Clean Energy and Conservation Strategy
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- ItemANALYSIS OF PALESTINE ENERGY POLICY PROGRESS ON ACHIEVING SDG7(جامعة النجاح الوطنية, 2022-01-19) Daoud, SalimCountries worldwide devote a great interest in energy policies due to their significant effect on the international budget and global environmental issues. Most importantly, Energy policies are directly reflected in the population's lifestyles, welfare, and behaviour. This thesis discusses the Palestinian accomplishment of fulfilling the seventh goal of the sustainable development goals (SDG 7). The UN's five targets for (SDG7) have been reviewed and evaluated, along with their associated indicators considering the following: Proportion of population with access to electricity, access to clean fuels for cooking, renewable energy share in the total final energy consumption, community awareness of the necessity of energy-saving devices, and the state's policies towards energy efficiency. According to the findings, Palestine has made significant progress toward achieving the first, third and fourth targets but has fallen short of accomplishing the second and fifth targets. Moreover, the political situation in Palestine is taken into consideration, and thus the resulting challenges posed by the Israeli occupation. Furthermore, the energy situation in terms of production and consumption, renewable energy, and energy policy are all carefully evaluated. To be more specific, further clarifications were provided for the political, economic, and social difficulties that Palestine confronts, such as population growth and its impact on energy consumption.
- ItemComparative Study for Underfloor Heating System using Boiler or Heat Pump(2014) Hussein Ishaq Hussein Awad; Dr. Abdelrahim Abu SafaEnergy savings are an important issue for both economy and environment. Domestic and residential buildings heating systems are known of their high energy consumption and high environmental effects. The main goal of this study is to compare between electrical heat pump and diesel boiler for feeding under floor heating loops. A case study of a typical residential apartment (78.3 m2) is selected to compare its heating energy requirement when using either an electrical heat pump or diesel boiler with under floor heating system at similar comfort quality conditions. The heating load is calculated for the apartment based on the variation of the ambient temperature in winter months –November, December, January and February - during two years (2011 - 2012), through meteorology data obtained from Palestinian Meteorological Department for Hebron City. An empirical coefficient of performance (COP) for the heat pump is used. The used equation takes in consideration both the heated water and ambient temperatures. The obtained monthly heating energy was also calculated using the degree day method (DDH) , moreover the expected seasonal diesel consumption was calculated using DDH method, and found to be similar to that calculated by heating load method. The maximum calculated heating load is 6.11 kW based on the average minimum ambient temperature of 7 oC, and the corresponding COP of the heat pump was 3.13. A simple economical analysis using the present worth value shows the superiority of the heat pump over the diesel boiler. The annual cost of the heat pump is about 2000 NIS while it is about 7000 NIS for the diesel boiler. These calculation was performed based on equal life time for both systems of 15 years. The environmental effects of both systems was compared based on the carbon dioxide emissions, the results show slight deference between both systems. Annually, 31.2 tons of CO2 emissions is expected from the heat pump while 33 tons of CO2 is expected from the diesel boiler, this could be due to the use of coal for electricity generation in the region.
- ItemComputer – Aided Design and Performance Evaluation of PV-Diesel Hybird System(2007) Mo'ien Ali Ahmad Omar; Prof. Dr. Marwan M. Mahmoud; Dr. Imad IbrikThe present work presents a methodology to design and analyze the performance of a PV-Diesel Hybrid Power Systems using computer aided design. Analysis carried out in terms of several designs and different economic parameters based on life cycle cost and cost annuity. It was found that for Palestine the PV-Diesel Hybrid Power Systems are economically more feasible than using diesel or PV- stand alone systems. Different scenarios were tested technically and economically until the most appropriate one was found. A respective computer program, which simulates the operation of hybrid system on an hourly basis, was developed and can be a helpful tool to design a PV– Diesel Hybrid Power Systems appropriate from techno-economical view points for rural areas in Palestine.
