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- ItemA systematic review of dysarthria in - Multiple Sclerosis(2021) Marah Aqil; Shatha NaneeshMultiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the most common chronic, inflammatory, progressive disease of the central nervous system (British Medical Bulletin, 2010), leading to degradation of the myelin sheaths surrounding neurons (Nylander & Hafler, 2012), this demyelination resulting in forming plaques that disrupt and damage the nerve conduction with various consequences depends on the site of lesions (Nylander & Hafler, 2012), and as the person gets older it increasing disability . Prevalence varies (< 1 to 193 per 100,000) depending on ethnic and geographical variables (Rosati G, 2001) . MS usually starts in early adult life. Once the disease present it never goes, there is no cure and the patient lives with the diagnosis for the rest of life, the route and prognosis for MS are unpredictable, so as a result it creating depressing changes in the lives of MS patients and their families (Knight, R. G. (2013). Many people with MS, have little trouble and symptoms, but for others patients it causes problems that exert a profound effect on the person’s quality of life (Mult Scler, 2003). The disease is characterized by relapses and remissions depends on attacks number and extent , while the pathology and symptom pattern of MS disease is very variable and varied (Finger, S. (1998). that they include virtually the whole field of neurology, in about two-thirds of patients the symptoms come and go spontaneously (exacerbation and remission). In the remaining third, the course is progressive (Perry A,1982). One of the the common symptoms is sensorimotor changes that affecting bulbar and spinal function (speech and walking) as well as cognition problem , coordination, vision, tiredness, depression, sadness , and pain . Communication problems are also common in MS but they are typically mild.(Yorkston & Baylor, 2012). Dysarthria is the most common expressive communication deficit presenting in MS patients (Hartelius, L., Runmarker, B., & Andersen, O. 2000). Dysphonia, which is a voice disorder, also can co-occurs with dysarthria in individuals with MS sometimes. Dysarthria commonly defined as a motor speech disorder caused by impairment to the efferent pathways that innervate the muscles associated with speech production due to neurological damage (Duffy, 2013). It is characterized by slow, weak, inaccurate, or disorganized movements of the speech musculature. These neuromotor dysfunctions impact the speech processes of respiration, phonation, articulation, and nasalization (Hartelius, L., Svensson, P., & Bubach, A. (1993). The demyelinating lesions that caused by multiple sclerosis disease can result in spasticity, slowness, weakness, and ataxic incoordination of the lips, tongue, mandible, soft palate, vocal cords, and diaphragm. as a results , articulation, speaking rate, intelligibility, and natural flow of speech in conversation are more likely to be impaired in people with multiple sclerosis (Miller, P. H. (2008). The individual with MS, their family member, or a healthcare professional may notice and identify these speech issues. Problems with articulation precision, speech intelligibility, conversational flow, speaking rate, loudness, and voice quality are all common complaints. When these problems intervene with a person’s quality of life specially their ability to communicate for daily needs, a referral for assessment and treatment by a speech language pathologist is recommended (Netsell, R. (1984, November). MS dysarthria has been characterized as spastic or ataxic. it has been discovered that between 40% and 50% of individuals living with MS are affected by it. (Duffy, 2013)
- ItemDiabetes type 2 and hearing loss. What’s the connection?(2021) Tala Melhem; Roa'a Alomari; Rawand Aslan; Areen Magdoub; Najah JohariThe relation between diabetes mellitus DM and auditory system has been investigated for a long time and still in a debate. Most recent studies confirm the contribution of diabetes for a progressive hearing loss and identiﬁed worse hearing among those with diabetes compared to control participants. But it's not easy to investigate results of metabolic and chronic diseases, one reason is because of comorbidities. comorbidities are considered very challenging when trying to investigate diabetes role in physiological changes, as patients with diabetes may also experience other complications and there is a need to carefully consider whether comorbidity has any influence on the results in order to get a valid data. In addition, there are other factors that affect hearing, and sometimes they are difficult to exclude while conducting an investigation (aging, gender, genetics, and progressive complications). Different systematic reviews have tried to analyze results of studies that described the mechanisms of degeneration in the inner ear and nerve pathways in the presence of diabetes. parametric measures using audiological standardized tests also were used to compare between non diabetic people and diabetic ones, and studied the duration effect on hearing loss progression. This study aimed to confirm the relationship between diabetes type2 as it is the most common form of diabetes, to study the correlation between glycemic control and hearing threshold and to determine the differences between treated diabetic and non-treated ones.In addition, the study compared between the methods used in different studies which denied the correlation between hearing loss and diabetes in order to find the reasons behind the contradicted findings. According to the recent literature, it is widely believed that glycemic level has a direct significant effect on hearing thresholds, causing progressive type of hearing loss that is very related to the duration
- ItemThe basic role of hearing aids and the factors for the renounce of elderly people.(2021) Sojod Haj Yahya; Lama Abu Haiba; Sahar Tawil; Aisha Jaber; Baraa Balalu; Mai GhnayiemHearing aids are developed electronic devices help with amplifying sounds for those with hearing loss to practice their lives regardless of their health status. The study aims to discriminate between positive and negative effects of using hearings on the elderly people who complain of hearing impairment and why most of elderly people rejecting using hearing aids. Scoping study design was used for conducting the study, this study reviews several studies on the topic which applied cross section, interviews and reviews of people of the age 55 and older. Study results have shown that most of elderly people not adhering with the using of hearing devices for multiple reasons as lack of recognition of hearing loss, difficulty dealing with signals in noise, the belief that hearing aids do not have enough usefulness to justify their cost and that using hearing aids can be seen as a shameful act or a stigma. etc. While those who used them reported the potential impact of hearing aids in mitigating cognitive impairment, increasing the ability to engage in everyday situations, and improve the quality of life. Hearing aid devices are important for the elderly community with hearing problems as they assist with making their lives easier. so, it is highly recommended for all those in need.
