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- ItemAgricultural Land Use in Qalqilia District(2004) Ghazi Abdelfatah Ali Mohmmad; Dr. Ahmad Ra’fat GhodiehLying at the feet of Nablus hills, and within the Palestinian inland coastal area, Qalqilya Governorate, home to 35 localities, has witnessed in the past years significant changes in the uses of agricultural land. There was a change in the use of agricultural land from an unirrigated pattern to a modern irrigated protected pattern (green houses). This study sought to identify both the human and natural factors affecting agricultural land use and distribution. It also aimed at identifying the social and economic characteristics of agricultural land owners as well as the role of the farmers in developming the agricultural patterns. Furthermore, the researcher examined the most important changes in the structure crop in the past, and analysed the current use of agricultural land in the Governorate.
- ItemAgriculture on the Alluvial Fans in the Jordan Valley(2008) Abd Al Mounam Zaky Alsaady; Dr. Mansour Hamdi Abu AliThe study deals with the agriculture on the alluvial fans in the Jordan Valley in the lowest and middle region that extends from the village of Bardala in the north to the south of Jericho, where the study addressed the geographical characteristics of the area that forms a unique phenomenon on Earth. Due to its location in the Jordan Valley, the lowest parts of the earth, it is surrounded by high mountains from the east and west, the thing which prevents the arrival of psychotropic marine winds and the coming rainy winds from the Mediterranean. This means that this region lies in the rainy shadow that makes it classified within dry environments. Because of the steep valleys and the presence of the valley from the west, alluvial fan has been formed near the mountains as a result of the sediment carried by those valleys in periods of flood. Therefore, a group of alluvial fans has been monitored in the study area in terms of size but relatively similar in terms of substance and development of growth. Those fans are formed in the period between Pleistocene and Holocene era, in which it has followed this era of rainy periods of drought limiting the ability of valleys to reach the Jordan River. As a result, the Sediments are a constituted at the feet of the mountains, causing the alluvial fans to reach the current form. Alluvial fans are considered the best agricultural areas as it contained flood fertile soils and abundant water, which come from the valleys and groundwater. Moreover, the high temperature and warmth are some of the characteristics of that region leading to the natural growth of the crop in a short period of time compared with the rest of the Palestinian Territories. Therefore, the area was called food basket of Palestine, but this region is suffering from desertification problems of soil and water due to the increased salinity which limits the ability of its production. There are other obstacles such as the problem of land confiscation by Israel; the establishment of checkpoints; the segregation wall that creates problems in the investment of those Agricultural regions; the difficulty in marketing products, and finally the increasing number of buildings on the ground of the alluvial fans. The study presented some reforming proposals that enable the development of alluvial fans territories through the improvement of dealing with it and know the characteristics of this region and the establishment of agricultural projects, and putting clear development policies for the development of alluvial fan areas and prevent urban extent ions. Where the study aimed to publicize the economic importance of fans flood in the Jordan Valley to identify problems experienced by those fans and the ways in which to reduce the impact of these problems on agricultural production on fans flood. The researcher followed in this study the scientific analysis and theoretical and practical field through books, periodicals and pamphlets related to the subject matter, also adopted a statistical analysis of data through a program (SPSS), mapping and forms using geographic information systems (GIS) The study group focused on the results confirm the presence of problems relating to agricultural land and water quantity and quality, as well as the problems of salinization of soil and contain elements that reduce their productivity, then the problems related to production and its internally and externally marketing in addition to the problems of guiding services and scientific research. The study has presented some reforming proposals in which the ministry of agriculture and the ministry of environment have the role of establishing scientific research centers, detecting the environmental issues on the fan areas, and giving the farmers perfect experience regarding how to develop the agricultural sector. It is also recommended that farmers should develop alluvial fans territories by improving them; learning the characteristics of this region; establishing appropriate agricultural projects, developing policies for clear development zones of alluvial fans, and above all preventing establishing buildings on such agricultural areas.
- ItemAssessing the Reality of Waste Dumps in the West Bank and Planning for them by the (GIS)"(2012) Durgham Abdul-Latife Hussein Shtayah; Dr. Ahmed Ra'fat GhodiehMany heaps of waste are spread all over the West Bank due to many factors; namely, the increase in population, the industrial, the agricultural development, the change in lifestyle, the increase in consumption and not following the healthy basis in managing with solid waste. All in all, those factors led to the spread of random waste dumps which created a source of danger upon citizens, natural sights and economical, social and civic sides in the study area. This study aimed at using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) as a technology assessing for the reality of dump sites in the West Bank and then planning and choosing the best sites suitable for forming healthy dump sites depending on a set of conditions and criteria that depend on the criteria of Basel Agreement concerned with choosing, forming and operating dump sites, in addition to, a number of researches and studies about the subject in order to reach a form in planning dump sites that suites the conditions of the area of study and the researcher's potentials. By using available data about the study area and depending on GIS technology, the needed criteria were derivated and then changed into maps representing the most important economical, social, geological and geomorphological, environmental and climatic criteria after which they were treated by using the aims of spatial and statistical analysis to be used as numeral information data. This helped to build a cartography style to locate the best suitable sites in the area of study in order to establish healthy dump sites. The study included five chapters:- chapter one included the introduction and study plan. Chapter two dealt with the study area concerning natural and human characteristics. Chapter three dealt with the reality of dump sites in the study area and assessing the reality of dump sites depending on a number of conditions and criteria. Chapter four clustered around establishing a number of criteria for planning dump sites and grading them according to suitability and evaluating them with reference to each rubric and building Model Builder for finding a map that symbolizes the best sites to build healthy dump sites in the West Bank. Chapter five dealt with the results of the study in addition to raising some recommendations which pinpoint the importance of the standard of the administrations of dump sites in the West Bank. In the light of the findings of the study, dumps are random, unsuitable and don’t satisfy healthy and environmental conditions because their sites are also random, unscientific and not following the required criteria. After applying different criteria in using GIS, the study recommended the best sites for dump sites and so symbolizing them in suitable maps that number 10 and 9 the most suitable sites and so the degree of suitability decreases gradually. Finally the study recommended in pinpointing the role of GIS in the field of correct management of dumps and urged the responsible to close random dumps and rehabitating them following healthy and environmental bases in planning dump sites.