- ItemCooling of High Heat Flux Electronic Devices by Two Phase Thermosyphon System(2007) Aysar Mahmoud Masoud Yasin; Dr. Abdelrahim AbusafaTwo phase closed thermosyphon system for cooling high heat flux electronic devices is built in the laboratory and tested under different operating conditions. This Study presents an experimental investigation on the heat transfer coefficient, temperature difference between the evaporator and the refrigerant inside evaporator channels, overall heat transfer coefficient, and overall thermal resistance in two-phase thermosyphon system. Investigations are carried out at different conditions: different system pressures, two different types of refrigerants R134a and R22, two different evaporator designs, natural and forced convection heat transfer mode in the condenser. The heat flux and the amount of refrigerant are the manipulated parameters in the system. It is found that the heat transfer coefficient increases almost linearly with the applied heat to the evaporator, and reduced pressure. It is also highly dependent on the type of refrigerant, because the performance of the refrigerant R134a likely to be better than that of R22. The heat transfer coefficient is also higher at natural convection condensation than forced convection condensation at the same heat load, while the overall heat transfer coefficient in the system for forced convection is higher than for natural convection condensation. The heat transfer coefficient is highly dependent on the design of evaporator, especially on the diameters channels. The natural convection heat transfer coefficient is found to be 27 kW/m².°C and 3.7 kW/m².°C using R134a and R22, respectively at heat load of 115W. The forced convection heat transfer coefficient is found to be 2.4 kW/m².°C and 1.6 kW/m².°C, using R134a and R22, respectively at heat load of 450W. The forced convection overall heat transfer coefficient using R134a is found to be 9.4 kW/m².°C at 415W while it is 1.08 kW/m².°C at natural convection at 155W. The temperature difference [Tevaporator–Tsaturation] depends on both the applied heat flux to the evaporator, systems pressure and type of the refrigerant. The natural convection temperature difference does not exceed 1°C and exceeded 8°C for R134a and R22, respectively at heat load of 100W. The obtained evaporator temperature for R134a is 94°C at 155W and 44°C at 414W using natural and forced convection, respectively. While, the obtained evaporator temperature for R22 is about 80°C at 115W and 40°C at 450W for natural and forced convection, respectively. The overall thermal resistance decreases almost linearly with increasing the heat load regardless of the used refrigerant. Moreover, for forced convection, the thermal resistance is much lower than the other heat transfer processes. The overall natural convection thermal resistance is 0.47°C/W at 155.6W and 0.53°C/W at 115W while overall forced convection thermal resistance is 0.056°C/W at 414W and 0.044°C/W at 417W for R134a and R22 refrigerants, respectively.
- ItemDesign and Building of Biogas Digester for Organic Materials Gained From Solid waste(2010) Mansour-Al Sadi; Prof.Marwan MahmoudThere are millions of tons of biomass waste being produced every year for which disposal is a problem. At the same time the world is rapidly depleting its supply of natural gas, which is known to be the cleanest of the fossil fuels. Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a highly promising technology for converting biomass waste into methane, which may directly be used as an energy source, or converted to hydrogen. This thesis describes an alternative low cost approach to anaerobic digestion and energy production. This thesis depends mainly on the organic materials gained from solid waste materials such as food, garden waste and paper. This issue makes this thesis very different in comparison to those dealing with anaerobic digesters depending on animal dung. The motivation for this study comes from Zahret.Alfinjan Landfill in Jenin City at north of West Bank. There is no heavy industry in the municipalities and no hazardous waste produced and thus is a good candidate for biological treatment. From the calculations, a range of 4000 to 5000 kWh/day of electricity can be produced by the digester according to 400 ton/day received to Zahret Alfingan land fill with organic fraction 50%, resulting enough power to supply 800 to 1000 homes of Jenin City. This thesis will discuss the biogas production technology from organic waste using two types of digestion: Batch-load digesters are filled all at once, sealed, and emptied when the raw material has stopped producing gas, An experimental work in Nablus Industrial School, where we use a batch digester type with 100 liter capacity and we fill the digester by 30 kg of organic waste and 30 liter of water (total mix as liquid 60 liter), which produced 4.98 kg of bio gas over 30 days, as result we can say each one kg of organic waste can produce 0.166 kg of bio gas. Another experimental work done on continuous-load digesters which feed a little, regularly, so this gas and fertilizer are produced continuously. A two drum digester continuous-load digesters with total volume of 240 L. We used about 100 kg of waste and 100 liter of water, with a daily supply of 5 L mixed over a period of 40 days, 11.125 kg of biogas during 40 days = 15.89m3 had been produced, (density of Methane 0.7 kg/m3). As result we can say each kg of organic waste can produce 0.11 kg of bio gas.
