and C = 2.92. Therefore, these parameters fit the study area. These synthetic one-hour unit hydrographs were examined during two events (2017–2019) by comparing observed and simulated direct runoff hydrographs for these events. The performance was tested statistically using the Nash-Sutcliff coefficient, coefficient of determination, volume error, and percentage bias. Results showed that the synthetic unit hydrographs are suitable for application and that the SCS method is more accurate. Keywords: Al-Bathan Sub-catchment; Direct Runoff Hydrograph; Palestine; Synthetic Unit Hydrograph; Unit Hydrograph; Ungauged Catchment.
(2022-09-19) Isra’ Omar Abdullah Fuqha
This study has examined the problems of translation of religious intertextual references in Ahmed Matter’s poetry made by graduate students in the Translation and Applied Linguistics Programs at An-Najah National University. While translating intertextual references, translators may come across a broader range of connotations for which the process of translation would be complex and challenging. This matter requires a translator to adapt his/ her method depending on the case at hand. Against this background, this study has explored the problems the students have faced and strategies they have used to render their translations of Matter’s poetry from Arabic into English. To this end, the researcher selected excerpts from the poet’s poetry and examined some features of the selected intertextuality after translation. The researcher administered a translation test of seven poems by the poet. A random sample of 20 M.A. translation students were asked to figure out intertextuality and translate it into English. The findings of the study showed that the translators encountered several problems when rendering intertextuality. These problems were mostly related to ignorance of translation strategies, unawareness of some cultural expressions, lack of cultural awareness and linguistic proficiency, and inappropriate use of suitable lexical words. Actually, it was very difficult to maintain the poetic system which consists of harmony, verse, rhyme and rhythm. So, students were likely to face such problems while translating and loss the artistic value of the ST. Furthermore, the study revealed the students used the cultural strategy (using an equivalent in TL that has the same meaning as in SL) and functional strategy (using an equivalent in TL that can reflect the function achieved by ST expression). This accounted for 163 instances or 79.2%. Paraphrasing (putting what you have read into your own words) accounted for 80 instances or 35.1% and literal translation (a translation that follows closely the form of SL) accounted for 37 instances or 18.3% of total responses. In the light of the study findings, the researcher also recommends that graduate students to be more aware of the differences between British and Arab cultures, and to familiarize themselves with Newmark’s strategies and to possess linguistic competence. Furthermore, the researcher suggests introducing Matter’s poetry in the curricula and conducting more studies on his poetry from other perspectives. By considering the theoretical background of intertextual aspect of the translated texts, the translator is qualified to produce a translation that attracts the TT readers. He/she deals with language a “baby” that grows and develops to give linguistic structures a semantic impetus (connotative meaning rather than denotative meaning). He/she is also the one who can get out of the context and give his/her text artistic features as in Matter’s poetry. Keywords: Religious Intertextuality; Obestacles; Strategies.