- ItemThe Attitudes of the Population of Qalqilya Governorate Toward Issues of Female Early Marriage(2012) Raja' Rateb Ma'rouf Shahwan; Dr. Hussein AhmadThis study aimed to identify the point of view of the people of Qalqilya Governorate regarding the issue of early marriage, and the difference in opinions regarding this type of marriage from the point of view of the targeted group based on their demographic, social and economical characteristics. For this purpose, the researcher used a multistage stratified random sample to collect the data related to the study. The sample included 550 persons with ± 4.4% margin error of the sample and it covered the different types of communities in the Governorate. After the data has been collected and entered into the computer, the necessary statistical processes, including data analysis, extraction of percentages, arithmetic averages, standard deviations, one-way analysis of variance, have been conducted using the SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences). For this purpose, a special questionnaire was made that consisted of the following subjects: First subject: Includes some of the personal information about the members of the sample that is related to the subject of the study. Second subject: Deals with the opinions of the members of the study's sample with respect to some issues related to early marriage. Third subject: Addresses the factors and consequences of early marriage. To achieve the objectives of the study, the following questions have been answered: • What is the level of knowledge by the members of the study's sample regarding the issue of early marriage? • What are the impacts of early marriage on the wife, husband, children, and the family? • What is the impact of the following variables: Place, gender, kinship (from the side of both the husband and wife), marital status, educational level, current age, age at first marriage, the employment status regarding early marriage in Qalqilya Governorate from the point of view of the members of the study's sample? Among the results that the study has reached are: The larger proportion of the population have heard about early marriage through the different media, which indicates the wide extent to which the cultural awareness has spread regarding this issue among the members of the society. • Early marriage affects the health of the girl in general and leads to weakness in her body and exposes her to many health problems which ultimately affect the health of her children. • Early marriage leads to higher rates in divorce in the society due to increase in family problems between the spouses. • Early marriage deprives the girl of her right to education, thus depriving her from developing herself, her growth and employment. The study has come up with the following recommendations: Raise the age of compulsory education in schools to 18 as a measure to reduce the cases of early marriage. Enforce a law that prevents males and females from getting married before the age of 18. Regarding marriage in general, the couples must undergo blood test before marriage as an important step to detect genetic diseases especially with respect to endogamy, and not to make Thalassemia screening only. Hold educative courses in women's centers, in addition to activating the role of media in increasing awareness and recognition among the members of the society regarding the impacts of early marriage
- ItemBio-climate Boundaries of Vegetation in Palestine (Case study: Cross Section, Jaffa-Jericho(2016) Rasmi Yahya Hamad Al-Omari; Prof. Mohamad Abu SafatThis study of Bio-climate Boundaries of Vegetation in Palestine aims to investigate the impact of environmental factors (climate, topography) on the vegetation, density, distribution of natural plants within the six natural sections of the study (costal plan, semi-costal plan, western slopes, mountaintops, eastern Slopes, and valleye) represented by graphs of the climate elements and average hight of the prevailing plant in each region. It also aims to specify the most important kinds of the plants by topo-vegetarian sectors for all regions of study to show the bio-climate boundaries for the forests natural plants and its contents of plants diversity. The study confirms the natural countenance of the region, represented by its geological conformation and morphology and the most important 15 prevailing soils types like Rendzina and terra rossa, the study also clarifies the important climate elements among topographical divisions represented by (temperatures, rain, sun radiation, Humidity and wind). Showing their impact on vegetation and its important forms that prevailing in each topographical sector of the differents environments of Arboreal and annual vegetation. The most important results of the study: 1- Affirmation of the diversity and density and hight of plants in the region received enough ammounts of railfall with moderated temperatures and saving high soil moisture. 2- Affirmation of the attitude in determining the thermal and rain bio-climate boundaries prevailing in the region of study as folows: • The bio-climate boundaries of Ceratonia siliqua, Quercus, Sonchus oleraceu, and Pinus, exist withen the rain boundary 350-650 mm/ year in semi-costal plan, western slopes, and mountaintops. • Prosopis farcta, Acacia, Retama, Tamarix aphylla, and Sarcopoterium are considered to grow withen the rain boundary 150-200 mm/year. • The bio-climate boundaries of Tamarix، Bambusa vulgaris, Lycium barbarum, Anabasis, and Atriplex exist up to the rain boundary 160 mm/year in the valleys. • The thermal bio-climate boundaries of Acacia، Bambusa vulgaris, Anabasis and Alhagi starts at regions of altitude range -400 to -300 m below sea level. • Some of plants like Pistacia، Artemisia, Teucrium, Sarcopoterium, and Rhamnus frangula exists at altitudes ranges from 0 to 500 m above sea level in eastern Slope. • The thermal boundaries of costal plane plants like Artemisia and Ficus sycomorus exist at altitude 100 m above sea level. • The boundaries of dense vegetation of Pinus forests in semi costal plane and western slopes starts at altitudes ranges from 150 to 450 m above sea level. • The bio-climate boundaries of natural forests that include Acer buergerianum, Crataegus, Cercis, and planted forests of pinus in mountaintops exist at altitudes ranges from 500 to 700 m above sea level. The study recommended decision makers to pay attention to and maintain the eastern slopes including development plans and slopes forestration. It also invites phacutical researchers to develop studies and experiments based on natural plants and inpecting the possibility of the production of medicines.
