Clean Energy and Conservation Strategy

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    (An - Najah National University, 2023-05-28) Aref Rashad Aref Abdulkarim
    Almost 40% of energy consumption worldwide is associated with buildings. Thus, the construction sectors are essential to achieving energy and environmental targets for decarbonization by 2050. However, the majority of buildings in Palestine are built with low energy efficiency standards which results in buildings with high energy consumption. In recent years, a lot of studies and applications on energy-saving renovation of existing buildings have been carried out to properly address the above problems in various countries. Geothermal energy, as one of the most popular renewable energy technologies, has been used and explored to build heating and/or cooling transitions and carbon neutrality put it into practical application. Geothermal energy means geothermal resources less than 200 meters deep, also is defined as surface geothermal energy. This energy is not geographically restricted, and this energy is available continuously and reliably almost everywhere in the world where its temperature ranges from 5 - 30 (C˚) . It is worth mentioning that, this renewable energy resource in Palestine has not been extensively explored with few studies on its feasibility. However, this technology is different from common energy-saving technologies (for example, photovoltaic solar panels), solar panels and wind energy can produce electricity only at day time and when there is wind, also approval and contract is required from the authorities to install it, and the area to install these systems is not always available. But, in Geothermal energy case, it’s available all year long and utilizing this renewable energy source require no contracts or approvals from authorities. Moreover, it’s available every were on earth and it require less space and less maintenance. All these advantages over other renewable system makes Geothermal energy one of the most promising renewable energies. In this research, two types of applications of geothermal energy were studied; “Ground Heat Assisted Heat Pump Technology (GAHP) and “Earth Tube Technology (ET)” for various climatic regions in Palestine, which are hot dry summer and warm winter in Jericho city, hot and dry summer and cold winter in South-Hebron, hot-humidity summer and moderate winter in Gaza and Tul-Karim, finally moderate summer and cold winter in Jerusalem city, the capital of Palestine. It was found that energy consumption for heating and cooling can be decreased by (42% in heating to 58.8% in cooling) when implementing GAHP system, and when applying ET system this reduction ranges between 33.7% to 50.1% in heating, and 26% to 35.7% in cooling%). This proves that the use of this permanent and clean energy is feasible in Palestine, and can effectively reduce energy consumption, provide better comfort and reduce the environmental impact of buildings for heating and cooling.
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    Sustainable Power Solution by Monolithic Integrated PV-Battery
    (An-Najah National University, 2019-01-08) Jaber, Mohammed
    The global energy crisis and energy conservation for sustainability the most concern of the scientific community and solar energy is one of the leading solutions to this crisis. Improve the efficiency of solar cells and energy storage systems the most important topics, where efficiency record of (26.6%) of c-Si solar cells. Also find an efficient energy storage system from solar cells ensure provided energy at times of absence of a light source. Solid-state battery most common component used to store and reuse electrical energy. By combining these two systems (high efficient solar cells and solid-state battery) to get integrated photovoltaic-battery (PV-battery) will be founded a sustainable solution. This study will review the accurate description for design stages of the PV part of the proposed Integrated system and design three terminal/triple-junction solar cell (3T-device). Deposit multi-junction TFSC composed from amorphous (a-Si:H) as top subcell, and microcrystalline (μc-Si:H/μc-Si:H) as bottom tandem subcell, with (p-i-n/n-i-p/n-i-p) configuration respectively, through PECVD technology. Upgraded 2T-device which had deposited to 3T-device to solve mismatching current problem by inserting new terminal between the top and bottom tandem subcell. Also, developed voltage of 3T-device to solve mismatching voltage occur between the top and bottom tandem subcell. As a result of that, has been achieved matching voltage reach to 95.67% (0.853, 0.816, 0.841 V, top, bottom, and total cell respectively). In addition, spectral response for 3T-device under different light sources (AM1.5, LED, fluorescent-tube, halogen), and different levels of light intensity (1sun to 0.0000194sun) had been studied. Measure and analysis of cell parameters (VOC, ISC, FF, η) as a function of current intensity (JSC) shown 16.4% efficiency under LED light source. likewise, analysis parameters of 2T-device, Perovskite, and SHJ under different light sources and light intensity to hold comparison between them with 3T-device. Clearly shown good performance of perovskite under LED and SHJ under AM1.5 which recorded efficiency reach about 29% and 15.4% respectively. Studied behavior of light beam through window cell and determination of the parameters causing the optical losses shown the main effect of a (ZnO/Ag/ZnO) as back contact of top subcell. In the final stage, check the ability of 3T-device to charging of a commercial battery model (135mAh, 3.7V) which recorded solar energy to charge conversion efficiency around (10%) under (AM1.5) light source.
