Smoking and noise and their effect on adults hearing

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مروه سلمى فوزي عراقي
ملك احسان تحسين عوض
لينا اكرم عبدالله نخال
ريما سفيان عبد القادر ابو حطب
ثراء خالد حسن ابو صلاح
رزان علي محمود موسى
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In this research, our group have been interested in collecting information about the risk factors that may affect and worsen the adult hearing. Hearing plays an important role in a person's life giving the ability to communicate quickly and easily with those in the surrounding environment. Based on the World Health Organization statistics on smoking, we noticed that the majority of people are smokers (Tobacco. 2020, May 27), because of this we raised questions, whether smoking had a role in hearing loss. Thus, following that we reviewed various research that investigates the noisy environment for smoker’s population, in addition, in recent years, we have noticed that people tend to use electronic cigarettes, so we wanted to know if this kind of cigarettes - with its components, have effects on the human middle ear and as a result an effect on hearing. Therefore, our research was directed towards talks about the effect of electronic cigarettes on the human middle ear. Hearing loss is the most common sensory issue in the adult populations, it impacts mainly the social, health and psychological aspects of life. To be more particular, adults with hearing loss can face many problems with communication and exchanging information with others, since impaired hearing causes them to have low self-confidence and depression due to the effect of hearing loss on their quality of life, they experience loneliness, alienation, and a lack of self-reliance. However, the importance of management, early recognition and rehabilitation are needed beside the evaluation of quality-of-life status and its estimation. The review expectations from the previous studies that carried out is to look into factors that may improve the impact of smoking and noise on the human hearing and to discuss many of the recommendation to prevent hearing from getting worse. Hearing loss affect the daily life and communication with others due to difficulty in distinguishing speech, this causes the person a feeling of frustration, loneliness and isolation. Which may also lead to psychological, physical and social consequences. In addition, environmental factors such as ototoxic substances, which may lead to the destruction of hair cells in the inner ear due to excessive noise exposure or other factors such as smoking. Smoking spreads all over the world among men and women of different ages, and its effect hearing because of the various harmful effects of tobacco. The most widely used nicotine delivery systems are electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes, which are relatively new products intended to stop smoking). Many recent studies have focused on the issue and combined impact of noise induced and smoking on hearing loss. Several studies have found that smoking affect hearing, especially the high frequencies region and the percentage increases when the person both smokes and works in a noisy environment. On the other side, electronic cigarettes have been found to affect the middle ear function by increasing the incidence of otitis media infection causing conductive hearing loss. There is a big connection between smoking and noise and how they affect the hearing. Noise-induced hearing loss has been identified ever since the industrial revolution. Noise-induced hearing loss is a health and social problem caused by exposure to recreational and occupational noise that comes as the second most common type of sensorineural hearing loss. Noise-induced hearing loss is commonly linked to any excessive sound exposure that has a negative effect on the stereocilia of the outer hair cells on the basilar membrane of the cochlea in the inner ear, when continued exposure to loud noises may lead the outer hair cells to die. Noise exposure is the most common problem a worker can get from the workplace or occupation such as farming and construction work. Studies have shown that NIHL is constant, recurrent and is able to be avoided by using ear protection, hearing loss may also result in annoyance, sleep disturbance, fatigue and hypertension. In cases of the NIHL, audiometric results usually show a sharp deprivation at higher frequencies as these frequencies are more seemingly to be affected by noise starting from 3 kHz to 6 kHz, the shape is likely to be V-dip or notch at 4 kHz to 6 kHz, while the lower frequencies from 500 Hz to 2 kHz seems to not be affected.