- ItemChanges in Land Cover/Land Uses inTulkarm Governorate Between2005 and 2011 by UsingGIS Technology(2014) Israa' Subhi Abed Ar-Rahman Abu Saa; Dr. Ahmad Ra'fatGhodiehThis study aims at identifying the patternsof land usein Tulkarm, andproviding a descriptionof the status quoin the regionduring the time periodof2005 - 2011, using GIS technology. The significance of this study is that it's the first to examine the use of geographic information systems in the study of changes in land cover and patterns of land use in Tulkarm Governorate during the time period 2005 - 2011, and it could open new horizons for several studies in the study area and other areas of the West Bank. In addition, there is a need for this kind of studies that help regulate and control land use to meet the needs of the population and to overcome the problems the people of Tulkarm face. The problem with the study is the lack of data and studies of current and accurate changes in the patterns of land cover in the study area, in addition to the problem of the Separation Wall built by Israel and the confiscation of large areas of the territory of the District. The historical Approach was conducted to monitor changes in land use and residential development during a period of time from 2005 to 2011. The analytical and descriptive approaches were also conducted to trace the course of changes in land use and residential development during the years 2005 and 2011. The study showed thatThe ability of GIS technology to produce accurate maps of land use and demonstrate the use of each space, In addition to these result The total number of changes taking place in any residential area during the period 2005 – 2011 was 1405 donums, while the changes taking place in the Israeli settlements was 1.9339 donums, As shown by the results of data analysis, the most used area of roads is the internal ones . As shown byThe results of data analysis thatthe most used areaof theroadis a kind ofinternal roads, and the form Agricultural use of land is a main mode in the District described as an agricultural area. Based on these results, the researchercame upwith the following recommendations, The necessity ofthe useof geographic information systemsin the production ofaccurate mapsinstead ofthe oldtraditional methods, And As a result of overlapping uses, particularly industrial use within the districts and villages in the District, the researcher recommends that there is a need to prevent the presence of industrial zones between residential neighborhoods because of their negative impact on the environment and the health of the population, In addition to the need for Planners tododevelopment strategyplansanddevelopment projectsat the county level.
- ItemChanges in Qalqilya Land Uses 1945-2001(2003) Bilal Abdelraaof Othman Juper; Prof. Mohammad Abu-safatThis study examined changes in the uses of land in Qalqilya since the British occupation of Palestine, the Jordanian rule of the city, the Israeli occupation until the advent of Palestinian National Authority. It was first n village, then a district, a city belonging to Tulkarm District and finally a governorate. The study found there were positive developments in the intensive uses of non- residential urban areas; a gradual decline in the area used for housing purposes in Qalqilya proper; a decline in intensive land and livestock ownership as well as in the percentage of horse-drawn carriages, thanks to the advent of cars and agriculture mechanization. There was also a fluctuation in numbers of cows and goats and a growth in beef and poultry breeding. The study also found a positive development in the area nurseries, plastic houses used for growing tomatoes and cucumbers. However, there was a drop in planting citrus trees, fruit and olive trees and wheat. There was also a fluctuation in the areas planted with Jaffa and vegetables. The study found au overlapping in urban land uses, on one hand, and agricultural use of land in the city, on the other hand.
