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- ItemGeography of Industry in Jenin(1997) مصطفى عثمان مصطفى غانم;This thesis titled " Geography of Industry in Jenin" represents a field study of industry in Jenin Governorate. It contains six chapters : (1) Introduction and Methodology (2) industrial location factors ; (3)Development of the industrial section and industrial distribution ; (4)industrial structure in the Governorate and its productivity; (5)industrial planning and projected industrial areas; and (6)Results and recommendations. This research has used descriptive statistics method by introducing data to the computer using SPSS package . most of the tables in the thesis were established by this method. Industry in Jenin was divided in to three major industries. (a) Big size industries; (b) Medium size industries; and (c) small size industries. Among the major findings of this study are: • industry in general is a new economic sector in Jenin. • Major industries are concentrated in the city itself. • Randomness and lack of planning are the characteristics of the geographic distribution of industries in Jenin Governorate. • the lack of forward and backward connections in the industrial sector in Jenin Governorate . • The existence of unemployed production capacity as a result of the bad economic situation in the governorate. • There is a tight connection between the industrial section in Jenin and that of Israel. • The study showed that there are human. And physical foundations which can be depended on in establishing industrial areas in the Governorate. Among the recommendations of this study are the following: • Rebuilding of the infrastructure of the economy in general and the industry in particular. • Development of agricultural sector in a parallel manner of the development of industrial sector. • Development of vocational education so as to enhance workers levels. • The search for external markets and the improvement of the competitiveness of Jenin's industries. • The establishment of industrial banks and establishments. • Redistribution of industries all over the governorate including the city and the rural areas.
- ItemNablus: A Study in Population Structure and Housing Characteristics(1998) Maher Abu Saleh; Dr. Hussein AhmadThis study researched the housing characteristics and the population structure in Nablus , one of the largest cities in Palestine . The study falls into seven chapters . The first chapter included the research plan , statements of the problem , study objectives , hypotheses limits of the study questionnaire, the statistical analysis and review of literature . The second chapter dwelt on age and structure of Nablus population It was found that the toun’s population fell within the demographic transitional stages of young age category. The mediumage of the town's populations was. The sex ratio in the city was the lowest compared with its counterparts in the West Bank (105,6). In the third chapter, the researcher investigated the social and the economic structure. The study tackled the education status of the population. The rate of literacy among people six years of age and over was 92.6% . The rate of illiteracy amounted 7.4o/o . Education among people, years of age and over topped 94% . The rate in the Palestinian lands was 84%. when studying marital status of population, it was found 20.6 of males were single as opposed to 19.8% . The rate of married females was 35.9% opposed to rate among males which amounted to 31.5%. The mean age at first marriage among males in the city was 25.5 as opposed to among females . Concerning Practical situation of populations, the crude economic activity rate of the city populations was 26 .1% . The general economic activity rate was 45% . The unemployment rate, at the time of conducting this study, was 14.6%. Male workers represented the largest proportion of the work force is the city ( 84.2% ) . Construction sector took the , largest percentage of workers (21 .1% ). The average monthly income of a family household in the city was 442.5 Jordanian dinars as opposed to the average monthly income in the West Bank which amounted to 305,6 Jordanian dinars. In the fourth chapter, the researcher studied the family structure. The average size of the family in the city was 6.6 members. The nuclear family was the prevailing patten1 in the city. This style of family represented 85 .6% of all families. The fifth chapter was deroted to housing characteristics. The percentage of owned houses topped 72.6% and rented houses 26.7%. The average annual rent was 578.7 Jordanim1 dinars. In building, several construction materials were used. Store houses, from all sides, represented 30.2% of all housing in the city. Concrete and stone houses accounted for 46.8%. Some 38% of the town housing was independent housing units. The average of housing space in Nablus, increased to 138 square meters as opposed to the average in other West Bank cites (125sqm). The average number of rooms, per housing unit, was 4.1 This average and higher than that in the west Bank (3.6 rooms). The occupancy ratio (degree of crowdedness), per house, was 1, 58, members per room> In other West Bank towns, this rate was higher and reached 1,95 members per room. In the sixth chapter , the researcher studied the services available in households. It was found that 97.3% of all houses had water faucets of their own. All houses have power supply from Nablus Municipality About 96.4% of all houses are connected with the public serverage system in the city. 'Some 55 .1% of houses depended on gas as a sources of heating . In this chapter, the researcher also studied the extent of basic facilities available in houses. It was found that 98.6% of town's houses had kitchens, 98.4% had bathrooms and 99o/o had toilets. The researcher also student he availability of electronic equipment: T. V, video, radio, fridges, washing machines, cars , etc. In the last chapter , the researcher conducted an analysis of the findings of the study .