- ItemSmoking and noise and their effect on adults hearing(2021) مروه سلمى فوزي عراقي; ملك احسان تحسين عوض; لينا اكرم عبدالله نخال; ريما سفيان عبد القادر ابو حطب; ثراء خالد حسن ابو صلاح; رزان علي محمود موسىIn this research, our group have been interested in collecting information about the risk factors that may affect and worsen the adult hearing. Hearing plays an important role in a person's life giving the ability to communicate quickly and easily with those in the surrounding environment. Based on the World Health Organization statistics on smoking, we noticed that the majority of people are smokers (Tobacco. 2020, May 27), because of this we raised questions, whether smoking had a role in hearing loss. Thus, following that we reviewed various research that investigates the noisy environment for smoker’s population, in addition, in recent years, we have noticed that people tend to use electronic cigarettes, so we wanted to know if this kind of cigarettes - with its components, have effects on the human middle ear and as a result an effect on hearing. Therefore, our research was directed towards talks about the effect of electronic cigarettes on the human middle ear. Hearing loss is the most common sensory issue in the adult populations, it impacts mainly the social, health and psychological aspects of life. To be more particular, adults with hearing loss can face many problems with communication and exchanging information with others, since impaired hearing causes them to have low self-confidence and depression due to the effect of hearing loss on their quality of life, they experience loneliness, alienation, and a lack of self-reliance. However, the importance of management, early recognition and rehabilitation are needed beside the evaluation of quality-of-life status and its estimation. The review expectations from the previous studies that carried out is to look into factors that may improve the impact of smoking and noise on the human hearing and to discuss many of the recommendation to prevent hearing from getting worse. Hearing loss affect the daily life and communication with others due to difficulty in distinguishing speech, this causes the person a feeling of frustration, loneliness and isolation. Which may also lead to psychological, physical and social consequences. In addition, environmental factors such as ototoxic substances, which may lead to the destruction of hair cells in the inner ear due to excessive noise exposure or other factors such as smoking. Smoking spreads all over the world among men and women of different ages, and its effect hearing because of the various harmful effects of tobacco. The most widely used nicotine delivery systems are electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes, which are relatively new products intended to stop smoking). Many recent studies have focused on the issue and combined impact of noise induced and smoking on hearing loss. Several studies have found that smoking affect hearing, especially the high frequencies region and the percentage increases when the person both smokes and works in a noisy environment. On the other side, electronic cigarettes have been found to affect the middle ear function by increasing the incidence of otitis media infection causing conductive hearing loss. There is a big connection between smoking and noise and how they affect the hearing. Noise-induced hearing loss has been identified ever since the industrial revolution. Noise-induced hearing loss is a health and social problem caused by exposure to recreational and occupational noise that comes as the second most common type of sensorineural hearing loss. Noise-induced hearing loss is commonly linked to any excessive sound exposure that has a negative effect on the stereocilia of the outer hair cells on the basilar membrane of the cochlea in the inner ear, when continued exposure to loud noises may lead the outer hair cells to die. Noise exposure is the most common problem a worker can get from the workplace or occupation such as farming and construction work. Studies have shown that NIHL is constant, recurrent and is able to be avoided by using ear protection, hearing loss may also result in annoyance, sleep disturbance, fatigue and hypertension. In cases of the NIHL, audiometric results usually show a sharp deprivation at higher frequencies as these frequencies are more seemingly to be affected by noise starting from 3 kHz to 6 kHz, the shape is likely to be V-dip or notch at 4 kHz to 6 kHz, while the lower frequencies from 500 Hz to 2 kHz seems to not be affected.
- ItemAssociation of Hearing Loss with Dementia(2021) شهد سامر عصمت ابو راضي; روز فوزي جمال احمد; رشا "أحمد عماد"يعقوب يعقوب; اماني عادل يوسف شريح; أسيل عبد الله عبد العزيز نجارPurpose: This review recapitulates a group of studies related to methods for determining the relation between hearing loss and dementia and emphasizing the importance of using a hearing aid in order to decrease the cognitive deterioration in hearing loss individuals. Design: A systematic review. Methods: a systematic review of the literature was carried on 5 electronic databases for example pubmed, google scholar, ASHA, 2 website also using keywords such as dementia, hearing loss, sensorineural hearing loss, Presbycusis, age-related hearing loss, aging, cochlear implantation, cognitive function, older adults, quality of life, Hearing aids, hearing audiology test, hearing protection hearing loss, mild cognitive impairment, treatment approach management Alzheimer’s disease, brain function, dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies, front temporal dementia, and vascular dementia. Results: Three-dimensional connections between hearing loss and dementia are studied in this review hearing loss may lead to dementia through excessive cognitive effort, deteriorated brain areas and functions, and hard social isolation in older people, not treated hearing loss is the Collective prevention solution for the three dimensions. Conclusion: dementia is a common disease, mostly affects adults who have reached the age of 60 or greater, in this age that presents the risk of developing age-related hearing loss which is improved to be one of the basic risk factors for dementia also it is suggested that the risk of hearing loss can be reduced or prevented by recurrent and regular hearing assessment especially after the age of 60 and managing hearing loss using hearing aids or other assistive listening devices.