- ItemThe City of Hebron: A Study in the Geography of Cities(2003) Mohammad Ibrahim Khalil Al-Sa'aideh; Dr. Aziz DweikThis dissertation is a university study about the geography of the city of hebron which , as other Palestinian Cities, Suffers from a lot of various and different problems. The research aims at revealing the existing difficulties in Hebron -the area of the study- and their effects in the near future and predict the coming dangers that may face the city on the levels of demography, economy, society, architecture, transportation and services for the purpose of designing buildings and essential services that meet the needs and the requirements of the city population. The important of this study comes from its being the first in this field. The researcher has acquainted a lot of previous studies, talking briefly about the city which were not more than mere pure descriptive historic studies. In this abstract, I would like to outline the most important results in this study. It becomes clear that the city of Hebron suffers from a population explosion with a rise in the percentage of the youth. This indicates that the city of Hebron is a society for young people. In addition to that, the city suffers from that shortage of water available, particularly drinking water where Hebron is considered the most typical example for suffering from the lack of fresh water. The main reason for this problem is due to the domination of Israeli authorities through its settlements, scattered around the city, on the most of water resources which may satisfy the needs of the residents and resolve this crisis. On the other hand, most of educational and hygienic services are concentrated in the city rather in the nearby suburbs and the surrounding villages and towns, including the increasing pressure on the public services in the city. One of the most possible negative effects of the study is the housing and the commercial expansion on the expense of the agricultural and arable lands, especially to wards the west of the city. This is due to Israeli control on large stretches of land in the east and in the south of the city where so many settlements, surrounding and encircling, the city can be seen. The policy of tensifying and expanding settlements around Hebron is very dangerous –under the pretext of the natural increase of settlers- in the future, and this requires vigilance and precaution from this aggressive policy by laying out planning programs for predicting the future housing expansion towards the west. According to the previous results, the study concludes to several recommendations: one of the most important is the concentration of the economical, educational and social development in the city, especially in the occupied area. Another suggestion is to improve the infrastructure and expanding from the central area of the city to alleviate the tensity of transportation and services concentrated in the middle of the city.
- ItemClimate and Surface Impact on Plant Cover(2003) Faraj Ganam Hamamdhe; Dr. Mansoor Abu AliGiven its close proximity to the Mediterranean Sea climate, Hebron area is characterized by cold and rainy winters and hot and dry summers. However, there is a wide variation in climate conditions among areas and seasons. Bordering the Naqab Desert and the Jordan Valley, parts of Hebron area are affected significantly by the desert climate. Therefore, a plant area has come into being and is dominated by seasonal plants although there are lots of durable plants in addition to some kinds of shrubs for grazing. As a result the natural pasture land in Hebron shows a significant fluctuation in the intensity of its plant cover and in the amount of dry feed produced. Deterioration of Hebron's natural pastures began to surface in the 20th century due to early grazing and overgrazing, and cultivation of marginal and bordering lands. This was in addition to random cutting of trees and feed shrubs for fuel purposes. Due to the nature of the delicate or fragile ecological system in the area, desertification began to creep, thanks to man's fast population growth, on one hand, and the methods of land uses, on the other hand. Aspects of the deterioration in natural pastures in Hebron can be seen in the scarcity or extinction of some important grazing plants, increase in undesired plants by animals, widespread of poisonous and thorny plants. To stop or check on this deterioration and to keep the biodiversity in plants, the researcher suggested the following methods to invest this vital resource: organization of natural pastures investment; increasing and improving sources of feed produced from non-pasture areas; rehabilitation of natural plant cover (natural reserves); introducing orientation and extension services; and creation of a feed reserve and establishment of feed warehouses.
- ItemA Comparative Study of Urban and Rural Housing Geographical In Nablus Governorate Nablus City and Sebastia town (Case Study)(2012) Munther Mutasim Mohammed Faqih; Dr. Ali Abdu HamidNecessitated the nature of this research based on the theoretical background to study this region and facing problems and obstacles, and follow field study of all information, data and statistics geographical, economic and cultural, social, from multiple sources, then analysis, evaluation and conclusion by linking theory and practice in order to reach an appropriate plan for the development and prosperity of the study area. Dealt with the letter A comparative study of geographical housing urban and rural in Nablus: Nablus and the town of Sebastia (Case Study), depending on the information available from multiple sources, and the main objective of this letter is to compare the nature of housing between the town of Sebastia and Nablus by taking a random sample of areas of study and analyzed outcomes indicate the nature of housing and population problems, and knowledge of the role of planning in solving the housing crisis. To achieve this goal has been the use of statistics and data collected from questionnaires for housing in the town of Sebastia and Nablus. The findings of this study to a relationship common in housing problems in both the city and the village and is the existence of distress housing in that area and this is due to the increased demand for housing as a result of the steady increase in population, as well as rising home prices, and the weakness of the planning process in the region, and random construction , which reflected negatively on the widening of roads, as well asoverlapping land uses within residential neighborhoods, especially in the old town of the town of Sebastia and Nablus. The study recommends to set up an organization chart collection includes neighborhoods of the town of Sebastia and work on the development and development, and the adoption of the town of Sebastia as archaeological and tourist center through restoration of the old town, and build some small hotels to be places attracting tourists. The study recommends the need to follow special regulations for restructuring the housing on the western side of the city of Nablus and in particular regions Rafidia and Aljunied and the formulation of policies and development plans based on the reorganization of the residential areas to be set up in the area.