- ItemDesign and Simulation of a Photovoltaic System with Maximum Power Control to Supply a Load with Alternating Current(2012) Ja’far Saif Edden Abdel Hafeath Jallad; Prof. Marwan MahmoudPhotovoltaic system is an important topic that can be researched and studied in Palestine because a solar energy potential is available. This thesis deals with the design and simulation of an efficient standalone PV system for an electrical home loads. It provides theoretical study of photovoltaic and modeling techniques using equivalent electric circuits. The research includes discussion of various MPPT algorithms and control methods to maximize the obtained solar power. Simulations by Matlab Simulink to verify the DC-DC converter design with MPPT control to be efficient as battery charge controller is investigated. The best inverter model that would be chosen for generating a sinusoidal output current supply for a household load is discussed. This thesis selects a 4.5kWh-day energy load for a household as a case study to find the optimum design and configuration. The system is comprised of polycrystalline PV modules each rated at 130W to obtain a total peak power of 1.56 kW. In addition, one inverter of 3 kW and battery storage of 11.7 kWh is included in the system. Design of a grid tie PV system by using matlab Simulink and testing the dynamic behavior on this system at varying solar radiation is included in this thesis. Based on the economic evaluation, the cost of energy generated by a standalone PV system were studied is 2.1 (NIS/kWh) while the cost of energy generated by grid tie PV system is 0.72(NIS/kWh).
- ItemDesign and Simulation of Solar Photovoltaic Powered Cathodic Protection Systems(2015) Abdurrahman Jamal Khalid Samoudi; Prof. Marwan M. MahmoudThis thesis discusses the using of cathodic protection (CP) technology for providing protection against corrosion of Submarines and underground pipeline distribution networks (PDN) in Palestine. Solar photovoltaic (PV) energy is used to supply an impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) system. The design deals with three alternatives depending on the percentage of protected surface area from the total area of the pipelines, the alternative A, B and C represent 90%, 95% and 98% respectively. A simple model has been built through Simulink/MATLAB software in this thesis. Economic analysis is applied to compare between rehabilitation of the damaged pipelines and using the PV powered ICCP system for each alternative. The economic analysis shows that the saving through using PV powered ICCP system instead of rehabilitation of the pipelines is very large. The saving for the alternatives presented as: (A) is $3,985,440 from $5,371,493, (B) is $1,840,670 from $2,688,311 and (C) is $1,015,603 from $1,075,350. These savings represent percentages of 74.2%, 68.47% and 94.44% of the rehabilitation cost for the alternatives A, B and C respectively.
- ItemDesign and Techno-Economical Analysis of a Grid Connected with PV/ Wind Hybrid System in Palestine (Atouf Village-Case study)(2012) Mohammad Husain Mohammad Dradi; Dr. Imad IbrikAs renewable energy becomes more prevalent, more information on how different technologies will behave needs to be available. This research based on modeling the Grid tie PV/Wind hybrid system using Matlab Simulink software program in order to study the techno-economic performance analysis of building these systems according to our environmental conditions and collecting data such as temperature, solar radiation and wind speed. By creating a Simulink program which predicts the power output as a function of solar radiation, temperature and wind speed, a side-by-side comparison of different sizes and configurations can be made. Current predictive models are very useful for a grid tie system, which is limited to operate at the maximum power point, thus adaptations to previous models have been made. This model accurately predicts the power output of different PV hybrid system based on side data specification. The program is dynamic, and fit with the changes of parameters, which are related to the reduced power output caused by increased temperature, as well as the effect of non-linear absorption of solar radiation on power output. Data was collected and analyzed as a case study for Atouf village. This research is important because it exposes weaknesses of different environmental conditions of the locations, and allows for a direct comparison of modeling different configurations of hybrid systems. This research shows that tacking random value for determining the size of PV system is not the best performance indicators of grid tie system. Specifically, this research shows that the penetration factor of PV hybrid system has a different effect on the power output of each PV array. The size of this affect can be evaluated technically and economically by using this software program.