- ItemTrends and Levels of Fertility in the District of Qulqilia(1998) خضر محمد خضر عودة;This study aims to measure the trends and levels of fertility and demographic and socio-economic factors that affect it in the district of Qulqilia. To achieve this purpose, the study depends on a specific and special questionnaire which is distributed in the district in January 1997. The entitled area is classified into three patterns according to the number of population (city, big villages, and small villages). Astrified random sample of 5% of the household in the district was chosen. The study includes six chapters as the following: The first one illustrates the geographical features of the district; its Importance, objectives and the motivations and justifications behind this study that clarifies its problems and curriculums. Chapter two looks over the previous studies which are done on the same subject in Palestine, other Arab countries, and foreign ones. Chapter three studies the structure of population. It states that 46.5%of the people are under the age of 15.The rate of economical dependency is 3.75 while the unemployment is 12% the monthly average income is336.6 JD. Chapter four studies the levels of fertility and factors affecting them .It shows that the crude birth rate is 40.5 per thousand. It agrees with the nativity in the West Bank according to the P.C.B.S which is about 41.2 per thousand in 1994 . The total fertility rate in Qulqilia district is 7.27 .It is determined by the patterns of residence where it goes up in small villages due to the differences in culture and social standards. In the West Bank and Gaza Strip, the total fertility rate is 6.24 in 1996.The duration of marriage, current age, and years of education are the major factors that influence the number of children ever born whereas the characteristics related to the husband are less effect than those of a wife. Chapter five deals with the trends of fertility and factors that affect then in Qulqilia district. It shows that the percent of women who are in the childbearing age and wish to have more children is 50.4%. In contrast to the figures Statistics of the Palestinian Center ,shows that 48.4% of those do not want to have more children in addition to their children in the West Bank in 1996. A study of factors that affect the number of children wished to be born states that the duration of marriage, years of education for a mother, the number of children ever born and the current age of the mother are the most important factors affected the number of children wish to have by the woman. Chapter six looks over the results and recommendation of the study.
- Itemالنفايات الصلبة في مدينة نابلس: دراسة في جغرافية البيئة(1999) رائد إبراهيم عبد الرحيم حنيني;English Abstract Not Available
- Itemمحددات اختبار الموقع الصناعي في محافظة طولكرم: دراسة في التخطيط الصناعي(1999) إياد احمد فياض عبد الهادي;This thesis has dealt with Industrial Planning in Tulkarm Governorate from a geographical point of view. It contains the following chapters: 1st Chapter: Study Methodology. 2nd Ch3pter: Literature Review. 3rd Chapter: Industrial Realities in the Governorate: development and geographical distribution, its contribution to labor employment, production and local and external trade and problems. 4th Chapter: A vailable human and natural resources in the Governorate. 5th Chapter: Factors affecting location selection of firms according to location, type and size. 6th Chapter: Location selection for industrial areas by differentiating among suggested industrial zones. 7th Chapter: Conclusions and recommendations. In order to achieve that, the author studied and analyzed recent statistics published by the Palestinian Bereau of Statistics, sources and references, in addition to designing a questionnaire to fill m the gaps related to industrial establishments in Tulkrarm Governorate. After collecting the data, the computer-SPSS –package was used to analyse it. Main conclusions of this study are: The small size of industrial establishments in the governorate, and the weak contribution of these establishments m employment's, productions, value added and marketing. Industry is still brand new in the Governorate. A haphazard distribution of industries there. The existence of human and natural resources needed for industry in the Governorate. Main factors affecting the selection of industrial firms are: (1) Closeness to market. (2) Existence of industrial agglomeration. (3) Land ownership. (4) Closeness to owner's residence. (5) Cheap labor force. (6) The nearness of roads. (7) Availability of energy. (8) Market need for output. Khadouri area is considered as the best location in terms of evaluation, however, it is the worst in terms of environmental effects. The author suggested an area as the best location which supposed to be taken into consideration for future industrial planning.
- Itemالتصحر في محافظة بيت لحم(1999) عليان عليان;English Abstract Not Available
- Itemمستويات الخصوبة في محافظة جنين من واقع التسجيل الحيوي لعام 1997م(2000) عدنان أحمد محمود مالول;This study aimed at recognizing the levels of people's fertility, infant mortality, as well as studying the demographic, social, and economic factors that affect these levels. The study was based on the vital registration data obtained from the Department of Civil Affairs at the Ministry of Interior (Jenin District). The study included all the birth notification cases in the Governorate for 1997 (7 440 birth cases). The researcher divided the District into city, town, village, and camp. The study was divided into five chapters. Chapter one included an introduction and a geographical summary of Jenin District in addition to the significance, the problem, the objectives, and the rationale of the study. It also included review of literature about this subject. Chapter two covered the population structure of Jenin District. It was found out , from the age structure of the population , that the community in the district was a youngful community. Some 43.4% of the populations were under 14 years old. The qualitative sexratio was 103.8 male compared with 100 females. The marital status study of the population showed that 35.3% of all the District population were married; divorce among males was 0.088; divorce among females was 0.36, widowers 0.22%; widows 2.56%; age average at first marriage was 19.7 years, and it was also found out that 99.2% of the population were Muslims. Chapter three examined the levels of fertility and the factors affecting it. The crude birth rate was 32.6, general fertility rate was 159 . The total fertility rate was 5.09 and gross reproduction rate was 2.45. It was found out that age at the first marriage, duration of marriage, and educational level were the major factors affecting women's fertility. Chapter four studied infant mortality levels and the factors affecting it. The infant mortality rate was 15.1 to Jenin District. There were differences in infant mortality rate according to place of living ranging from 12.3 in urban areas to 19.5 in rural areas, to 20.2 in refugee's camps. Demographic, social, and economic factors had an effect on the infant mortality rate. The study found out that 64.2% of infant death had taken place from one day to one week of age. Incomplete growth of embryo made up 42.2% of the direct causes of infant deaths.