- ItemCrime Locative Distribution in Nablus and its Refugee Camps: Astudy In Social Geography(2012) Arab Awni Ya’acoob Tuqan; Dr. Ahmad Ra’fat GhodiehIn this study, the researcher sought to identify the areas of crimes widespread in Nablus neighborhoods and its refugee camps. Specifically, the study examined the causes, instruments, season of their occurrence, and characteristics of complainant and defendant in these crimes which have been committed in the town and its nearby refugee camps . The researcher divided the study into seven chapters. Chapter one introduced the problem of the study, its significance, its objectives, its hypotheses, methodology and data on the areas of study. Chapter two was devoted to the city of Nablus in terms of location, characteristics of its location, health and social conditions, and jobs in the town. The chapter also dwelt on Nablus refugee camps. Chapter three tackled the internal and external factors behind crimes. The chapter looked at the causes of crimes in the Arab world and provided some statistics on this phenomenon. Chapter four discussed the political and security conditions in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip during the second Intifada which broke out in 2000. In this chapter, the researcher examined the problems of proverty and unemployment in the urban and refugee camp areas. She provided some data and statistics from Nablus police administration and Nablus First Instance Court, and Nablus – based Rehabilitation and Correction Center. The chapter concluded with some data on occupants of the Rehabilitation and Correction Center serving Nablus and its refugee camps (June 23, and July 2, 2011). Chapter five surveyed data on penalty cases submitted to generalattorney in 2009 and 2010 in Nablus and its refugee camps.These data were processed using SPSS to find out frequencies and percentages. These data dwelt on crimes reported to the police in Nablus and its refugee camps, their chronological distribution, instruments used, causes and characteristic of complainants and defendants. Chapter six dealt with the geographical distribution of crime reported in 2009 in Nablus and its refugee camps, using GIS to draw maps for the location of places of residence of both. In addition, the GIS program was used to show the geographical distribution of crimes reported according to season, instruments used, causes, age, and sex of complainants and defendants. The researcher also determined the value of Pearson’s coefficient between the independent variables and the dependent variable in the study of the multi – regression method . Chapter seven covered the findings and recommendations of the study. It was found that 29.6% of reported crimes took place in the summer of 2009 in Nablus and its refugee camps; 9% of all crimes in 2009 occurred in Nablus and its refugee camps, and in Balata Refugee Camp in particular. It was also found that age group 15-19 occupied first place (15.6%) among all age groups of criminals in Nablus and its refugee camps in 2010. Further, there were cases submitted to the Palestinian courts, during the second Intifada, but they were not opened. In the light of these findings, the researcher concludes that couseling and orientations of teenagers and correction of their behaviours, by family, school and community, are very important. She also recommends doing more research on this subject. She also suggest that courts open cases submitted to it in previous years. Finally, she suggests increasing open spaces and public gardens and putting severe restrictions on building setbacks in building laws.
- ItemDirections of Urban Expansion And its Impacts on Agricultural Lands in Tubas District(2013) Ghada Yousef Abdelrazeq Wahdan; Dr. Ahmed Ra'fat GhodiehTubas district is one of the strategic areas in the West Bank,but suffered from the absence of comprehensive plans and instead have been prepared in partial projects,dealing with specific location inside district and the acompaining urban growth is not directed. The phenomenon of construction in agriculture lands increased, in spite of a law that prevents citizens from build in agricultural lands. National plan prevent the application of the low in high –value agricultural land , and prevent the expansion of structural drawings on area c. This study discussed the directions of urban expansion in Tubas District after entering the Palestinian National Authorit between (1994-2011) and its impacts on agricultural lands.It followed the structural expansion of the cities all over the different periods and discussed the most important elements that influenced on expansion. The descriptive and historic analytical method depending on aerial photographs and structural designs of Tubas District. For the spatial and temporal advancement of urbanization in the study area, chronological sequence of available aerial photos were used and utilizing GIS. In addition interviews with private personnel , and to a less extent, the quantitative aspects of the current urbanization process to explain the factors influencing the expansion at the expense of agricultural land. The study also , discussed the important elements that affected the urban space regarding the distribution of buildings , and the constructional density. The study found that the Israeli occupation had and still has the role in restricting urban expansion of localities in area c. There are no planning of agricultural land in the partial structural drawings. The study recommended that the municipalities in Tubas district should work on master plans and re-evaluated, and taking into consideration the preservation of agricultural lands, And making residential areas on low-value agricultural land, And introduce a new classification charts.
- ItemDiseases and Health Services in Nablus District: A Study in Medical Geography(2003) Rana Ameen Mohammed Sabra; Prof. Aziz DouweikThe researcher studied the place analysis for diseases in Nablus District, some diseases considered as a real health problem for citizens in Palestine, and this affect not only people's health, but also their productivity and capability to work and to adapt in the society. The study aimed to focus on the most important factors, which affect on distribution of some diseases in Nablus District such as: Location, climate, pollution, economical, social and cultural affairs for the population. And gave information about special diseases, which indicated from the study and comparing them with international and Palestinian statistics, which issued by Palestinian Ministry of Health and Palestinian Statistics Center. The study also aimed to clarify the range of spread of chronic and not chronic diseases in town and countryside in Nablus District. And examine the relationship between the study variables and chronic or not chronic diseases by finding the value of Qui-Square and the level of statistical meaning of it.
