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- ItemAntibacterial Effect of Some Wild Allium Species in Palestine Compared with Cultivars Allium cepa and Allium sativum(2016) Duha Yasser Fayeq Abu Safieh; Dr. Ghadeer Omar; Dr. Ghaleb AdwanFourteen wild Allium species are collected, classified and extracted by three extraction methods (ethanol, water and fresh) and tested for their antimicrobial activity on five strains of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aurues. This is besides the cultivated one Allium sativum and Allium cepa by broth microdilution method. Allium qasyunense showed the highest antibacterial activity against MRSA strains by recording the lowest MIC and MBC values. Water leaf extract of A. qasyunense showed the highest antibacterial activity against MRSA strain 5 at 1.56 mg/ml. Ethanolic leaf extract of the same species showed highest antibacterial activity against the same MRSA strain at 0.049 mg/ml. While, its fresh bulb extract showed the highest antibacterial activity at MIC= 0.49 mg/ml against MRSA strain 1. From this work, it was conclude that the part of plant and the extract type affected the antibacterial activity. For example leaf part when extracted by ethanol give higher antibacterial activity than water since ethanol helps in saving the stability of organosulfur compounds such as allicin. In case of plant part, Bulb part possessed higher antibacterial activity than the leaf part. The study revealed that wild Allium species have higher antibacterial activity than the cultivated one A. cepa and A. sativum.
- ItemAntimicrobial Activity of Fifty-Four Plants Used in Folkloric Medicine in Palestine(2000) Rabee Ali Ghalib Zayed; Prof. Mohammed S. Ali-Shtayeh; Dr. Suleiman Al-KhalilEthanolic and aqueous extracts of fifty four plant species used in folk medicine in Palestine for treatment of several infections and diseases were investigated for their antimicrobial activities against thirteen microbial isolates belonging to one yeast, Candida albicans; four gram negative bacteria, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeroginosa, and one gram positive bacterium, Staphylococcus aureus, and two isolates of dermatophytes, Microsporum canis and M gypseum, and five isolates of plant pathogenic mycelial fungi, Fusarium tricinicturn, Pythiurn ultimum, P. aphanidermatum, P. middletonii, and Phytophthora citrophthora. Two susceptibility tests were used in this work, the disk diffusion method for measuring the antibacterial and anticandidal activity and the poisoned—food technique for measuring the antifungal activity. The results demonstrated that the plans studied differ significantly in their activity against test microorganisms. The most active plants against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria include Alcea setosa, Coridothymus capitatus and Saturqa thymbra. For C. albicans, the most active plants include Coridothymus capitatus, Scztureja thymbra, and Quercus calliprinos. For dermatophytes, the most active plants include the ethanolic extracts of Coridothymus capitatus, Micromeria nervosa, and Satureja thymbra, and the aqueous extracts of Anthemis tunictoria and Verbascum sinuatum. For phytopathogenic Pythium sp., the most active plants the ethanolic extracts of Mcromeria nervosa, Pinus halepensis and Satureja thymbra and the aqueous extracts of Rubia tenugfolia, Anthemis tunictoria and Coridothymus capitatus. For phytopathogenic Phytophthora citrophthora the most active plants include the ethanolic extracts of Pinus halepensis and Satureja thymbra. For phytopathogenic F usarium tricinictum, the most active plants include the ethanolic extracts of Salviafruticoso and Satureja ihymbra and the aqueous extracts of Anthemis tunictoria and Juglans regia. Ethanolic extracts were more active than aqueous extracts for antimicrobial activity. Test bacterial strains differed significantly in relation to their susceptibility to different plant extracts used. The most susceptible test strain was S. aureus (gram positive bacteria), whereas the least susceptible strain was K. pneumonia (grana negative bacteria). For rnycelial fungi, the most susceptible phytopathogenic fungi was P. aphanidermatum, whereas the most susceptible dermatophyte was M gypseum to both aqueous and ethanolic extracts.
- ItemAntimicrobial Activity of Palestinian Medicinal Plants Against Propionibacterium Acnes, A Causative Agent of Acne(2002) Anhar Ahmad Mohammed Al-Assali; Prof. Mohammed S. Ali-ShtayehEthanolic extracts of fifty four plant species used in folk medicine in Palestine for treatment of several infections and diseases were investigated for their antimicrobial activities against 10 strains of Propionibacterium acnes, and five strains of aerobic bacteria, Echerichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonic', Protects vulgaris, Pseuclomonas eruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureate. Two susceptibility tests were used in this work: the disk diffusion method for measuring the antimicrobial activity, and broth method for the determination of MIC, and MBC for the active plant extracts. The results demonstrated that the studied plants differ significantly in their activity against the studied microorganisms. The IX most active plants against bacterial strains were Rhus coriaria, Ricinus communes, and Sarcopoterium spinosuin. Test microorganisms differed significantly in relation to their susceptibility to different plant extracts used. The most susceptible test microorganism was Propionibacterium acnes (anaerobic bacteria), whereas the least susceptible microorganism was Klebsiella pneumonia. Generally, anaerobic bacteria were more susceptible to plant extract than aerobic bacteria. This was attributed to differences in modes of actions of plant extracts against both groups.