- Itemالنقل البري في محافظة نابلس: دراسة جغرافية(2000) مازن توفيق محمد سعيد جرار;This study handles land transportation of vehicles in Nablus Governorate which has been regarded as part of the West Bank of the Jordan River according to the classification of the Palestinian National Authority since 1993. It also deals with land transportation as part of geography within the whole framework of Economic Geography. The study aims to pinpoint the general features of the roads system in Nablus Governorate with respect to their expansion, direction and classification. Moreover, it highlights the role of the natural and human factors concerning the roads net system, the traffic and the social, economical and environmental impact resulting from. This research consists of five chapters. the first chapter talks not only about the preface of the study and its spatial limits but also the question and the essence of the proposed study, its aims, importance, methodology, procedures _and reviews as well. The second chapter, however, discusses the Governorate’s roads net general features. It begins with a historical background of roads construction, development, geographical distribution, extension, length and .degree. In order to Research the features of this net, the study uses some quantitative and analytical methods like dtouriudex and correlation degree in the net furnished by the shapes and the charts the Study uses. The third .chapter focuses .on the study of .the natural impact like the geographical Location geological structure, and the aspect of surface and climate on the roads Net and traffic. .Additionally, it stresses the effect of the human factors with regard to the political situation the study area has experienced, the sequence of the area as well as the effect of the spatial distribution .on the roads system and traffic. The fourth chapter includes three aspects. The first one deals with the means of transportation, its types and resources, the mechanical energy used, preparation of vehicles. Future expectations and making some international .comparisons on the adequacy of transportation means as for the inhabitants of the Governorate of Nablus. It also includes the types and features of the transmitted materials and the suitability of transportation means to the .area of study according to scientific criterion. Another aspect of this .chapter discusses the traffic movement in the center of Nablus Governorate, its human centers and other parts of the West Bank. this aspect also includes a study of the stations, stops, pedestrians _movement and the abundance of transportation means . The traffic sites of paucity .and plethora are located and made clear through ,the shapes provided, however, the third aspect of chapter four stresses the natural, human and economical problems related to transportation. Concerning the fifth chapter of this study, the transportation economical impacts on various sectors; agriculture, industry and commerce are discussed and so are the transportation changes within the governorate. It handles also the social impacts and how it achieves the social and cultural understanding between the population factions. Additionally, the effect of public transportation in particular on the behavioral styles of the inhabitants are handled as well as the environmental impacts of different transportation 1neans; gas, liquid and noise pollution. This study uses the historical, descriptive, cadastral and analytical methodology to suit the subject of study, it also uses the field work and library facilities like references, encyclopedias, maps and previous studies that have to .do with the subject proposed taking into account the usage of some mechanical methods like length measuring device i.e. the,meter, clinometers used to 1neasure the road slopes and the device f9J measuring lengths on maps and poles.
- ItemGeography of Tourism in Jericho and the Dead Sea(2000) مطيع يوسف محمد قيصي;Jericho and the Dead Sea are considered a unique tourist attraction area not only in Palestine but in the world as a whole. The area has Special geographical characteristic; it is the minerals in of great medical value, in addition to the safe and early spring swimming. Archeologists proved that Jericho is the oldest inhabited city in the world, therefore, its relics reveal its long history together with the traces of all civilizations inhabited the city. The richness in tourist attractions is in the area of study attracted tourists from all of the world. The prevailing political conditions in the region affected positively and negatively the in blow of tourists to the region as a whole and to the study area in Particular. After the Israeli occupation in 1967, tourism facilities and services dropped sharply thus the number of tourists dropped accordingly. After the Israeli - Palestinian Peace talks, the area is witnessing an increase in the number of tourists. The increase in the number of tourists increased the demand on tourism facilitates, utilities and services. Such two ways positive interrelationship is manifested by the increase in the total number of hotels, the Casino, the village resorts.... etc. This study analyzed the characteristics of tourism activities in the area of study, existing tourism services and the socioeconomic characteristics of the employees in the tourisn1 sector- the results of the final analysis will be of great benefit to the planners and investors from the public and private sectors. The study examined the existing problems facing tourism industry in the study area hoping that policy makes, investors and planners will try to solve it. The study also showed that cultural tourism is the prevailing norm. It is clear that the historical motives constituted the highest percentage of the sample, it reached 32.3% followed by the religious motive which constituted 30.8% of the san1ple. The economic effects of tourism in the study area were clear in the form of increased personal income, increased employment opportunities, strengthening other related economic activities. It also affected social, political and environmental aspects of the study area. The obstacles facing tourism development in the study area were explored, aiming at highlighting the needed activities by the public and private sectors to improve tourism.