- ItemDesign, Building and Techno-Economic Evaluation of Biogas Digester(2008) Eng. Ola Abd AL-Rahman Abd Allah Adawi; Prof. Dr. Marwan MahmoudThis thesis describes biogas energy technology which is heavily used in China, India and Brazil. The biogas technology is rarely used in Arab countries. Palestine has a good potential for biogas production. One Palestinian family living in rural areas owns at least three cows where each cow gives 12-16 kg dung per day. This amount will produce 24.5 kg biogas per month which is equivalent to one C4H10 gas bottle, since heat value of CH4 is ½ heat value of C4H10. Some biogas production experiments were implemented in Palestine under the conditions: temperature = 350C, pH value = 6-7, and retention time = 10-60 days. A floating drum digester in Tulkarem with a volume of 14m3, and with a daily supply of 50L slurry over a period of 40 days have produced 1.17m3 /day of biogas (0.84 kg biogas/day). Economic evaluation of this digester shows that the cost of 1 m3 biogas is 1.5NIS. The recommended family digester (floating drum digester) with 3.5 m3 volume will save 4180NIS per year and its simple payback period is less than one year.
- ItemDesigning a Device for Industrial Boilers Efficiency Monitoring and Analysis(جامعة النجاح الوطنية, 2021-12-09) أحمد خليل طحنات, عبداللههذه الدراسة قامت على أساس قياس كفاءة المراجل الصناعية لفترات يحددها المستخدم، بالإضافة للمراقبة المستمرة وعلى مدار الساعة لضغط ودرجة حرارة الماء والبخار في المرجل، ومعرفة كميات الغاز، والماء والطاقة الكهربائية المستهلكة في عمل المرجل، ولتحقيق هذه الأهداف تم أخذ مرجل صناعي يستخدم في مصنع المنار لصناعة الأعلاف في بلدة عرابة – جنين كحالة دراسية. لم يتواجد الجهاز وملحقاته كجهاز واحد في السوق الداخلي أو الخارجي بصورة مباشرة، بحيث يتم تركيبه على المرجل فحسب، لذلك تم تجميع الجهاز من خلال عدة مرْسلات وعدادات للطاقة الكهربائية، الماء والغاز، وربطها مع متحكم ذكي لتحقيق الهدف المرجو من الدراسة. الدراسة بينت الكفاءة الكلية والصافية للمرجل، ومراقبة جميع مدخلات المرجل بشكل لحظي، وتخزينها كل 30 ثانية على مدار فترة تركيب الجهاز، أظهرت المعلومات بعد تحليل البيانات التي جمعت من خلال الجهاز الأرقام الحقيقية للمرجل، حيث كانت الكفاءة الكلية 68.3% بينما الكفاءة الصافية 66.56%. هذه المعلومات والبيانات التي تم تحليلها تفيد بكيفية تحسين كفاءة المرجل، ومعرفة السلبيات في المرجل نفسه، أو خط الانابيب المتصل به لمعالجتها والحصول على أفضل أداء للمرجل مستقبلاً. بعد الحصول على النتائج وتحليلها، تبين وجود إمكانية لإنشاء نظام تسخين شمسي خصوصاً بوجود المساحة الكافية، لذلك تم في نهاية الدراسة إجراء تقييم فني واقتصادي لمشروع نظام تسخين يقوم باستغلال الطاقة الشمسية لتسخين المياه ورفع درجة حرارتها، وبالتالي التوفير في الغاز المحروق لتسخين المياه إلى درجة الحرارة التي يتم تسخينها عن طريق الشمس، فمن خلال الدراسة الفنية فإن تكلفة رأس المال لإنشاء النظام هي10765 دولار، ويقوم بتوفير مبلغ 2195 دولار سنوياً في سعر الغاز، وبفترة استرداد 4.9 سنة علماً بأن العمر الافتراضي للمشروع هو 20 سنة. أما في الجانب البيئي فإن التوفير في حرق الغاز يقلل من انبعاث الغازات الملوثة للبيئة وأبرزها ثاني أكسيد الكربون، حيث أن أنظمة تسخين المياه الشمسية هي أنظمة صديقة للبيئة.