- ItemAntioxidant and anticholinesterase potentials of essential oils of selected aromatic plants under secondary treated effluent irrigation(An-Najah National University, 2018-08-16)Background: The shortage of water throughout the world dictates application of marginal water for irrigation. Secondary treated municipal effluent (TE) is a common alternative water source for irrigation in arid and semiarid areas. Aromatic herbs are cultivated as industrial crops for herb essential oil (EO) production. The EOs can play a role as natural antioxidants and enzyme inhibitors targeting human diseases, e.g., Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Such agents can prevent oxidative deterioration of foods, minimize oxidative injury of living cells, treat AD and enhance memory. Replacement of potable water (PW) with (TE) for irrigation of aromatic plants could encourage the expansion of large-scale agro-industrial systems for aromatic crops, and EOs in Palestine. This study was aimed at (1) evaluating the applicability of TE for agricultural crops, (2) assessing the effects of continuous use of treated water on soil and crops, and analyzing the antioxidant and anticholinesterase activities of these plants and their essential oils under irrigation with TE. Materials and Methods: To compare responses of selected aromatic plants to irrigation with PW and TE an experimental field has been established, each treatment consisted of 4 replicated plots. The plants were exposed to the water treatments for two consecutive seasons. EO from fresh plant areal parts of both treatments was obtained during the two seasons (summer and fall 2016) by hydrodistillation. The extracted EOs and methanolic leaf extracts were tested for their antioxidant activity using DPPH scavenging of free radicals and reductive potential (RP), and for acetyl and butyryl cholinesterase inhibitory activity (AChEI and BuChEI) using the NA-FB method. Results: Regardless of the differences in the quality of water, the TE did not affect fresh and dry biomass production, spices output and yield of EO quantity in the crops except for Salvia fruticosa which was statistically significant and increased for all previous yield parameters. Also, water quality did not affect the cholinesterase inhibitory activity of the plants (EOs or extracts). Mentha spicata plant extract showed the highest AChE and BuChE inhibitory activities with selectivity index (SI) of 2.93 and 3.85 in PW and STE, respectively. Whereas it’s EO showed the lowest inhibitory activity against both enzymes. Overall, the tested methanolic extracts were found to be more selective inhibitors of AChE than BuChE, while their EOs were more selective inhibitor on BuChE. The antioxidant activity of the extracts also was not affected by effluent- irrigation, M. spicata, and R. officinalis exhibited the best RP and DPPH-scavenger, whereas the only EOs from O. syriacum and R. officinalis exhibited strong to weak activity as antioxidants. Conclusion: The data demonstrate that TE can be effectively utilized for irrigation of industrial crops for EO, natural antioxidants, and anticholinestrase agents production because the yield and bioactivity were not affected.
- ItemAntioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Mandragora autumnalis Bertol extracts(2013) Noor Bashar Ehsan Jodallah; Prof. Dr. Mohammed S. Ali-ShtayehBackground: Mandragora was one of the most important medicinal plants and a herb of great cultural value. The plant is still widely used in Traditional Arabic Palestinian Herbal Medicine, TAPHM, for the treatment of many and varied ailments, including pain, insomnia, eye diseases, inflammation, and ulcers. Objectives : Evaluate the antioxidant activity of different parts of Mandragora autumnalis using DPPH, β –carotene linoleic acid assays, and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity assays . Evaluate the antimicrobial activity of all parts of M.autumnalis, using a modified poisoned food technique for dermatophytes and disc diffusion method for bacterial strains. Methods: The antioxidant activity of M. autumnalis was determined using different methods, including: the DPPH Assay, β-Carotene-Linoleic acid assay, and Hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity, while the antimicrobial activity was determined by using the disc diffusion and modified poisoned food techniques. The GC-MS spectrophotometer was used for the identification of active constituents from all parts of mandragora. Results: From our results it was shown that roots and leaves of mandragora have antioxidant activity using the DPPH Assay, While non of the extracts have shown antioxidant activity using the β-Carotene-Linoleic acid assay, while all parts of mandragora have antioxidant activity using the Hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity. The Antimicrobial activity of different plant parts were investigated in this study. From our study, it was shown that only the ethanolic extracts of mandragora roots have antibacterial activity against the 6 bacterial strains. On the other hand, non of the extracts have shown antifungal activity. Studying the chemical composition of the components of the plant using GC-MS test results have shown that different plant parts contains about 219 chemicals. Comparison between the chemical content of the various parts of the plant, it was found that coumarins material to be present in all parts of this plant, while anthraquinones and tannins were found in all plant parts with the exception of roots, and that glycosides was found only in ripe fruits.
- ItemApplication of Antibiogram, Ribosome Spacer PCR (RS-PCR), and Arbitrarily Primed PCR (AP-PCR) for Typing of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA)(2001) Ahmad Mahmoud Hasan Saleh; Dr. Kamel Adwan; Dr. Nael Abu-Hasan; Dr. Tamer EssawiNosocomial infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aurous (MRSA) represent an increasing problem in hospitals worldwide. Quick and reliable typing methods are required to obtain information about the relatedness of MRSA isolates and to allow faster implementation of appropriate infection control measures. The current study describes the distribution of forty four MRSA isolates collected between February and May 1998 from 3 hospitals in Palestine, and the ability of antibiogram and two different genotyping techniques - Ribosome Spacer PCR (RS-PCR) and Arbitrarily Primed PCR (AP-PCR), to detect the relatedness among the MRSA isolates. The ability of these techniques to detect different types among the MRSA isolates was found to be as follows; seventeen antibiogram types were noted by using 15 different antimicrobial agents, designated 1 through 17. MRSA isolates were resistant to the majority of antimicrobial agents tested; oxacillin (100%), ampicillin (100%), clindamycin (95.5%), erythromycin (86.4%), tetracytlin (72.7%), and trimethoprime (61.4%). However, all isolates were susceptible to both vancomycin and refampicin. Around 78% of the isolates were found to be resistant to more than 3 different antimicrobial agents. RS-PCR generated eleven different genotypes among the 40 examined isolates and 4 of the isolates were non-typeable, designated I through XI; each spacer pattern was represented by 1-6 fragments ranging from 300-800bp. AP-PCR identified fifteen different genotypes among the 38 MRSA examined and 6 isolates were non type able using the BG2 arbitrarily primer (GGT TGG GTG AGA ATT GCA CG; 5' to 3'), designated A through 0; each BG2 pattern was represented by 1-7 fragments ranging from 300-800 bp. XI AP-PCR using P7 arbitrarily primer (GTG GAT GCG A; 5' to 3') revealed fourteen distinct genotypes among the 42 MRSA isolates and two isolates were non-type able, designated a through n. The revealed fragments size (1-11) ranged from 300-900 bp. In our study, genotyping was more powerful tool than antibiogram in differentiating between unrelated isolates of MRSA, and strongly indicates that the source of MRSA was the environment in both the neonatal unit (NU) and intensive care unit (ICU), since most of the environmental and colonized MRSA isolates of both units revealed identical genetic patterns. Combination of RS-PCR and AP-PCR (BG2 and P7 primers) resulted in five major clones, while six clones were shown among MRSA isolates using BG2 and P7 arbitrarily primers. Analysis of isolates distribution in the most prevalent clones indicated that the environment of the NU and ICU was the predicted source of MRSA because most of isolates from the environment and colonized patients in both units showed the same clone. Thus, our results confirm the usefulness of combined usage of both genotypic methods (RS-PCR and AP-PCR) and AP-PCR with different arbitrarily primers for epidemiological studies of MRSA.
