Clean Energy and Conservation Strategy

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    Sustainable Power Solution by Monolithic Integrated PV-Battery
    (An-Najah National University, 2019-01-08) Jaber, Mohammed
    The global energy crisis and energy conservation for sustainability the most concern of the scientific community and solar energy is one of the leading solutions to this crisis. Improve the efficiency of solar cells and energy storage systems the most important topics, where efficiency record of (26.6%) of c-Si solar cells. Also find an efficient energy storage system from solar cells ensure provided energy at times of absence of a light source. Solid-state battery most common component used to store and reuse electrical energy. By combining these two systems (high efficient solar cells and solid-state battery) to get integrated photovoltaic-battery (PV-battery) will be founded a sustainable solution. This study will review the accurate description for design stages of the PV part of the proposed Integrated system and design three terminal/triple-junction solar cell (3T-device). Deposit multi-junction TFSC composed from amorphous (a-Si:H) as top subcell, and microcrystalline (μc-Si:H/μc-Si:H) as bottom tandem subcell, with (p-i-n/n-i-p/n-i-p) configuration respectively, through PECVD technology. Upgraded 2T-device which had deposited to 3T-device to solve mismatching current problem by inserting new terminal between the top and bottom tandem subcell. Also, developed voltage of 3T-device to solve mismatching voltage occur between the top and bottom tandem subcell. As a result of that, has been achieved matching voltage reach to 95.67% (0.853, 0.816, 0.841 V, top, bottom, and total cell respectively). In addition, spectral response for 3T-device under different light sources (AM1.5, LED, fluorescent-tube, halogen), and different levels of light intensity (1sun to 0.0000194sun) had been studied. Measure and analysis of cell parameters (VOC, ISC, FF, η) as a function of current intensity (JSC) shown 16.4% efficiency under LED light source. likewise, analysis parameters of 2T-device, Perovskite, and SHJ under different light sources and light intensity to hold comparison between them with 3T-device. Clearly shown good performance of perovskite under LED and SHJ under AM1.5 which recorded efficiency reach about 29% and 15.4% respectively. Studied behavior of light beam through window cell and determination of the parameters causing the optical losses shown the main effect of a (ZnO/Ag/ZnO) as back contact of top subcell. In the final stage, check the ability of 3T-device to charging of a commercial battery model (135mAh, 3.7V) which recorded solar energy to charge conversion efficiency around (10%) under (AM1.5) light source.
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    (جامعة النجاح الوطنية, 2022-01-19) Daoud, Salim
    Countries worldwide devote a great interest in energy policies due to their significant effect on the international budget and global environmental issues. Most importantly, Energy policies are directly reflected in the population's lifestyles, welfare, and behaviour. This thesis discusses the Palestinian accomplishment of fulfilling the seventh goal of the sustainable development goals (SDG 7). The UN's five targets for (SDG7) have been reviewed and evaluated, along with their associated indicators considering the following: Proportion of population with access to electricity, access to clean fuels for cooking, renewable energy share in the total final energy consumption, community awareness of the necessity of energy-saving devices, and the state's policies towards energy efficiency. According to the findings, Palestine has made significant progress toward achieving the first, third and fourth targets but has fallen short of accomplishing the second and fifth targets. Moreover, the political situation in Palestine is taken into consideration, and thus the resulting challenges posed by the Israeli occupation. Furthermore, the energy situation in terms of production and consumption, renewable energy, and energy policy are all carefully evaluated. To be more specific, further clarifications were provided for the political, economic, and social difficulties that Palestine confronts, such as population growth and its impact on energy consumption.