- ItemEfficiency and Feasibility Borders of Water Pumping Systems Powered by Electric Grid, Diesel Generators and PV Generators with PLC – Tracking of the Daily Solar Radiation Curve(2013) Hanan Mohammad Ali; Prof. Marwan MahmoudThis research deals with comparison between four mechanisms in operating a supposed water pumping system. These mechanisms are PV generator, diesel generator, diesel motor and electrical grid. Referring to the research it is found that PV generator is more feasible than diesel generator where the cost of one cubic meter when using diesel generator is higher by about 80% than its cost when using PV generator. A vertical turbine pump was used instead of submersible one as it can be driven directly by a diesel motor and then the cost of one cubic meter of water is calculated and compared to PV water pumping system but also the last one is more feasible and more economical. When comparing PV generator with grid, the cost of water is very close to each other even that the cost of water by using grid is less than PV. Finally, load matching technique with dual PV water pumping systems is applied depending on the daily solar radiation curve, where the cost of one cubic meter is decreased of about 9% in comparison with one PV generator. Future works aspires to utilize sun tracking in addition to the matched load by PIC control. Keywords: PV Generator, Diesel Generator, Solar Radiation, Pump Performance Curves, Feasibility of PV Pumping System, Payback Period, Load Matching.
- ItemEfficiency Improvement of Solar Water Heater by Using PV-Powered Pump(An-Najah National University, 2017-01-29) Abu Arrah, Mahmoud; Mahmoud, MarwanThe main objective of this research is to analyze the impact of using solar driven pump to circulate the liquid on the overall efficiency of flat plate collector. To achieve this goal, accurate and practical mathematical models for flat plate collectors, storage tank and PV-pump were selected. These models were analyzed by using Matlab software. SWHSs in Palestine are thermosyphon systems. This thesis suggests adding a solar driven pump to the systems to circulate the fluid in order to increase their efficiency and this is the main contribution of the study. The study concludes that adding the circulation pump to thermosyphon system raises the annual efficiency of collectors from 33% to 37%. The study also concludes that by adding a PV pump with two panel of flat plate collector, this gives the same annual energy by using three panels of flat plate collector. Adding a solar pump also increases the solar fraction from 76 % to 86 % particularly in winter and the absorbed energy from the sun which means less electrical energy consumption.
- ItemElectrification of Remote Clinics by Photovoltaic – HydrogenFuel Cell System(2013) Makawi Diab Hraiz; Prof. Dr. Marwan MahmoudPalestinian health clinics in remote areas suffer from limited electric networks due to Israeli restrictions and lack of infrastructure fund from National Authorities. Most of these areas are distant from the main medium voltage transmission lines, which makes the unfeasible to connect them to the main electric power grids. Therefore, renewable energy sources could be more clean and feasible solution, especially solar and bio-waste sources. A typical energy consumption pattern for a small health clinic will be used. In addition, the theses would be providing modelling of the proposed system. Experimental results obtained for a reduced scale model parts built in the lab to give insight into the system technical details. Fuel availability and clean energy production in fuel cells, given its chemical reactions occurs inside as well as production of electricity for unlimited time, are of the main system specifications. This contribution provides a power management strategy for solar and fuel cell system scaled to suite a typical small clinics from rural areas in Palestine The proposed control strategy is based on a logic-based method that consider the states of power supply sources and the demand to combine and switch in between giving priority to the much stable source. In addition, experimental results for system part have been done on scaled system in the lab.