- ItemAssessment of biodiversity among Palestinian landraces of Cucumis melo L. groups based on morphological descriptors and molecular markers (RAPD and ISSR)(2014) Omar Bassam Yousef Mallah; Dr. Sami Yaish; Dr. Munqez ShtayaBackground: Economically; melons (snake cucumber and cantaloupes) are important crops cultivated in Palestine. Traditional melons are rain-fed crops. Although melons are differ in morphological traits such as shape, fruit color, taste, and flavor, low genetic variations between these crops is present. Objectives: The aims of this study are to study the genetic variations between and within melon groups in Palestine using genetic markers (RAPD & ISSR), and to determine the relationships between molecular and morphological characterization, also to evaluate the efficiency of RAPD and ISSR genetic markers in discriminating between and within landraces of melon groups. Methods: Biodiversity among 44 Palestinian landraces of melon was studied using RAPD and ISSR genetic primers, and morphological descriptors. Similarity matrixes and dendrograms were generated using SPSS (version 16) software. Resolving Power (Rp) was calculated for each primer. Results: Morphological descriptors separated melons into two ‘groups’, Fakus (flexuosus) with two phenotypic subgroups (white and green), and cantalupensis. From 14 RAPD primers used 132 bands were amplified, 75 bands were polymorphic (57%) and 57 were monomorphic (43%). Cluster analysis by RAPD results divided Palestinian melons into two clusters: Cluster I (contain all flexuosus accessions) and cluster II (contain all cantalupensis accessions). The highest similarity between flexuosus and cantalupensis accessions by RAPD primers was 0.86. Nine ISSR primers produced 71 bands; all bands were monomorphic, so that there are no genetic variations revealed between melon accessions by ISSR primers. This indicated the highly genetic similarity between these groups. Conclusions: RAPD primers proved efficient in discriminating between Palestinian melon groups, and gave an indications or marks about genetic variations within Flexuosus accessions. No genetic variations between Palestinian melon groups were observed when ISSR primers were used. Results strongly indicated the importance of study the origin and diversity of Palestinian landraces of melons.
- ItemAssessment of Plum Pox Virus (PPV) and Apple Chlorotic Leaf Spot Virus (ACLSV) Infections on Stone Fruits in Palestine/West Bank(جامعة النجاح الوطنية, 2020-02-16) فيصل نزال, رشافلسطين شأنها شأن معظم الدول النامية تعتمد في اقتصادها على المحاصيل الزراعية بشكل كبير. بعض المحاصيل الزراعية وخصوصاً اللوزيات تصاب سنوياً بالعديد من الأمراض الفيروسية والبكتيرية والطفيليات. هذه الدراسة تهدف تقييم الإصابة بفايروس جدري البرقوق وفايروس البقع الورقيّة الشاحبة لأشجار اللوزيات في مناطق الضفة الغربية في فلسطين. تمّ جمع ٥٠٠ عيّنة من مدن فلسطينية مختلفة في الضفة الغربية وتم فحص العيّنات للكشف عن وجود هذين الفايروسين من خلال الفحص السيرولوجي المصلي. أظهر هذا البحث أنّ نسبة انتشار فايروس البقع الورقية الشاحبة ١.٣٣٪ في العيّنات التي تم فحصها من جنين في المركز الوطني الفلسطيني للبحوث الزراعية. جميع العيّنات كانت سليمة ولا تحمل فايروس جدري البرقوق الذي لم يسبق أن تم تأكيد وجوده في فلسطين على الرغم من انتشاره الواسع في العديد من الدول في أوروبا وبقية العالم ونظراً لأهمية هذا الفايروس الاقتصادية وقدرته على إحداث أضرار جسيمة وبأنه من الممكن أن ينتقل وينتشر عن طريق ناقل خاص به يجب على الباحثين أن يستمروا في فحص اللوزيات بشكل دوري للتأكد من عدم دخوله إلى البلاد وحماية المحاصيل منه.