- Itemالتخطيط الإقليمي للاستيطان الصهيوني في الضفة الغربية 1967 - 2000(2000) محمد احمد المصري;The political situations in the occupied territory and attitude and behavior of the Israeli's had big affection on me and pushed me to study and research the Israeli's regional planning for settlement building at the West Bank. In addition to the courses I took with Dr. Aziz at the university which encouraged me and opened the path for me to research this political and very important matter. The study I have made is of six chapters. In the first chapter I state the purpose, importance, statements, questions, old studies, and a general brief about the Geography of the West Bank. In the second chapter I clarify the goals and strong points of the Israeli's, and it also includes details of the taking over projects planned to execute in the Palestinian lands for the last three decades. The third chapter is handles the statistical procedures used in research and analysis of the statistical data, as a study of the political attitudes of the Amal and Lekude parties for the past thirty years and its impact on the development of the overtaking of the Palestinian land in the West Bank in addition to the Israeli distribution of settlements in the WB according to the date of inception, number of inhabitants, and the average of annual growth of the Israeli settlements is included. In the fourth chapter I go into details concerning the area distribution of the Israeli settlements in the preservations of the West Bank each separated and I tried to relate the distribution of settlements with the ongoing projects and the political situations accompanied. Given the importance of the Jerusalem case I dedicated the fifth chapter for studying the Jerusalem case. The expand of the frontiers, the importance of building settlements for the Israeli's, the ongoing projects of overtaking the land, the project of Jerusalem Extension, and finally the geographical distribution for the settlements in Jerusalem. The Israeli goal in making Jerusalem a pure Jewish area is also discussed in details. The last chapter is a conclusion and results of the study I made. The indexes include a list of the names of the Israeli settlements in the West Bank, a list of names and places of these settlements after the year 1996, the land use in the West Bank, graphical shapes and the bibliography
- ItemOlive production in Jenin governarate: A Geographical Study(2001) Ahmad Khanfar;This study is intended to deal with Olive Production in Jenin governarate "A Geographical Stitdy", aiming at: 1. Studying the development of olive planted areas in the governarate During the period 1980-1998. 2. Studying the recent situation of olive production, highlighting the most significant problems, "natural and human", encountering olive trees growing in Jenin governarate. • 3. Definition of local olive oil production portion "oil, olive fruit" of the annual consumption from the different areas of olive production in Jenin governarate. 4. Studying the economical competence of growing olive trees in the governarate. 5. Introducing some recommendations that help in stimulating and promotion this • type of agriculture according to the ruling economical and political conditions, and facing the problems and obstructions effecting olive production and growing. The study got started through the following hypothesis: 1- Olive production is affected by human and natural factors. 2- The degrees of self sufficiency of olive and oil in the area of study aren’t the same as a result of the production oscillation besides to the consumption increase related to the population increasing numbers. The study• consisted of Five Chapters, the first one contained the definition of the area of study, its aims, its problems, the former relevant studies about olive "the subject", the method of the study. The second chapter discussed the natural factors and their effect on olive production, while the human factors and their effect on olive production were discussed through the third chapter. The fourth chapter discussed the areas planted with olive trees, their production, economical efficiency and self-efficiency at the area of Study, while the fifth chapter discussed the Study's Results and the recommendations. The study came to the conclusions: 1. Olive trees are considered as the leading productive trees planted in Jenin governarate, the olive-planted areas on 1998 were about "146.830" dunams, -44%- of the areas exploited for different types of agriculture, trees, vegetables and other crops, forming 78% of'186457 dunams", the whole area of exploited for planting fruitful trees in the governarate. The olive production in the area was estimated on 1998 to make 9.5% of Palestine production of olive. 2. There is an annual slight increase in the areas prepared to plant olive trees. 3. Olive production oscillates from year to another. 4. The smallness and diffusion of productive areas hinders using more sophisticated means of production. 5. Farmers suffer low level of dealing with new agricultural methods and agricultural guidance. 6. The soil of the governarate is poor in Nitrogen and natural compost, as the percentage of these materials is not sufficient for the needs of olive trees. 7. The degree of self-sufficiency of olive and olive oil varies from a year to another as a result of the phenomenon of the good production every other year, on 1998 the self sufficiency degree of olive fruits came up to 807%, but it was 285% of olive oil, and on 1997 it was only 8%. The most prominent recommendations are: • Supporting and rehabilitating the agricultural and commercial stations at the governarate. • The urgent need for paying attention to industries, especially the olive mills in order to reduce the sourness degree and providing a special factory for pickling olive fruits. • Rehabilitating the old orchards by clipping old trees. • Building up agricultural roads to facilitate reaching to the orchards, the matter that encourages the owners to exploit it well. • Guiding the farmers and providing them with the best agricultural instructions on proper farming, clipping and fertilizer use. • Conducting researches about the production rotation, fertilizers' use and treating diseases. • Intensifying the use of organic and chemical fertilizers "nitrogen, phosphorous and Potassium".