- ItemDiseases in the cities of Nablus and TulkaremA Comparative Study in Medical Geography(2013) Samah yousef Hassan Abdel Razek; Dr. Ayman HusseinThe aim of this study was to investigate the role of the geographical environment (whether natural or human) in the emergence and spread of certain diseases in the two cities, and to highlight and emphasize the role in tracking the geographical pathological phenomena are most prevalent in the Palestinian cities It aimed also to identify the characteristics of the population (demographic and economic and social) and clarify its impact on health conditions, and find out who are those responsible for the provision of health services in the Palestinian cities. To achieve the goals of the study, researchers have designed a questionnaire that included a set of questions. The tool was divided into eight sections; the first section intended to encourage the respondents to answer the vertebrae resolution objectively; the second section’s aim was to collect information on the population such as demographic information,, place of residence, sex, and number of members of the housing. The third section was intended to obtain information on the head of the household, including age, education level and kinship between spouses,. The forth section aimed to obtain information on the most common diseases in the study area. The other sections included questions in order to collect information on health insurance, the drinking water used in the two cities, health awareness of the population on hygiene health and information regarding waste and how to dispose of them in the two cities. The sample size which included 530 participantants was chosen randomly from the two cities taking population sizes in consideration. Respondents were interviewed by the researcher in a face-to-face manner. Data collected were analyzed using statistical packages (SPSS) and then analyze the results using statistical treatment needed. The finding of the study showed that there are a number if diseases are prevalent in the study area. Those diseases include diabetes, high blood pressure, skin allergy and heart disease. High percentage of people diagnosed with cancer in Tulkarm compared with Nablus that may indicate the effect of environmental or climate effect. Other factors such as health awareness, education level and other demographic factors on prevalence of diseases were discussed. Based on the study finding, a set of recommendations were suggested by the researchers including activating the role of different media forms and types of the importance of health awareness among citizens about the most important diseases in the study area and how to prevent them and to increase awareness about the phenomenon of inbreeding and the resulting disease hereditary, as well as to educate workers in various fields about diseases that are caused by the nature of their work, and provide them with means of prevention and public safety during working hours.
- ItemDistribution and Planning of Educational Services in the City of Jenin, Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS)(2015) Saba Mohammed Ibrahim Zyoud; Dr. Ahmed Ra`fat Ghodieh; Dr. Ali Abdul HamidEducational services are considered as an essential part of the physical infrastructure of the city, and hence the development of educational services in the city should be in parallel with the urban development of it, where the main task of these services is to meet the needs of the population in the form and type required. The urban growth and expansion, in addition to the increasing needs of the population for services in general and educational services, in particular, has led to the necessity to study the distribution and planning of educational services in the city of Jenin, and see how the balance found in this distribution, in order to improve this service by selecting the optimal site to reach the best distribution. The study area is located at latitude 32.28 north of the equator and longitude 35.18 east of Greenwich. This study aimed to survey the educational services, to be aware of the current geographical distribution of educational services pattern in the neighborhoods of Jenin. By comparing national, regional and international standards and how much extent it goes with these specifications and standards, and planning for the best site for educational services (kindergartens, schools) using geographic information systems, and to develop a clear vision for the distribution of these services while tackling the most important obstacles to apply those standards, therefore, and in order to achieve this, the concepts related to the planning especially the planning of educational services have been studied, and the study relied on descriptive- analytical approach in the context analyzing data that has been collected from stakeholders (Directorate of Education in Jenin) or through the kindergartens and schools of the city of Jenin field survey.Also the level of satisfaction with these services were measured through the distribution of questionnaires to a sample of students as well as school principals and kindergarten. And using an aerial photograph of the city of Jenin and through program (ARC GIS 10.2) data was input, processing and linking them and analyzed using analysis tools attached to the program and produce maps and various forms that serve the study, as well as the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The study showed that the city of Jenin suffers from a lack of educational services and its typical distribution is of accumulated style, and also it lacks the presence of licensed nurseries of the Ministry of Social Affairs. It showed that the scope of the impact of educational services does not cover all parts of the study area. The study also showed the presence of a random distribution of educational services; for not depends on sound planning standards, particularly schools that suffer from irregular distribution and concentration near each. The study showed that 32% of kindergarten does not meet the minimum required of the child from the total area amounting to 5m2 share. The schools, all the basicl schools, higher primary schools and secondary schools do not check any of the international and national standards relating to the size of the school, the number of classrooms, student share of the total area and built stadiums in addition to the number of students in the classroom. The study recommended the need to follow scientific principles and standards of planning when selecting school sites and to be away from the spontaneity and the random distribution of educational services, and work to establish a new educational services sites to fill the shortage suffered by the study area, taking into account the urban development and population growth rates in the future. The study also recommended the need to provide licensed nurseries for children in order to meet the needs of working women.
- ItemDistribution and Planning of the Educational Services in Salfeet Governorate Using Geographical Information Systems (GIS)(2009) Heba Mohammad Hamudi Shquair; Dr. Ahmed Ra`fat GhodiehThis study has approached the distribution and planning of the educational services in Salfeet Governorate. This study is of importance since it dealt with one of the most important sections in the society- that the speed of development and growth depend upon- for a governorate of geopolitical importance and targeted by the Israeli plans. This study aimed at surveying the educational services, to identify to which extent their locations and specifications correspond to the international standards as well as the Palestinian and to have a clear notion of the distribution of these obstacles that face the implementation of such standards. To achieve this, a study of the concepts relative to planning has been made especially the planning of educational services, as well as the geographical information system that has been used due to its capability in special analysis for the locations of these services. The methodology of the study depended upon the analytical descriptive method in the data analysis framework which was collected from the Directorate of Education in Salfeet or through the field survey of kinder gartens and schools of Salfeet Governorate. The range of contentment from these services was measured through the distribution of applications to a sample of students as well as school and kinder garten principals. The geographical information system (GIS) was used with the aim of preparing the necessary plans and calculating the data collected as well as the statistical program for the social sciences. The study has shown that Salfeet Governorate lacks licensed nurseries from the Ministry of Social Affairs and that 007Aof the governorate cumulation lacks kinder gartens and 59% of the aging between 4-5 don`t attend kinder gartens. The study has also shown arbitrariness in the distribution of educational services since it is not based on planning standards especially kinder gartens that suffer from non regularity in distribution and localization close to each other. It also showed that the educational services in the study area doesn`t meet the international surveying needs. The study recommended the necessity of studying the trends of constructional growth and the population growth rates to choose the best sites possible for the schools and to follow the planning principles and measures It also recommended the necessity to rehabilitate the schools to achieve the new methods of teaching and the curriculum requirements. Relative to kinder gartens, it recommended their establishments in places that lack these establishments and the necessity to limit the fees for attending kinder gartens by the Ministry of Education that meets the current economic conditions. The study also recommended the necessity to provide the data relative to the educational services for those interested.