- ItemAssociation between Genetic Thrombophilia Mutations and Homocysteine Level on In Vitro Fertilization Outcomes Effects on Positive Pregnancy Results(An-Najah National University, 2019-01-27) Zaid, Walaa Yasir MahmoudFertility is the normal capacity to produce offspring from two male and female cells. However, the lake of the ability to reproduce takes a place in the fertility problems, which needs an assisted reproductive technique called in vitro fertilization. That involves the injection of the male sperm in the female oocyte in embryological laboratory after treatment, to increase the chance of pregnancy. Many factors arises the need to these techniques, whether it was male causes; such as the number, motility, shape of sperm cells or a female causes; as low of fertility because of, endometriosis, ovulation disorders, mutated genes which leads to IVF failure. Thrombophilia term means the accumulation of abnormal blood clots in the blood vessels, this clots may pass through the blood stream and cause (venous thromboembolism), or may reach the lungs causing (pulmonary embolism) according to inherited or acquired causes. Homocysteine is an amino acid produced by the body, it is safe if founded in the normal range, but the elevated level meaning a many problems in the body included the narrowing of heart vessels. In this study blood samples collected from 20 women failed in IVF treatment and tested for the presence of the four mutations, then DNA extracted and certain regions of the genes were amplified using ARMS-PCR technique. The results shows that the patients with these mutations (FVL, FII, MTHFR 677, and MTHFR 1298), have also an increase in the homocysteine level because of the decrease in the enzyme, which breaks down the Hcy so that will arise the pregnancy complications. Such patients need a folate and many B vitamins to pass their genetic problems. The aim of this study is to develop a rapid and cost effective method to screen inherited thrombophilia mutations in Factor V Leiden G1691A/R506Q (FVL), prothrombin G20210A (FII) and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T/ C1298A. to check the prevalence screening of genetic thrombophilia mutations among a selected samples of Palestinian women’s in IVF cycle. Then, to correlate the level of homocysteine in patients with or without the inherited thrombophilia mutations and the effect on IVF success (positive pregnancy after treatment).
- ItemBiochemical and Molecular Evaluation of the Plant Ecballium elaterium Extract Effects on Escherichia coli(Wafa Jarrah Abdat, 2018-05-02) Abdat, WafaEcballium elaterium plant is traditionally used in several countries around the world for the treatment of various illnesses including jaundice and rhinosinusitis. The present study was conducted to investigate the antimicrobial activity of fruit and leaf ethanolic extracts of E. elateruim on clinical and reference strains of E. coli. Microbroth dilution method indicated that ethanolic leaf and fruit extracts of E. elaterium exhibited the same degree of antimicrobial activity against both tested E. coli strains with an MIC value of 25mg/ml. The effect of E. elaterium ethanolic extracts on these strains was also examined at the molecular level using ERIC-PCR. SDS-PAGE technique was also carried out to examine gene expression of total cellular proteins under the same conditions. Results of ERIC-PCR and SDS-PAGE showed alterations in DNA and protein profiles of both tested E. coli strains treated with fruit and leaf extracts compared with untreated control. The alterations ranged between decreased or increased intensity of some bands, absence or appearance of new amplified fragments. Among the changes that occurred in ERIC-PCR profile, an amplified fragment with amplicon size 450-bp disappeared after 6 and 24h from reference strain treated with 6 mg/ml fruit extract compared with untreated control. The band which had an amplicon size of about 550-bp was faint after 2h in clinical strain treated with 25 mg/ml ethanolic leaf extract in comparison with untreated control. In addition, after 6h treatment of reference E. coli with 25 mg/ml leaf extract appearance of extra new bands at Rf values of approximately 0.45 and 0.47 was recorded compared with untreated control in SDS-PAGE profile. SDS-PAGE profile also revealed the increase in the intensity of bands at approximate Rf values of 0.15 and 0.7 compared after 6 h treatment of clinical E. coli with 10 and 6 mg/ml fruit extract with untreated control. Moreover, increased concentrations of E. elaterium extracts and increased time intervals seems to yield a more profound increase in total protein concentrations in both tested E. coli strains. Such findings strongly indicate the genotoxic effects of E. elaterium extracts on both E. coli strains. The findings draw attention to the unsafe improper use of E. elaterium extracts in folkloric medicine and also point out the capability of using E. elaterium to treat E. coli infections. More studies are required to find out the exact mechanisms responsible for the observed genotoxicity.
- ItemCandidiasis in Nablus City: Epidemiological Study(2004) Tamara Yasir Zaki Aslan; Prof. Mohammad S. Ali-ShtayehThe current study was aimed at carrying out a comprehensive population- based epidemiological study of candidiasis among women and school children in the city of Nablus. The study investigated the susceptibility of recovered yeast isolates to selected drugs and certain plant extracts and the cytotoxic effects of certain plant extracts on selected human cell lines. The study was conducted during the period of January- May 2002.It involved 119 women, attending a gynecologist private clinic, and 463 school children aged 15-18 years (251 males and 212 females).Of the 119 women complaining from vaginal discharge and suspected for yeast infection, 63 (52.9%) were yeast positive.Associated symptoms included itching (22.5%), dysparenia (8.9%), burning and dysurea (8.9%), urinary tract infection (7.9%), bad odor (7.9%) and other symptoms (17.5%).The highest rate of infection was observed among women aged (21-30); women residents in villages (61.9%) and in pregnant women (58.1%). The infection rates of 36.3% and 19.8% were found among male and female school children, respectively. The most prevalent symptom among both males and females was interdigital (92.3% and 57.1%), respectively.Male refugee camp inhabitants showed the highest infection rates (85%), compared to city (66.2%) and village (40.0%) residents. Whereas female population showed the highest rate of infection among village residents (100%) compared to city (68.9%) and refugee camp (38.1%) inhabitants.Other mycotic infections showed the highest percentage of associated disorders (19.8%) among males, whereas eczema was the predominant associated disorder among females (9.5%).Other practices such as use of common facilities did not seem to indicate an association between such practice and infection in both males and females, while contact with domestic animals showed a significant association with infection in both males (58.2%) and females (80.9%).Feet drying practice showed a convenient positive association with infection especially among females who reported not to dry their feet (64.3%), whereas it was contradictory in males With respect to anticandidal activity of plant extracts, all tested plants showed pronounced activity to various degrees. Allium sativum (Garlic) showed the highest effect (100%) followed by Pistacia lentiscus (3.8%), Salvia dominica (2.25%) and Petrosilinum sativum (2.25%) compared to reference antibiotics (Nystatin and Econazole). Studies on the cytotoxic effects of plant extracts (Anagalis arvensis, Anthemis tictoria L. and Parieteria diffusa) against human cell lines showed that all extracts were cytotoxic at ≥ 500 μg against HT29 human cell line, more pronounced effects were observed for Parieteria diffusa and Anagalis arvensis, respectively. Anthemis tinctoria L. showed the most pronounced effect against human cell line L929, however, extracts of Anagalis arvensis and Parieteria diffusa showed effects at ≥ 500 μg.All three extracts showed cytotoxic effects at ≥ 5000 μg against cell line Hep G2, however, Anagalis arvensis showed the same effect at ≥ 500 μg.Anthemis tinctoria L. showed a pronounced cytotoxic effect at ≥ 5000 μg against human pulp fibroblasts, however, Anagalis arvensis and Parieteria diffusa showed reduced effects using the same concentration compared to their effects at 500 μg.