- ItemLand Use Patterns in Tubas City: AStudy of Internal Structure(2001) Abed-Alnaser Nader Abed-Alrahman Yousef; Dr. Aziz DweikThis research study employed Factor Analyses in its study of urban land Use in Tubas City. Results of the Factor Analysis revealed that Four Factors could be utilized in interpreting the internal structure of Tubas City. These Factors were Family Structure, Social Economic Status, Housing Characteristics, And the Average Economical Status. Results of this study indicated that the density of population in Tubas City is unequally distributed. It ranges from 11/person/donum, in the old part of the city to about 0.3/person/donum, in the Al-Sarara area at the outskirts of Tubas. It was found that the average size of the family in Tubas City is less than the average size of the family in West Bank and Gaza Strip. In Tubas city it reaches about 6.2 persons for every family, compared to 6.4 person in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. Also the percentage of population (less than 15 years old) is about 44.7% Percent of the sample. The sex ratio is 103/100. With regard to housing characteristics the study revealed that 79% percent of the population in the study area owns their houses with Bolster, about 13 %percent with a Hallmark, and 13% from the houses are Apartments. However this study provided interesting Figures about other housing characteristics, for examples, 24% percent of the houses were built of White stones, while 14 %percent of the houses were built of old stones cut, some time ago. Furthermore variations in housing size were noticed in the study area 35%percent of the houses were less than 120Mz, while 18%percent of the houses have more than 200M2 each. Such Factors Explained 48.3 percent of total variance. It was found that a correlation appeared between the second and the fourth factor, in a way they form the socio economic dimension. This kind of research was applied widely to many western cities to establish theory to describe the internal structure of cities. Non- western cities did not attract the same attention, because of the many obstacles which hinders this research. This study may be considered as a leading research, which can be emulated in the same direction in the Arab World in general and in Palestine, in Particular, and it is hoped that other researches will flow.
- Itemمنطقة سلفيت - دراسة في التركيب السكاني وخصائص المسكن(2001) عماد فرح جودة;This study aimed at identifying the demographic and housing characteristics in Salfit district. The district suffers fi•o1n a dearth or related studies and literature. To achieve its objectives, the study depended on a survey distributed among population centers in Salfit area. The area itself was divided into three demographic patterns according to number or population: large towns, medium size towns and small villages. The researcher took randomly 6% of all families in Salfit area in order to achieve the study objectives. The study consisted of nine chapters. The first chapter included the study plan, historical and geographical glimpse of Salfit area, statement of the problem; study objectives, hypotheses, sources, sample; statistical processing, problems in the study and review of literature. The second chapter examined age structure and diversity or population. It was found that the Sal11t district population was predominantly youthful, demographically considered one of the transitional stages. The mean age was 19.9. The children-women ratio, in Salfit area, was 47.4% while ratio of old people-young people was 8.2%. It was also found that percentage of dependents (children), in Salflt area, was lower than in other Palestinian areas. In Salfit area, the percentage was 64.4% while gender ratio in the area was 110 males for 100 females. The third chapter investigated the state of education in the area. The rate of illiteracy among those I 0 years old and over was 3.1% among males as opposed to 10% among females. The rate of illiteracy would increase as age categories increased. Chapter three also dwelt on distribution of population according to state of schooling, age and sex. High schooling was the most prevalent among all stages of education. Concerning sex, the percentage of educated males was higher than that of educated females owing to males' interest in education. Chapter four tackled the population economic structure. The rate of raw economic activity was 19.5%. At the time of conducting the study. The rate of joblessness was 1.8%. On the other hand, the rate of general economic activity was 31.5%. The working males represented 6.1% of all males as opposed to 3.6o/o of all females. The construction profession took the highest percentage of employees (31 .3% of all employee). Some 45.8% of working people were working inside the Green Line. The average monthly income of an individual worker was 370.4 Jordanian dinars. This average income was higher than the average monthly income in Gaza Strip which amounted to 256 .7 Jordanian dinars. However, the average monthly income in Sal fit area was lower than in Nablus in which it amounted to 442.5 Jordanian dinars. Chapter five investigated marital status of the population. The chapter mainly looked at population distribution according to age and sex. Unmarried males represented 28.4% of all males as opposed to 15.9%females. Percentage of married men was 3 1. 7%. However, the percentage of married woman was lower. The average age at first marriage, among males, was 23.8 as opposed to 21.6. Chapter six focused on the structure of family. The average number of family members in the area was 5.9. It was also found the nuclear family pattern was the most common, representing 88% of all families. In chapter seven, the researcher studied the housing characteristics. The total number of owned houses was 80.4%. Houses owned by the extended family represented 14.2%. It was also found that the percentage of owned houses in Salfit area was higher than in other Palestinian cities. and refugee camps. The average annual rent in Salfit was 5338 Jordanian dinars. Several construction materials were used in building housing units. Stone-built houses formed 24.5% while brick and concrete built houses represented 65.9% of all houses. Independent housing units represented 87 .7% of all housing units in the area. The area of a housing unit was 144 sq meters. This was found to be higher than average of area of housing units in other West Bank villages ( 117 sq meters). The average number of rooms, in the area of this study, was 4.36 rooms as. Opposed to lower average in other West Bank towns, villages and refugee camps. Ratio of occupancy was 1.35 individuals per room. Density was 0.042 persons per square meter. Chapter eight was devoted to services available in housing units. It was found that 81 .3 of all homes had received water from the public water network as opposed to 14%> which had received their running water from wells. Some 96 .8% of all homes received their electricity from public electric network. Some 99. 7o/o of homes would dispose of their waste water (sewage) through cisterns. For heating, there was a rise in number of families depending on wood fire . (45.7%). Pertaining to durable goods, such as TV, refrigerator and satellite dishes .. . , there were different rates. Chapter nine was devoted to the study findings and recommendations.