- ItemEnergy Conservation and Load Management Analysis in Nablus Electrical Network(2010) Basel Moustafa Qasem Abdul-Haq; Dr.Imad IbraikThe efficient use of electrical energy, energy conservation and electrical load management are not in a better condition in Palestine or in Nablus electrical network. In this thesis we tried through analyzing and evaluation of the energy consumption situation and by performing energy audits for several energy consuming sectors in Nablus electrical network, to prove that there is a good opportunity to save a considerable amount of consumed electrical energy. In addition, this study tries to find solutions to decrease the peak electrical demand of Nablus electrical network as the peak demand of the network is nearly equal to the available maximum capacity of the supply so as not to reach a situation that the electrical supply will be cut on consumers. It was showed that there is an opportunity to save a considerable amount of electrical energy if energy conservation measures were implemented in water pumping sector, residential sector and street lighting sector. The total savings in electrical energy in all studied sectors in this thesis is around 14,860,269 kWh/year, associated with an investment cost of 15567303 NIS, and SPBP of less than two years. The study also showed also that by implementing energy conservation measures and applying applicable load management techniques in the studied sectors, the peak demand of Nablus electrical demand can be decreased by 4.7%, and this percentage can be increased by applying a new electrical tariff structure.
- ItemEnergy Consumption and Economic Comparison between VRF System and Air to Water Chiller for Air Conditioning Systems Case study: An-Najah University Child Institute(An-Najah National University, 2018-02-06) عبد الرحيم أبو صفا , عماد بريكAir conditioning systems have the major amount of energy consumption in West Bank, with a poor and expansive amount of energy available in West Bank, energy conservation is needed. In this research; two air conditioning systems: Variable Refrigerant Flow system (VRF) and Air to Water Chiller system were discussed in order to select the system the most feasible option. An-Najah Child Institute (ANCI) was selected to be the case study. Initially, the cooling load for ANCI was calculated using to be equal to 60 Tons. Energy consumption and economic analysis were performed for the two system based on accurate design. The design of air conditioning system includes selecting the system parts; indoor units, outdoor units, pipes, and pumps based on the cooling load and configuration of the building. Actual pricing based on parts quotations from manufacturing and procuring companies were made. The economic analysis was based on calculating present worth value for both air conditioning systems. The present worth value for VRF system was found to be -158,204 $, while it was equal to -182,654.0 $. For Chiller system. The less negative value was for VRF system, in other words, this system is more feasible and can save more money energy.
- ItemEnergy Management and Analysis of Ramallah Electrical Network(2010) Tha’er Mahmoud Tawfiq Jaradat; Dr. Imad Ibrik - SupervisorThe medium voltage network in Ramallah, Al-Berih and Beitunya is to be studied and analyzed to find out its weaknesses, and provide scenarios for resolving these weaknesses. PowerWorld Simulator were used to simulate real data collected from the SCADA system of the company, the output of the simulation highlighted two main problems, overloading and relatively high technical losses. Conservation measures were suggested in order to resolve the problems highlighted during the simulation, these measures can be summarized in upgrading the transmission lines to ACCC, reconfigure part of the medium voltage network, reducing neutral current in low voltage network, and replace the power transformers with high efficiency power transformers. The suggested measures then were examined using the simulator to simulate the improvements expected after applying the improving measure. Also, financial analysis of energy management measures in Ramallah electrical network was performed over all the suggested measures, which led to approving the first three measures and rejecting the fourth one. The financial analysis showed savings potential of about 15 million dollars during the life time of the project which is 15 years.