- ItemComparison of the Distribution of Type III Exotoxin-Encoding Genes and Antibiotic Resistance Between Environmental and Clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates in Northern West Bank-Palestine(An-Najah National University, 2018-10-17) بشارات, نعمةPseudomonas aeruginosa isolate is capable of producing certain virulence factors, expression of these virulence factors in a specific infection plays an essential role in the ability of this pathogen to establish and maintain infection. A total of 57 P. aeruginosa isolates were collected from different sources of clinical (n=47) and environmental samples (n=10) during 2018. These samples were collected from different health care centers, North West Bank-Palestine. This study aimed to compare the distribution of the type III exotoxin-encoding genes and antibiotic resistance between P. aeruginosa strains that were isolated from both sources, and to determine the presence of a correlation between them in both clinical and environmental isolates collected from a limited geographical area, in parallel, over a limited period of time. In addition, clone identity among the clinical and environmental strains was determined and compared using molecular typing technique. Results of this study showed that isolates recovered from clinical and environmental sources showed high resistant to Tetracycline and Kanamycin. Results of the current research using multiplex PCR technique showed that all clinical and environmental P. aeruginosa isolates carried type III secretion toxins-encoding genes. The exoT gene was detected among all clinical and environmental isolates. The occurrence of exoY and exoS genes in P. aeruginosa isolates from both sources was 80.7% and 36.8%, respectively. Combination of the toxin genes was noted in 87% of clinical and 70% of environmental isolates. The most common combination was exoT and Y, the prevalence was 47% and 50% for clinical and environmental isolates, respectively. The exoU gene was not detected in isolates from both sources. Statistical analysis using Pearson Chi-Square test showed that there is no significant difference between the distribution type III secretion toxins-encoding genes and source of isolate (clinical or enivironmental). In addition, statistical analysis indicated that there was not a significant association between P. aeruginosa isolates type III exotoxin-encoding genes and resistant to some antibiotics such as Ciprofloxacin, Norfloxacin, Levofloxacin, Aztreonam, Tetracycline and Kanamycin. The profile of RAPD-PCR typing of 44 P. aeruginosa isolates (9 environmental recovered from different hospital sinks and 35 clinical isolates recovered from different hospitals were clustered into 3 clusters at 96% similarity level. Cluster-1 and cluster-2 had strains recovered from different hospitals and belonged to both environmental and clinical sources. Cluster-3 had identical RAPD-PCR profile strains, recovered from clinical sources only from different hospitals. In addition, statistical analysis showed that there was no significant difference between strains isolated from both environmental and clinical sources according to antibiotic resistance and occurrence of type III secretion toxins-encoding genes. In conclusion, according to RAPD-PCR typing there is a high similarity between environmental and clinical P. aeruginosa isolates. In addition, isolates from both sources had no significant differences in antibiotic resistance and distribution of type III secretion toxins-encoding genes. This may indicate that isolates from both sources have ability to cause clinical infection.
- ItemCongenital Hypothyroidism Among Palestinian Children of The West Bank(2001) Issa Ibrahim Ishtieh; Dr. Nael Abu-Hasan; Dr. Kamel AdwanNeonaial initiated in the west bank in 1990 the aim of this study was to establish a base line data regarding CH Incidence and to determine possible risk factors This study show that the screening program system faced many inherited obstacles regarding sampling. as Well as handlings of specimens. and also in the follow up of results and communicating results to concerned people. From October 1998 to May 2000 there were 85.149 live births. Around (69.9:57) neonates were screened using a primary measurement of TSH in capillary blood, using dried blood spots obtained by a heel prick. All samples were assayed by immunoassay method. 'thirty-two cases were diagnosed as suspected permanent CI I ( incidence, I :2186.15). This incidence is notably higher that reported in most other countries. The etiology of this high incidence is unknown, however, it seems to be of a multifactorial .form. Although our result point that parental consanguinity may play a significant part on the frequency of CH in our population, environmental factors cannot be excluded. Recall rate was found to be (0.78%). The incidence of transitory hypothyroidism remarkably high (1: 418.9). About 14.96 % of infants screened were with raised TSH level of 5 RIU/ml. Thus, neonatal screening seems to be highly affected by iodine deficiency' leading to increased recall rates, transient and permanent cases of CH. Although our screening program have benefited patients and families to some extent, it seems that it does not reached it's main objectives which are, early detection and therapy. Screening and confirmatory thyroid function results revealed moderate to Severe abnormalities, with information delay in screening screening (89 days), diagnosis (143 days) and treatment(152 days) Observations on severity of disease symptoms, growth and development problems were significantly correlated with delay in therapy. this fact supports the view that a comprehensive program has to be initiated. Thus, it seems reasonable to strive for early detection and management [Or effective prognosis. lo achieve this goal, cooperation between all primary health care providers, to the infant from conception to birth, is definitely needed.