- Itemالنفايات السائلة في مدينة نابلس: دراسة في جغرافية البيئة(2001) كفاية خليل إبراهيم أبو الهدى;This academic letter is a field study of ecology's geography treating all aspects, uses after recycling, and factors affecting liquid letters in Nablus City. The study was based on three questionnaires distributed on residential areas, industrial constructions, medical care centers, hospitals, labs, & science research centers. Using Descriptive Statistics Style treated the study, by data entry into SPSS computer program. And the results were as follow: - - The averages of individual’s water consumption in Nablus city show low rates, this thing reflect the quality and concentration of Wastewater. - The Biological Oxygen Demand “BOD" (Pollutant organic) resulting quantities show the highest rates at olive presses. - Economic, social, population, & demographic characteristic somehow affect the quantity of Wastewater. - There is a clear difference of the Wastewater qualities through the year seasons; organic materials and pollutants are less concentrated at summer, since the average of individual's water consumption is low. - Small families owning several bathrooms and automatic washers and other sanitary equipment show the highest rates of water consumption. - Industrial wastewater is considered the most dangerous pollutants of the water sources in the region, and its leakage to groundwater will diminish the reserved quantities of the region. - Because of the increasing demand and limited water sources, treated wastewater would be one way of meeting current needs. Based on the results the researcher recommended the following: - - Ecology relevant authorities should oblige factories & companies owners to allocate a specified budget for stopping pollution. Industrial, Exhaust, polluted water & slaughterhouses and tannin water should be treated before flowing into the neighbor valleys. - Spreading ecological awareness among inhabitant specially factories owners threatening the surrounding areas. - The necessity of separating industrial Wastewater from household litters. - Obliging factories to construct their own Local Purification stations. - Pretreatment of harmful industrial products is an essential priority of applying any project. - Warning inhabitants (especially farmers) ofthe dangerous effects of using untreated sewage water, illustrating the suitable ways of using sewage water.
- ItemInternal impetration to Ramallah and Al Bireh Cities(2002) Yaser Mohammed Sarhan Kassab; Dr. Wael EnnabThis study 'investigates the phenomenon of internal migration to the towns of Ramala and Al-Beera since these two towns enjoy an intermediate geographical location on the one hand, and an administrative and political importance among the towns of the West Bank on the other. The study consists of five chapters each of which discusses one aspect of that phenomenon in order to take. in account all its aspects. Chapter One deals with the theoretical background including the problem of the study, the reasons of its choice, its aims, its hypotheses and data sources. It also includes the study questionnaire, the boundaries of the studied area, the study obstacles, the method of analysis, and the previous studies that dealt with the same subject. Chapter Two makes a preface to the subject by giving an idea about the two towns from various prospects including the location, climate, geographical features, urban aspect, education, demography, and other aspects that may be related to the circumstances of both towns in a historical context that is suitable to the subject of the study. Chapter Three deals with the reasons and motives that cause Migration as a social phenomenon whether they were economical, social or political motives. Chapter F our discusses the various demographic, social, economical, and housing characteristics of the immigrants. These characteristics were compared with the characteristics of their peer citizens of both towns. Chapter Five deals with the most eminent results and effects of the internal Migration to Ramala and Al-Beera upon the various aspects, economical, social, political and others. These results were correlated with some of the immigrants characteristics. In addition, it contains the most important results and recommendations of the study. The study used the method of collecting data by means of distributing questionnaires among, the study population in both towns which contained a class random sample of 5% of the total number of the houses of both towns. Thus, A included all the citizens and immigrants of both towns. The sample represented 612 families which included 507 immigrant families and l05 citizen families. The scientific methodology of the study depends on the descriptive, behavioral, quantitative, and analytical methodology since the study dealt with more than one aspect in investigating the Migration phenomenon. However, all of them are contained in one frame. The study attempted to recognize a number of aims including the geographical, economical and administrative location of both cities, the potential motives that motivate migration to them, the immigrants characteristics, and the migration results upon the areas of origin and destination. The study dealt with the problem that it attempted to treat since the migration to both towns is a random migration not preceded by a suitable planning that could cope with the immigrants and that could in turn decreases the negative results of their migration on both towns and the areas of their origin. The importance of the study lies in the fact that migration plays an important role affecting directly the characteristics of the population on both sides. In addition, the study is the first of its kind in this respect especially that it concentrated on Ramala and Al-Beera since they occupy an intermediate geographical location of the West Bank. While carrying out the study, the researcher faced a number of problems. One of those major problems was that some of the population refused to fill the questionnaire either completely or partially by refusing to answer questions concerning their income or work before migration and other questions. On the other hand, the researcher faced problems related to obtaining data and maps from official circles. The study reached a number of findings related to internal Migration in both towns. These findings were in conformity to a large extent with the findings of studies carried out h researchers in other similar communities. These findings came in series according to the study chapters as follows. The study confirmed, that the population growth 1n both Ramala and Al-Beera was not resulting crow natural increase. On the contrary, migration played the largest role in its increase during different years. The study also reached the finding that the various economical motives had the most eminent role in attracting the immigrants (family heads) towards Ramala and M-Beera, followed by the social factors. More than often, the political factors related to the Israeli occupation Of the Israeli occupation of the Palestinian cities and towns in the year 194%, and then the occupation of Jerusalem in 196-had a great effect in increasing the immigrants towards Ramala and Al Been. 'This factor is obvious by the large percentage of refugees in both towns. Other factors had a humble contribution to the population increase in comparison with the previous factors and variables.