- ItemEnergy Management Procedures and Audit Results of Electrical, Thermal and Solar Applications in Hospitals Sector in Palestine(2008) Bashar Adli Shukri Da'as; Dr. Imad Hatem Ibrik; Dr. Waleed Al kokhonHospitals and hospital buildings are large consumers of energy, which they use in many different ways. In this thesis we have successfully proved that there is a huge potential of energy savings in the Palestinian hospitals sector (10-25%) by implementing some energy conservation measures (no and low cost investment) on the most energy consumption equipment such as boilers, oxygen generation units, air conditioning, lighting systems, solar water heaters and others. The efficient use of energy and energy management in Palestinian hospitals is not in a better condition than most developing countries. Thus we tried to establish a pace toward the efficient use of energy and energy management in hospitals through conducting several energy audits in some different hospitals where lighting, air-conditioning, oxygen generation units, power factor or other service levels can be reduced without detriment to comfort or health care. We have achieved average total savings of 17% for hospitals, and 14%, 43% and 17% for cooling and heating, oxygen generation units, power factor correction and 5% for lighting systems, respectively
- ItemEnvironmental Impact Assessment of Centralized and Decentralized Biogas Power Plants in Palestine(An-Najah National University, 2017-01-31) Alia, Ruba Ahmad Hasan; Abusafa, AbdelrahimBiogas production by biodigestion is considered as an important method for the production of renewable energy. One of the most important methods in utilization biogas is the production of electrical energy by means of special generators. In West Bank, there are a lot of animals such as cattle, goats, sheep and poultry. These animals produce a huge amount of dung which can be anaerobically digested and produces what is called biogas. In order to estimate the amount of electrical energy that can be generated from biogas produced by the biodigestion of animal dung, many statistical data were collected according to the type and number of animals and the mass of daily manure production. This was done for most villages in ten governorates in West Bank. This research is aimed at studying the economic feasibility and environmental impact assessment for electrical energy production from biogas plants. After the calculation of annual waste production in each village, the biodigester volume, the capacity of electrical generator and the potential of production electrical energy were calculated. Consequently, Annual Worth (AW) was calculated. Moreover, the Levelized Cost of Energy (LCoE) was calculated. For profitable and environmentally friendly production, the selling price for one kWh of electricity is considered to be 0.3 NIS in order to compete with Israel electrical company which sells electricity for local electricity distribution companies by 0.4 NIS /kWh. To guarantee short payback period, it was found that biodigesters of volume less than 100m3 were infeasible. Since the levelized cost of energy depends directly on the volume of the biodigeter, the design of centralized biogas stations were investigated. The proposed methods depends on collecting the manure from all nearby villages and construct a single centralized biodigester for each clusters at one of the villages taking in consideration the environmental impacts and the feasibility. It was obvious that all of proposed centralized biogas power plant is feasible from economical aspects with shorter payback period than decentralized biogas power plant. It was also found that from environmental impact assessment that centralized biogas power plant is better from social and environmental aspects. Based on the results of this study, it was found that the proposed Hebron governorate biogas power plant has the largest amount of biogas production from all governorates, which has 45,670 m3 daily biogas production that is equivalent to annual electrical energy of 28.8GWh. The least biogas production was found to be in Salfeet governorate, with a daily biogas production of 2,860 m3 which is equivalent to annual electrical energy of 2GWh. Potential electrical energy production is estimated to be 2% of total energy consumption in west bank. In the case of proper utilization of these bioenergy sources, it is expected to minimize the amount of green house emissions equivalent to 100,000 ton CO2 which may produced from the same amount from the production of electrical energy from coal.