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    (جامعة النجاح الوطنية, 2022-01-19) Daoud, Salim
    Countries worldwide devote a great interest in energy policies due to their significant effect on the international budget and global environmental issues. Most importantly, Energy policies are directly reflected in the population's lifestyles, welfare, and behaviour. This thesis discusses the Palestinian accomplishment of fulfilling the seventh goal of the sustainable development goals (SDG 7). The UN's five targets for (SDG7) have been reviewed and evaluated, along with their associated indicators considering the following: Proportion of population with access to electricity, access to clean fuels for cooking, renewable energy share in the total final energy consumption, community awareness of the necessity of energy-saving devices, and the state's policies towards energy efficiency. According to the findings, Palestine has made significant progress toward achieving the first, third and fourth targets but has fallen short of accomplishing the second and fifth targets. Moreover, the political situation in Palestine is taken into consideration, and thus the resulting challenges posed by the Israeli occupation. Furthermore, the energy situation in terms of production and consumption, renewable energy, and energy policy are all carefully evaluated. To be more specific, further clarifications were provided for the political, economic, and social difficulties that Palestine confronts, such as population growth and its impact on energy consumption.
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    Investigating Residential HVAC System COP Using Different Engineering Designs – Experimental Study
    (جامعة النجاح الوطنية, 2019-06-20) Alkarmi, Samer
    Palestine suffers from a shortage of electricity because of the Israeli occupation and the lack of resources. This crisis is especially evident in the summer, where temperatures and humidity in some areas are getting rise. In order to provide conditions of comfort, people resort to the use of residential air conditioners increasingly. The statistics show that there is a significant increase in consumption of electricity in the summer due to the use of air conditioners. This leads to interruptions in the supply of electricity. The main reason for excessive power consumption in residential air conditioners is due to the high external temperature. Where the air conditioner operates in higher thermal conditions than that designed to operate on it, which leads to a reduction in the efficiency of the air conditioner. To solve the problem of excessive consumption of electricity in the residential air conditioners, engineering modifications were made to the mechanical circuit of the air conditioner. For this practical experiment, the work steps were divided into three stages: In the first stage, the original air conditioner was tested without any modification. In the second stage, the capillary tube was replaced with a thermal expansion valve, and finally, in the third stage, the surface of the external heat exchanger was reduced with a thermal expansion valve. In the previous three cases the air conditioner was operated under external temperatures ranging from (30℃ - 55℃) and the required readings were recorded. Then performing the necessary calculations to find coefficient of performance (COP) and energy consumption. By comparing the results in the three cases, the following results are shown: The COP of the air conditioner is not affected by the increase in the external temperature when replacing the capillary tube with the thermal expansion valve while maintaining the area of the thermal exchange surface of the external heat exchanger (condenser). the coefficient performance of the air conditioner increased from 3.43 at 30°C ambient temperature to 3.99 at modified air conditioner. At 55°C ambient temperature, the coefficient of performance raised from 2.25 in the case of the original (base) air conditioner to 3.62 in the case of the modified air conditioner. Significant decrease in the consumption of electrical energy when using the thermal expansion valve compared to the condition of the original air conditioner and reduction in harmful emissions of CO2 by 352 kg for 3 months
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    Grid and Environmental Impact Assessment of 0.5 MWp Photovoltaic Power System Connected to Salfit Governorate Electricity Distribution Network
    (جامعة النجاح الوطنية, 2021-12-19) Bani Nemrah, Osama
    The increasing demand for electrical energy associated with finding new distribution generation elaborate the choice to go toward renewable energy. With its low maintenance and operation, it is becoming more of a trend around the world. A type of renewable energy source and the photovoltaic systems installation connected to the grid are on the increase since the past decade. This increase is elaborated with changes in voltage profiles, power factor, short circuit currents, and loading in the buses and transmission lines affecting the power quality delivered to the customers. These technical changes must be considered in line with the environmental impact associated with the project area to the flora, funa, noise, waste, water, etc. Such factors must be studied to understand the impact of these projects on each element. This thesis studies the ability to establish 0.5 MW of PV connected to Salfit municipality to decide the maximum penetration level allowed to be installed. It also studies the environment and social impacts under the umbrella of the World Bank environmental and social standard- ESS compared to the original. The first case is that of full generation and full load; the second one is a full generation and half load; the third one is a half-generation and full load; and, the last one is a half-generation and half load. Half of the study considers the electrical part while the World Bank’s ESS standards are considered in studying the environmental impacts. This thesis shows changes in the voltage profiles up to 7 Volts certain line in medium voltage level and a drop in the power factor from 0.87 to 0.82 in best scenarios; with an increase in the losses associated with an increase in short circuit levels by using ETAP software for load flow analysis. Additionally, this thesis studies the feasibility of the system installed using RET screen software by establishing a net present value study and simple payback period. This, accordingly, shows that the project is financially feasible with a three-year payback period and positive net present value with a rate of return of 32.8 % and energy production cost of 44.13 $/MWh. This thesis depicts a temporally negative environmental impacts on the project area regarding the environmental elements, such as the polluted area from the dust, the noise increases during the work, implementation, transportation issues, water problems, and waste materials problems. It also establishes an environmental impact mitigation plan and monitoring plan to control and minimize the consequences associated with the system during the pre-construction stage, construction stage, and operation and maintenance stage, on the other hand the project shows a positive impact related to the employment, CO2 emission reduction by 2559.2 ton per year.