- ItemDiseases and Health Services in Nablus District: A Study in Medical Geography(2003) Rana Ameen Mohammed Sabra; Prof. Aziz DouweikThe researcher studied the place analysis for diseases in Nablus District, some diseases considered as a real health problem for citizens in Palestine, and this affect not only people's health, but also their productivity and capability to work and to adapt in the society. The study aimed to focus on the most important factors, which affect on distribution of some diseases in Nablus District such as: Location, climate, pollution, economical, social and cultural affairs for the population. And gave information about special diseases, which indicated from the study and comparing them with international and Palestinian statistics, which issued by Palestinian Ministry of Health and Palestinian Statistics Center. The study also aimed to clarify the range of spread of chronic and not chronic diseases in town and countryside in Nablus District. And examine the relationship between the study variables and chronic or not chronic diseases by finding the value of Qui-Square and the level of statistical meaning of it.
- ItemClimate and Surface Impact on Plant Cover(2003) Faraj Ganam Hamamdhe; Dr. Mansoor Abu AliGiven its close proximity to the Mediterranean Sea climate, Hebron area is characterized by cold and rainy winters and hot and dry summers. However, there is a wide variation in climate conditions among areas and seasons. Bordering the Naqab Desert and the Jordan Valley, parts of Hebron area are affected significantly by the desert climate. Therefore, a plant area has come into being and is dominated by seasonal plants although there are lots of durable plants in addition to some kinds of shrubs for grazing. As a result the natural pasture land in Hebron shows a significant fluctuation in the intensity of its plant cover and in the amount of dry feed produced. Deterioration of Hebron's natural pastures began to surface in the 20th century due to early grazing and overgrazing, and cultivation of marginal and bordering lands. This was in addition to random cutting of trees and feed shrubs for fuel purposes. Due to the nature of the delicate or fragile ecological system in the area, desertification began to creep, thanks to man's fast population growth, on one hand, and the methods of land uses, on the other hand. Aspects of the deterioration in natural pastures in Hebron can be seen in the scarcity or extinction of some important grazing plants, increase in undesired plants by animals, widespread of poisonous and thorny plants. To stop or check on this deterioration and to keep the biodiversity in plants, the researcher suggested the following methods to invest this vital resource: organization of natural pastures investment; increasing and improving sources of feed produced from non-pasture areas; rehabilitation of natural plant cover (natural reserves); introducing orientation and extension services; and creation of a feed reserve and establishment of feed warehouses.