- ItemDetection and Identification of Viral and Viral-Like Diseases Infecting Citrus in the North of West Bank-Palestine(An-Najah National University, 2017-01-17) Shalabi, Nuha Jaser Hosni; Alkowni, RaedCitrus is considered as one of the most fruit trees that are grown in West Bank, it is concentrated in the semi-coastal area specially Tulkarm and Qalqilyah and it is well grown in Nablus and Jenin areas. Due to water scarcity, citrus is counting for only 2.4% of the total fruit tree area, with production of 60,000 tons annually. Although citrus has small area but with larger economic importance.Citrus productivity is associated with many biotic stresses of which some fungi, bacteria, viruses and viriods, which cause several kinds of disease some of these diseases had high economical effect on citrus production.One of these diseases caused by a virus called Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), the virus that caused an epidemic effect on citrus trees leading to their decline. Usually found on those were grafted on sour orange and causes significant reduction of the total yield of the trees. In this study, the prevalence of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) among growing fields in northern of West Bank was assessed. A total number of 896 plant samples were collected from the four main districts. Serological assays using Double Antibody Sandwich- ELISA (DAS-ELISA) to detect Citrus tristesa virus (CTV) and Citrus psorosis virus(CPsV) on 219 different citrus samlpes, while Direct Tissue Blot Immunoassay (DTBIA) to detect CTV only were applied on 677 of citrus samples. Besides that abiological assays were applied on10 selected samples. CTV was detected in all districts with only 98 out of 869 samples, revealing an incidence of 10.9%. Surprisingly, the results showed that grapefruits and acid less Orange (Faransawi) were CTV free; while, the highest infection was recorded on Pomuelo ,Clementine and Orange cultivar(Valencia). The incidence of infection in each district was varied, Qalqilyah was showed the highest incidence of infectionwith a 23.5%, Nablus was came in the second rank of incidence of infection with a 12%, while Tulkarm was recorded a low incidence of infection with just 6%, the results also recorded a 4% of infection in nurseries, The differences between the four districts, reflecting the type of growing citrus varieties and farming activities. The bioassay (indexing) which was carried at the NARC facilities, were revealed of detection CTV and viriods symptoms by observing Vein corking yellowing and clear veining of the leaves. This study revealed that CTV is still a threat to citrus culture in Palestine. More care should be paid on dissemination and distribution of healthy propagating materials to farmers. The “Direct Tissue Blot Immunoassay” were applied for the first time here in Palestine to monitor the incidence of CTV, and proved its efficiency. Compared with classical DAS-ELISA, the biotechnique DTBIA had proved its simplicity and reliability in mass diagnosis, and thus is highly recommended for nursery monitoring of the virus by the corresponding authorities.
- ItemDetection of Cauliflower Mosaic Virus on Brassica Plant Family in West Bank-Palestine(جامعة النجاح الوطنية, 2021-11-11) ايمن محمد ابو عمر, رحيقتعتبر نباتات الزهره والملفوف والبروكلي واللفت من اشهر المحاصيل في فلسطين. وهذه المحاصيل تصاب بعدد كبير من الفيروسات الممرضه من اشهرها فيروس الفسيفسائي(CaMV) الذي يصيب عائله نبات البراسيكا ويدمر محاصيل شاسعه من هذه النباتات وحدوث اضرار كبيره وخسائر اقتصاديه تقع على عاتق المزارع تهدف هذه الدراسة الى الكشف عن وجود هذا الفيروس ومدى انتشاره في مناطق مختلفه من اراضي الضفه الغربيه_فلسطين لاول مره تم جمع ما يقارب 240 عينه من مناطق فلسطينيه مختلفه وذلك خلال الموسم الزراعي 2020/2021. من خلال المسوح الميدانيه التي يتم من خلالها جمع العينات المتوقع انها تحمل هذا الفيروس وذلك بالاعتماد على الاعراض المعروفه عن الفيروس والتي يسببها. من اشهر تلك الاعراض التي يسببها الفيروس هي اعراض اصفرار وتقزم والتبرقش في النبات المصاب، حيث لوحظ وجود اعراض على عده محاصيل في حقول جنين وطوباس وطولكرم ونابلس. بواسطه تفاعل البوليميريز المتسلسل (PCR) الذي تم اجراؤه في مختبرات جامعه النجاح اثبت وجود هذا الفيروس في فلسطين، والتي اظهرت ان نسبه انتشار الفيروس تصل ال 12.5%، حيث ان هذه النسبه تنذر بوجود خطر وذلك لان الفيروس يستطيع التنقل والانتشار على نطاق واسع من خلال الناقل الخاص به والذي يسمى (Myzus persicae). يعتبر هذا البحث اول دراسهلهذا الفيروس في فلسطين.