- ItemEnvironmental Impact Assessment of Centralized and Decentralized Biogas Power Plants in Palestine(An-Najah National University, 2017-01-31) Alia, Ruba Ahmad Hasan; Abusafa, AbdelrahimBiogas production by biodigestion is considered as an important method for the production of renewable energy. One of the most important methods in utilization biogas is the production of electrical energy by means of special generators. In West Bank, there are a lot of animals such as cattle, goats, sheep and poultry. These animals produce a huge amount of dung which can be anaerobically digested and produces what is called biogas. In order to estimate the amount of electrical energy that can be generated from biogas produced by the biodigestion of animal dung, many statistical data were collected according to the type and number of animals and the mass of daily manure production. This was done for most villages in ten governorates in West Bank. This research is aimed at studying the economic feasibility and environmental impact assessment for electrical energy production from biogas plants. After the calculation of annual waste production in each village, the biodigester volume, the capacity of electrical generator and the potential of production electrical energy were calculated. Consequently, Annual Worth (AW) was calculated. Moreover, the Levelized Cost of Energy (LCoE) was calculated. For profitable and environmentally friendly production, the selling price for one kWh of electricity is considered to be 0.3 NIS in order to compete with Israel electrical company which sells electricity for local electricity distribution companies by 0.4 NIS /kWh. To guarantee short payback period, it was found that biodigesters of volume less than 100m3 were infeasible. Since the levelized cost of energy depends directly on the volume of the biodigeter, the design of centralized biogas stations were investigated. The proposed methods depends on collecting the manure from all nearby villages and construct a single centralized biodigester for each clusters at one of the villages taking in consideration the environmental impacts and the feasibility. It was obvious that all of proposed centralized biogas power plant is feasible from economical aspects with shorter payback period than decentralized biogas power plant. It was also found that from environmental impact assessment that centralized biogas power plant is better from social and environmental aspects. Based on the results of this study, it was found that the proposed Hebron governorate biogas power plant has the largest amount of biogas production from all governorates, which has 45,670 m3 daily biogas production that is equivalent to annual electrical energy of 28.8GWh. The least biogas production was found to be in Salfeet governorate, with a daily biogas production of 2,860 m3 which is equivalent to annual electrical energy of 2GWh. Potential electrical energy production is estimated to be 2% of total energy consumption in west bank. In the case of proper utilization of these bioenergy sources, it is expected to minimize the amount of greenhouse emissions equivalent to 100,000 ton CO2 which may produced from the same amount from the production of electrical energy from coal.
- ItemExperimental and Simulation of Biomass Conversion by Gasification and Biodigestion: Potential of Bioenergy in Palestine(An-Najah National University, 2017-02-14) امريش, أشرف حجازي ديب; أبو صفا, عبد الرحيمWest Bank & Gaza Strip (WB&GS) are known to be very poor territories in terms of fossil fuel resources. At the same time, energy alternatives are not defined well specially the non-conventional types such as biomass. Biomass can be defined as a material which is recently derived from the sources of animals and plants that use sunlight to grow. This study aims at analyzing all main types and amount of biomass in WB&GS that can be used as an alternative fuel for conventional fossil fuel. In this research, Types and amount of biomass that exist in WB&GS were defined by a comprehensive field survey. A detailed study of biomass processing and conversion of biomass to biofuel were done referring to the earlier studies and literature. The potential energy from these wastes were calculated based on the proper conversion method that should be used according to the type of biomass. For instance, assuming that the proper conversion method is anaerobic digestion, the mount of potential electrical energy from some agricultural, industrial, animal and poultry residues was estimated to be 192.573GWhe, the potential of electrical energy from agricultural residues and Municipal Household solid waste (MHSW) is 816.716GWhe if a gasification process is used. The gasification process was studied in details as an important conversion method. For this purpose a homemade gasifier was designed and constructed. The gasifier was operated using Jeft as feedstock, the effect of inlet air flowrate and feedstock on the effluent producer gas were studied. the main parameter that affect the gasification process such as: gasification temperature, air or oxygen Equivalent Ratio, steam ratio, CO2 to Biomass ratio, hydrogen inject and effect of recycling of the producer gas on the gasification of jeft were investigated using a a proper simulation software. The optimum temperature of a gasifier was found to be 900oC. A 20 percent air or oxygen equivalent ratio (air or oxygen injection) gives maximum cold gas efficiency. The optimum steam to biomass ratio was found to be 2.5, whereas the optimum steam temperature was found to be150oC. Steam and air or oxygen equivalent ratios were found to have an effect on the concentration of hydrogen. A higher concentration of hydrogen can be obtained at steam to biomass ratio of 1.4. When Hydrogen was injected in the gasifier device, the concentration of Hydrogen in producer gas was found to be more than 96%. The generation of traces gas (NOx & Sox) during the gasification process is low. It was concluded that the percentage of volatile matter and fixed carbon of feedstock are the most important factors that affect the quality of producer gas.
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