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    Investigating Residential HVAC System COP Using Different Engineering Designs – Experimental Study
    (جامعة النجاح الوطنية, 2019-06-20) Alkarmi, Samer
    Palestine suffers from a shortage of electricity because of the Israeli occupation and the lack of resources. This crisis is especially evident in the summer, where temperatures and humidity in some areas are getting rise. In order to provide conditions of comfort, people resort to the use of residential air conditioners increasingly. The statistics show that there is a significant increase in consumption of electricity in the summer due to the use of air conditioners. This leads to interruptions in the supply of electricity. The main reason for excessive power consumption in residential air conditioners is due to the high external temperature. Where the air conditioner operates in higher thermal conditions than that designed to operate on it, which leads to a reduction in the efficiency of the air conditioner. To solve the problem of excessive consumption of electricity in the residential air conditioners, engineering modifications were made to the mechanical circuit of the air conditioner. For this practical experiment, the work steps were divided into three stages: In the first stage, the original air conditioner was tested without any modification. In the second stage, the capillary tube was replaced with a thermal expansion valve, and finally, in the third stage, the surface of the external heat exchanger was reduced with a thermal expansion valve. In the previous three cases the air conditioner was operated under external temperatures ranging from (30℃ - 55℃) and the required readings were recorded. Then performing the necessary calculations to find coefficient of performance (COP) and energy consumption. By comparing the results in the three cases, the following results are shown: The COP of the air conditioner is not affected by the increase in the external temperature when replacing the capillary tube with the thermal expansion valve while maintaining the area of the thermal exchange surface of the external heat exchanger (condenser). the coefficient performance of the air conditioner increased from 3.43 at 30°C ambient temperature to 3.99 at modified air conditioner. At 55°C ambient temperature, the coefficient of performance raised from 2.25 in the case of the original (base) air conditioner to 3.62 in the case of the modified air conditioner. Significant decrease in the consumption of electrical energy when using the thermal expansion valve compared to the condition of the original air conditioner and reduction in harmful emissions of CO2 by 352 kg for 3 months
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    Grid and Environmental Impact Assessment of 0.5 MWp Photovoltaic Power System Connected to Salfit Governorate Electricity Distribution Network
    (جامعة النجاح الوطنية, 2021-12-19) Bani Nemrah, Osama
    The increasing demand for electrical energy associated with finding new distribution generation elaborate the choice to go toward renewable energy. With its low maintenance and operation, it is becoming more of a trend around the world. A type of renewable energy source and the photovoltaic systems installation connected to the grid are on the increase since the past decade. This increase is elaborated with changes in voltage profiles, power factor, short circuit currents, and loading in the buses and transmission lines affecting the power quality delivered to the customers. These technical changes must be considered in line with the environmental impact associated with the project area to the flora, funa, noise, waste, water, etc. Such factors must be studied to understand the impact of these projects on each element. This thesis studies the ability to establish 0.5 MW of PV connected to Salfit municipality to decide the maximum penetration level allowed to be installed. It also studies the environment and social impacts under the umbrella of the World Bank environmental and social standard- ESS compared to the original. The first case is that of full generation and full load; the second one is a full generation and half load; the third one is a half-generation and full load; and, the last one is a half-generation and half load. Half of the study considers the electrical part while the World Bank’s ESS standards are considered in studying the environmental impacts. This thesis shows changes in the voltage profiles up to 7 Volts certain line in medium voltage level and a drop in the power factor from 0.87 to 0.82 in best scenarios; with an increase in the losses associated with an increase in short circuit levels by using ETAP software for load flow analysis. Additionally, this thesis studies the feasibility of the system installed using RET screen software by establishing a net present value study and simple payback period. This, accordingly, shows that the project is financially feasible with a three-year payback period and positive net present value with a rate of return of 32.8 % and energy production cost of 44.13 $/MWh. This thesis depicts a temporally negative environmental impacts on the project area regarding the environmental elements, such as the polluted area from the dust, the noise increases during the work, implementation, transportation issues, water problems, and waste materials problems. It also establishes an environmental impact mitigation plan and monitoring plan to control and minimize the consequences associated with the system during the pre-construction stage, construction stage, and operation and maintenance stage, on the other hand the project shows a positive impact related to the employment, CO2 emission reduction by 2559.2 ton per year.
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    The Technical and Economic Impacts of Applying Palestinian & International Standards on Electrical Household Appliances in Palestine.
    (جامعة النجاح الوطنية, 2019-08-20) Sulaiman, Tahseen Salman
    Palestine has a rapid increase on the number of electrical household appliances (EHA) in the last few years, as a result of increase the life level standards, which increase hugely the national electrical energy consumption; and this increase caused national energy crisis, energy unbalance, and energy discontinuity. Palestine has to legislate and implement EHA minimum energy efficiency performance standards (MEPS) to lower the electrical energy consumption, to achieve the electrical energy stability. Calculations output prominently show and approve the household‟s feasibility of using high efficient appliances (HE) and a huge opportunity of energy conservation and saving on the households and on the national level in addition to the environment protection through the huge mitigated amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) to be emitted to Palestine atmosphere, a face to face forty surveyed households; energy classification labels of EHA knowledge and households behavior in addition classifications of owned EHA studied. EHA quantities and classifications statistics and records in Palestinian ministries and institutions are very weak as a result of Palestine government no control on the boarders. Some of the world countries status in the field of EHA energy efficiency and classification label overviewed, and studied through the XIV international paper research, reports, and books, these references showed the positive impacts of implementing MEPS and energy classification label on the economical, and environmental aspects