- ItemDevelopment of Three-Dimensional Neuronal Model Systems for Mechanical Stress Application(جامعة النجاح الوطنية, 2021-10-25) عارضة, محمودمعظم العمليات البيولوجية (الحيوية) المعروفة في زراعه الخلايا تم اكتشافها في حاضنات ثنائيه الابعاد. (2D) تزايد الحاجة إلى نموذج في المختبر يحاكي البيئة الفسيولوجية للدماغ لفهم الأمراض التنكسية العصبية. ان دماغ الإنسان في حالة حركة مستمرة في التمدد و التقلص للخلايا العصبية ويعود ذلك الى نبضات القلب الطبيعية والمتكررة والدورة الدموية في جسم الانسان. إن هذه الحركة المنتظمة المستمرة للدماغ تعمل على تغيير حجم الخلايا العصبية بالإضافة الى تمددها وتقلصها. لمحاكاة هذا التغيير في حجم الدماغ ، تم زراعة الخلايا العصبية في المختبر على سقالات مختلفة وتمتد على فالب سيليكون مرن مصنوع من بولي دايميثيل سيلوكسان (PDMS) Polydimethylsiloxae بسعات و ترددات مختلفة. تم تطبيق تجارب التمدد السابقة على الخلايا العصبية القشرية المزروعة في حاضنات ثنائية الابعاد (2D) لاختبار سلوك الخلايا العصبية والهيكل الخلوي بسبب الإجهاد الميكانيكي المطبق عليها بواسطة جهاز شد. كانت نتائج الحاضنات ثنائية الأبعاد جذابة للمضي قدمًا خطوة أخرى للاقتراب من حركة الدماغ الحقيقية من خلال إنشاء وتطوير نظام حاضنات الخلايا ثلاثي الأبعاد .(3D) تم محاكاة حركة الدماغ بواسطة جهاز تمدد وتم تطبيق إجهاد ميكانيكي على الخلايا العصبية القشرية. لبناء وإنشاء تجربة تمتد ثلاثية الأبعاد ، كانت هناك حاجة إلى المطاط الصناعي القابل للمط 50 كيلو باسكال PDMS. تم تثبيت المطاط المرن في حامل محدد وخاص ، وزُرعت الخلايا العصبية لجنين الفأر المعزول في سقالة ثلاثية الأبعاد في حاضنه PDMS. أخيرًا ، تم تثبيت الحاضنة ثلاثية الأبعاد الكاملة بجهاز الشد. اثناء عملية التطوير ؛ من حاضنة التمدد ثلاثية الأبعاد ، تمت دراسة العديد من سقالات الزراعة: تم استخدام ثلاثة أنواع مختلفة من الهلام واختبارها كسقالة للبحث. كانت مادة Matrigel المُصنّعة بشكل طبيعي والمعزولة من ورم الفئران EngelbrethHolm-Swarm (EHS) السقالة الأولى التي تم استخدامها في بحثنا ، بالإضافة إلى سقالتين هلاميتين اصطناعية. أظهرت تجربة Matrigel نمو الخلايا العصبية في الطريقتين المستخدمتين، لكنها لم تكن قابلة للتمدد و الشد. تم استخدام هيدروجيل (VitroGel 3D-RGD) مع مجموعة وظيفية معدلة، وأخيراً مادة هلامية مصنوعه من الفيبرين PVP co-GMA. في هذه الدراسة ، تمت دراسة واختبار ثلاث سقالات مختلفة (Matrigel و VitroGel و PVP co-GMA) ، بالإضافة إلى أنه تم تعديل حاضنة التمدد ICS-7 PDMS وإعادة بنائها لتناسب تجربة التمدد ثلاثية الأبعاد. أخيرًا ، تم تطوير طريقة شد الخلايا العصبية ثلاثية الأبعاد مع سقالة صناعية قابلة للمط (PVP co-GMA) وتحليلها باستخدام برامج ومعدات خاصة في المختبر
- ItemDistribution, Occurrence and Characterization of Entomopathogenic Fungi in Agricultural Soil in The Palestinian Area(2000) Abdel-Basit Basim Moh'd Mara'i; Prof. Mohammed S. Ali-ShtayehThe occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi was investigated in 100 irrigated vegetable fields and 40 citrus orchards soils in four geographical locations in the West Bank, using the Galleria bait method (GBM). Entomopathogenic fungi were found to occur in 33.57 % (47 of 140) of the soil samples studied, with positive samples yielding 70 fungal isolates, belonging to 20 species in 13 genera. Conidiobolus coronatus was the most frequent and abundant entomopathogenic species recovered comprising 31.43 % of the total isolates. Soil pH, soil moisture content and the geographical location had minor or no effect on the isolation of entomopathogenic fungi in the studied fields. On the other hand, organic matter content of soil, and vegetation type were found to significantly (P<0.05) affect the isolation of entomopathogenic fungi from soil, with orchard fields yielding larger numbers of isolates than in the vegetable fields. Using Koch's postulates the pathogenicity of fungal isolates recovered to Galleria larvae was found to range from 16% to 100% (mortality rate). Isolates of C. coronatus, proved to be the most pathogenic isolates recovered (87-100% mortality in about 5-8 days after infection). The effect of media and temperature on mycelial growth rate, conidial production and conidial germination of six entomopathogenic fungal species (one isolate/species) was studied (C. coronatus, Entomophaga grylli, Erynia castrans, Hirsutella jonesii, Paecilomyces farinosus and Sporodinielle umbellata). Mycelial growth was significantly affected by media and isolates with maximum growth rate obtained with CMA and PDA. Optimum temperature for radial mycelial growth, spore production and spore germination ranged from 20-30°C. Mycelial growth rate, spore production and spore germination were significantly affected by temperature and isolate.