- ItemThe Ecology of Jenin City Geographical Study(2008) Iyad Mari’ Awadd Mari’; Dr. Adib Al KhateebAbstract The study deals with ecology of the city of Jenin, which means the interaction between man and the environment in which to live by. This study aims to assess the effects of the interaction between man in the town of Jenin and the environment. Further study aims to identify the growth and evolution of the city through ecological perspective, which is based mainly on the relationship between humans and the environment and the natural environment and social development. The study will analyze the elements of the ecological city of Jenin. It is known that the ecosystem is composed of the following elements: Population, management, environment, technology, psycho-social factors. The study deals with the analysis and discussion of ecological factors are the four characteristics of population and housing characteristics in the city. It then discussed the situation of the city and ecological problems resulting from the interaction that occurred between man and the natural environment in the city. The study also uses the land in the town of Jenin and the evolution of this use since in 1993 until 2005. Used in this study descriptive style in dealing with data and draw conclusions, with the adoption of a package of statistical program's (SPSS) in calculating averages and test hypotheses study, as was the use of the technique compared to the findings of a researcher with some studies on the same subject, and finally was using (GIS) to produce maps for the question. The study found a number of results, in the characteristics of the population, the study showed that the average family size of 6 members of each family. The study showed diversified economic activities in the occupied city where employment sector 32.6% of the total manpower are workers in the city. The study showed that the average monthly income in 2007 amounted to 500 Jordanian dinars. The study found that the average housing area in the city of Jenin in 2007 amounted to 138.59 square meters. The study showed the high proportion of housing-related sewage system, hitting 72.15% of housing city of Jenin. The proportion of homes associated with a water network amounted to 87.1% of the sample size. The study showed high proportion of the population impact of pollution as they hit 52.2% of households suffer from the problem of pollution inside the city. The study showed the high proportion of families benefiting from the waste collection service by the local authority or by the municipality of Jenin where the rate of families 87.3% of the total households. The study showed that there is diversity or overlap in the use of land in the town of Jenin, has hit the commercial use 70.29% of the volume of use. Study concluded that further studies of population from the town of Jenin to address social and economic changes of the population. The interest in establishing low-cost housing projects that serve low-income owners in the city. And the issuance of bulletins and organizing sessions of health education and environmental aims to strengthen the relationship and environmental awareness. The study found the need to control waste water and prevent farmers from using in a farming which may cause many diseases
- ItemEconomic and Social Conditions of Palestinian Refugee Camps Residents: Proposed Solutions (Balata Camp Model)(2009) Arwa Hamdi Mahmmoud Jabali; Dr. Ahmed Ra'fatThis study examines one of the most important contemporary Palestinian issues, i.e. the socio-economic conditions of the residents of refugee camps in the West Bank. Balata Refugee Camp, near Nablus, serves as a practical model to identify the impacts of economic and social changes on its residents’ views and orientations in an attempt to develop future solutions for their status quo. To analyze the data, the study makes use of descriptive analytical methods based on (SPSS), geographic information systems (GIS), the next generation (Arc view GIS 3.3) and the Paint program for the Arabization of the maps. The researcher concludes that: A- The views of refugees and their attitudes toward the proposed solutions to their cause were as follows: 1 - (60.05%) of them do not accept to return without compensation; but if given the opportunity they will return although their economic and social obligations will not determine their decision to return.( 80.15%) of the refugees believe that the principle of return and establishing a Palestinian state will not be achieved merely through the return of 1948 refugees to the territory of the Palestinian Authority (West Bank and the Gaza Strip). 2- (87.2%) do not accept compensation without return and those who refuse to be compensated for material loss only are (83.2%). The majority of the refugees (96.5 %) reject the idea of settling down in the settlements instead of their own homes and properties in 1948. 3- (83.67%) reject the integratation and (staying or leaving the camp) solution with the knowledge that if they have the financial resources they prefer to leave the camp especially because it does not affect their faith in the right of return. Therefore, the just solution to the refugee problem is return and compensation. B- The study also finds that there is no impact of gender, age, educational level and number of family members on the views of refugees and their attitudes toward the proposed solutions. C- The income variable affects the total score of the refugee views and tendencies towards the proposed solution of their status quo in the camps for the sake of those with low income (900 ILS per month) over those with high income (2501-3000 begin_of_the_skype_highlightingend_of_the_skype_highlighting ILS per month). Refugees with low income (900 ILS) have more positive attitudes towards the proposed solutions than those who have high levels of income(2501-3000)begin_of_the_skype_highlightingend_of_the_skype_highlighting ILS per month). D- Finally, the study concludes that the occupation variable affects the refugees’ attitudes towards the proposed solutions. Workers in the private sectors have more positive attitudes towards the (right of return) and/or (staying in or leaving the camp) than those who work in the public sector mainly those who work for UNRWA due to their high level of stability which the public sector workers lack. E- The researcher recommends the necessity of providing appropriate shelters for the refugees until their problem is solved.