- ItemThe Effect of Altitude on Blood Biochemistry of Soccer Players in West Bank(2001) Faiha Othman Albahsh; Dr. Suleiman Al-Khalil; Dr. Abdel Naser QadumiThe current study aimed at evaluating the effect of altitude variation On blood biochemistry of soccer players. To achieve this aim, the study was conducted on a sample of 40 players belonging to three different teams in different geographical areas. These teams were; AL-Al ILI (Qalqelia) at sea level , Al-Ithad (Nablus) above sea level, and Al-hilal (Jerico) below sea level . Measurements of Heamoglobin, Glucose, Total Iron Binding capacity, Cholesterol, Lactate dehydrogenase , Triglyceride , Hematocrete and Insulin prior and post exercise were conducted. Result for the diffirences on the pre exercise blood biochemistry measures according to area variable show that computed (F) values on the pre exercise of (TIBC,and Cholesterol) are respectively (0.47 and 1.54),such two values are lower than critical (F) value (3.26) this mean that there are no significant differences at(α =0.05)on these two variables due to the area variable. While computed (F) values for (Hb,Glu. LDI, Trig. Insulin and Hematocrate)are respectively (6.66, 9.11,7.52, 3.68, 14.17, and 4.15 )all of these values are greater than critical (F) value (3.20),this means that there are significant differences at (α =0.05) on these variables due to the area variable. While the result for post exercise showed that computed (F) value for (Gin, TIBC, LDH, and Hematocrate)variables are respectively (1.22, 0.83, 0.97,and 2.19) all of these values are lower than critical (F) value (3.26),this means that there are no significant- differences at (α =0.05) on these variables due to the area variable. While computed (F) values for (I-lb,Cholesterol, Trig. and Insulin)are respectively ( 4.12, 6.004, 3.81, and 3.98) all of these values are greater than critical (F) value. This means that there are significant differences at (α =0.005) on these variables due to area variable.
- ItemThe Effect of Basic Military Training Course on Selected Physical Fitness and Physiological Measures(2001) Hatem Suleiman Sa'id Besharat; Dr. Suleiman Al-Khalil; Dr. Abdel Naser QadumiThis study sought to determine the effect of Basic Military Training Courses (BMTC) on some physiological and physical fitness measures. Endurance (1.5mile run), speed (30meter sprint) flexibility (sit and reach), agility (shuttle run), upper body strength (push up), and leg power (vertical jump) were used as physical fitness indicators. HDL, TC, TG, RBCs, WBCs, RHR, and lib, were used as physiological indicators for the effect of (BMTC) on the subjects participating in the course. Twenty eight healthy subjects participated in the course, they were (27.5 + 4.95) years old, (72.98 rt 7.21)kg mass, (l.74 +0.05) ineter high, and (24.01 ± 2.52) kg/m2 body mass index. The course was held in Jericho in the period between (27th) February and (24th) April 2000. For data analysis, (SPSS) statistical program was used using means, standard deviation and paired- T-test for testing hypotheses. Venous blood samples were taken before and after the course. Enzymatic colorimetric Test with lipid clearing factor was used for determining the concentration of cholesterol and trigleycerid (CI 10D- PAP- method and GPO-PAP method respectively). Cholesterol liquicolor test was used to determine HDL-c concentration. RBCs, WBCs and Hb w ere measured automatically. Significant positive differences at α= 0.05) were seen in all measured physical fitness parameters used in favor of post training vs. pre training. The results for (1.5)mile run, (30)meter sprint, sit and reach, shuttle run, push up, and vertical jump were (9.54 vs. 13.42minutes), (4.80 vs. 5.36 second) 10.27vs 4.56cm), (10.39vs. 1 1 . 1 2 seconds), (48.92 vs 33.17times) and, (44.71 vs 38.64cm) respectively. HDl, LDL and RI IR were positively affected by BMTC, where 111)1. concentration increased significantly after the course (52.14 mg/dl) vs. (44.10mg/d1) before the course. LDL and RI IR were decreased significantly in favor of post training vs. pre training, the results were (69.42 vs. 76.75 ing/d1) and (68.0 vs 76.07 beats/ minuet) respectively. TC was negatively affected by BMTC, it's concentration increased significantly at (α = 0.05) in favor of post training vs. pre training (141.25vs 133.53mg/dl) TG, RBCs, WBCs, were not significantly affected by BMTC.
- ItemEffect of New Copper Complexes on Cancer Cells in Inducing Caspase-Dependent Apoptosis and Binding to DNA(An-Najah National University, 2017-06-12) Shana’a, Jihad Sameeh Shafeeq; Sawaftah, AshrafCancer spread worldwide as one of main reasons for mortality. There are more than 100 types of cancer. There were 14.1 million new cancer cases in 2012. By year 2030 new cases will reach to 21.7 million due to modernized lifestyles (such as smoking, poor diet, physical inactivity, and fewer pregnancies … etc.) that are known to increase cancer risk. Cancer treatment options may include chemotherapy, radiation, and/or surgery or a combination of all. Chemotherapy is one of the major treatment options that are available to face this problem. One of the most noteworthy discoveries in cancer chemotherapy is cisplatin, which is very active against different types of cancer. Cisplatin has a cure rate exceeded 90% in some cancer types. However, the treatment option by using cisplatin is limited by its side effects, also the inherited and acquired resistance limits its usage too. These obstacles have led to the extensive search for other active antitumor metal-based complexes with improved pharmacological properties. This research was aiming to study the anticancer activity of copper complexes that depended on activating apoptosis through caspases pathway. Nine copper-based complexes were prepared and screened in-vitro for cytotoxic activities against three cancer cell lines (Colon cancer: colo205 cell line, Osteosarcoma cell line: Hs 755 and Breast cancer cell line: MC7 cell line) using caspase-3 colorimetric assay and cell viability test (MTT assay). Results showed that complexes 1,3,4,5,6 and complex 8 induced cytotoxic effect on colo205, while complex 2 and 7 have no cytotoxic effect on colon cancer cells. All the complexes that tested didn’t show any sign of activating caspase 3 for Colon cell line or Breast cancer cell line MC7. These complexes exhibited promising anti-proliferative activity against tested cell lines, which indicates that these complexes have anticancer effects.