- ItemThe Economical, Social and Political Impacts of Foreign Immigration in Tulkarem Governorate(2013) Iman Burhan Attyeh Shihab; Dr. Wa,el EnnabThis study addresses the issue of the economical, social and political impacts of foreign immigration in Tulkarem governorate, and has relied on a stratified, random sample that has been distributed on the migrants' families in Tulkarem. The size of the sample was 500 families, and the governorate itself has been divided into three parts (City and suburbs, villages and refugee camps). To achieve the goals of this study, the researcher used the statistical analysis in order to reach a quantitative measurement of the variables. The study consisted of six chapters each of which addressed one aspect of that phenomenon in order to understand it as a whole. The purpose of the study was to recognize the characteristics of the migrants regarding their demographic, economic, and social aspects, and the relationship of all that to the migration decision on one hand, and the impact of that on the population composition in the governorate on the other. The study also aimed to identify the reasons and motives behind the foreign migration in Tulkarem, in addition to the results of such migration, as well as to set visions that aim to reduce the foreign migration and its negative impacts on the region considering that the West Bank and Gaza were among the areas that contributed to the exportation of a lot of man power to the Arab and Gulf countries. Additionally, the man power migration phenomenon from the West Bank and Gaza has gone through two stages: The first one extends from 1948 until the June War of 1967, whereas the second one extends from the time when Israel occupied the West Bank and Gaza during the 1967 war to date. Through studying the characteristics of the migrants themselves, the study showed that the highest rate of migrants has been from the villages (54.2%) of the total population. The study also showed that the migrants fall into the age category ranging between 15-64 years old with a percentage of 72.2% of the population. The percentage of men to women ratio was close to 147.5 men for every 100 women. Regarding the educational level, the study showed that there is an increase in the percentage of migrants who hold university degrees (44.72%); most of the migrants work in the private sector and the governmental professions. Moreover, the study indicated that there are a number of impacts of foreign migration on the migrant himself, most notably the increase in the income of the migrant's family which has been ranked first among the most important economical impacts of such kind of migration. The acquisition of self-confidence and self-reliance were among the major social impacts of foreign migration on the migrant. However, the most notable of the political impacts on the migrant was his loss of the Palestinian identity, and the percentage of migrants who did not possess a Palestinian identity was close to 30.1%. Regarding the implications of foreign migration on the residence conditions in Tulkarem, the remittances from the migrants has helped their families improve their living conditions. Stone has constituted 28.08% of the materials used in construction before migration, whereas after migration the use of stones in construction has increased to reach 40.1%. Additionally, the different supplies and services have been provided to the migrants' families. Based on the results, the researcher presented a number of recommendations including: The necessity to develop the interest of research institutions in migration issues through conducting migration-related studies and surveys. It is also important to give the governmental and public institutions a chance to cooperate and activate their role to reduce foreign migration through making important decisions that would help achieve that goal, and by connecting education with development as well.
- ItemEffect of Climate on The Rate of Olive Productivity in The West Bank.(2008) Fatima Musa "Ahmad Omar" Khatib; Dr. Mohammad Abu SaftThis thesis aims at studying the effect of climate on the rate of olive productivity in the West Bank and the relationship between the most effective elements of climate on the productivity of olive such as: (temperature, quantity of annual rainfall, rate of moisture, wind speed) from the beginning of budding (shooting) to full growth or maturity. The study also examines the extent of relationship between olive productivity and several variables such as ( olive categories, nature of cultivated land, type of soil, weedkillers, ploughing , shearing or cutting branches with secateurs, fertilization , catching with olive flies and catching with the disease of peacock eye. Besides that , the study discusses the relationship between the bio-climatic classification and the olive productivity. The study consists of six chapters: The fist chapter deals with the theoretical frame, the second chapter deals with olive product in the West Bank; the third chapter tackles the environmental factor affecting the productivity of olive oil in the West Bank; the Fourth chapter clarifies the effect of caring with olive trees on their productivity ; and the Fifth chapter deals with conclusions (results) and recommendations. The most important result is the availability of a close relationship between the climatic elements in the periods of fruit growth: (budding, blossomy, shooting, fruit growth and maturation or ripeness) and the olive productivity in the West Bank. In addition to that; the study concludes the availability of relationship between the moisturized and semi-moisturized bio-climatic classification on monthly , annual and semestrial or semi-annual level and the high productivity of olive oil; and there is also a relationship between synchronization of dry and semi-dry climatic classification and the low productivity of olive oil. The study also clarifies the relationship between productivity and the agricultural operations related to the olive tree.