- ItemGeography Of Industry in Nabuls Governorate(2003) Hani Mohammad Ibraheem Al-Jamal; Dr. Wael EnabIndustry is considered both a means of progress and an end by itself due to its vital and key role which can create significant changes that transform communities from weakness, primitive into development, self-sufficiency and improvement. Palestine , as any other developing country , has an urgent need to improve the industrial sector for the sake of development stability and social security for its people .Therefore , this geographical study of the industries in Nablus Governorate tries to shed light on the industrial sector regarding its components , structure problems so that some solutions can be suggested. This study consists of six chapters .The first one, deals with the introduction, the problem of the study , its importance , the aims ,rationale, questions , methodology , tools of the research , the study population , the difficulties , the geographical historical and social background , previous literature, concepts and terminology . The second chapter tackles the components of the industries , the industrial location and the factors that determine its choice in Nablus Governorate . The third chapter deals with the historical development of the industries during the Ottoman Rule , the British Mandate , the Jordanian Rule , the Israeli Occupation and finally the Palestinian Authority Reign which marks the outset of the end of the Israeli Occupation . Chapter four approaches kinds of industries , industrial production , its geographical distribution , the structure of industries and the problems faced . The fifth chapter deals with industrial planning , the present and proposed industrial zones , the effects resulted from industrial activity and the industrial future of industries in the governorate . The sixth chapter , the last one , presents conclusions and recommendations of the study . The researcher , in order to achieve the aims of the study , has comprehensively listed all the working factories and industrial plants in Nablus Governorate , then he haphazardly chose a hierarchical sample at a rate of 5 % distributed all over Nablus Governorate . The sample consists of( 131) industrial plants out of( 2621) . The researcher has designed a questionnaire meeting the aims of the study The data were collected through personal interviews , then they were carefully examined and processed using (SPSS ) program for data analysis . The conclusions indicate the availability of most of the industrial requirements and the possibility of the growth in the areas studied through direct import of particular raw materials .The conclusion also show the importance of industries in Nablus Governorate compared with the other Palestinians governorates hence Nablus came second in most industries after Gaza Governorate besides being the first governorate at the "West Bank " level . Here are some statistics that explain this fact . 1. Regarding the number of the industrial plants , Nablus Governorate has 18.1 % of the working plants in Palestine being the second governorate after Gaza . The third Governorate is Hebron , then Governorates of Ramallah , Tulkarin , Jenin , Bethlehem , Qalqeelia and finally Jericho . 2. Regarding the number of employees in the industrial sector Nablus has 16.6 % of the total number in Palestine and so being the second governorate after Gaza . The third governorate is Hebron then came the governorates of Ramallah , Tulkarm etc. ( The same order of item I above ) 3. The results of the study also indicate that the income brought in through the industrial sector amounts to 17.2 % of the total income of the industrial activity in Palestine and so it occupies the second position after Gaza . I Hebron Governorate is in the third position , then there are the Governorates of Ramallah , Tulkarm , Jenin , Bethlehm , Qalgeelia and inally Jericho . 4. Nablus has 16.8 % Idle transformational industries in Palestine ranking second after Hebron Governorate . Gaza is in the third position. The rates of the other governorates have decreased sharply . The study has a variety of recommendations. The most important are : a. Quick implementation of the industrial organization that Nablus Municipality is conducting coordinating with the Ministry of Industry b. Amendment of the economic protocols achieved between the PNA and Israel is essential so as to build more and wider economic links with Arab and Islamic countries. c. The necessity for dealing with the effects of the industrial pollution through the rapid construction of the water purification plants suggested which Nablus Municipality has already finished their final plans. Unfortunately, al-Agra Uprising has delayed the construction of those plants.
- ItemChanges in Qalqilya Land Uses 1945-2001(2003) Bilal Abdelraaof Othman Juper; Prof. Mohammad Abu-safatThis study examined changes in the uses of land in Qalqilya since the British occupation of Palestine, the Jordanian rule of the city, the Israeli occupation until the advent of Palestinian National Authority. It was first n village, then a district, a city belonging to Tulkarm District and finally a governorate. The study found there were positive developments in the intensive uses of non- residential urban areas; a gradual decline in the area used for housing purposes in Qalqilya proper; a decline in intensive land and livestock ownership as well as in the percentage of horse-drawn carriages, thanks to the advent of cars and agriculture mechanization. There was also a fluctuation in numbers of cows and goats and a growth in beef and poultry breeding. The study also found a positive development in the area nurseries, plastic houses used for growing tomatoes and cucumbers. However, there was a drop in planting citrus trees, fruit and olive trees and wheat. There was also a fluctuation in the areas planted with Jaffa and vegetables. The study found au overlapping in urban land uses, on one hand, and agricultural use of land in the city, on the other hand.
- ItemStudying Land Use patterns in Nablus City By Geographic Information System (GIS)(2003) Raed Saleh Talap Halapi; Dr. Ahmed Rafat GhodiehThis study investigates the use of Geographical Information systems ( GIS ) in land use mapping of Nablus city. The study area lies on the latitude ْ14-ْ32 to the north of the Equator, and the longitude ْ15-ْ35 to the east of Greenwich. The importance of this study emerges from the use of the Geographical Information systems as an effective means that is used for data capture, Data storage , Data processing , Data Management and Data Analysis. The study aimed at the test of Geographical Information System in producing accurate land use and land use change maps for Nablus in different periods. It also aimed at studying land use patterns on the study area at the level of the city quarters. Arcview GIS software was used to derive quantitative data such as areas of land use types and length of roads for the whole city and its quarters. A large scale aerial photograph of Nablus (1/10000) taken in 1999 was used to produce the land use maps. The aerial photograph was georeferenced to the Universal Transvrse Mercator Coordinate System(UTM). The study area was then divided into nine strata (layers).The photo contents such as buildings, roads and land parcels were digitized. A 5% stratified random sample was selected to represent the study population. The field study was conducted for all land use types in the city depending on the selected sample, while a comprehensive survey for agricultural lands, rangeland roads, and cemeteries was adopted. Areas of different land use types and lengths of roads were derived and analyzed on both the city level and quarter level as well. It was found that the rate of residential use represents 53.53% out of the total land use in the city. The trading use came in the second place with a rate of 12.73%.. While the industrial use in the city came in the third place with a rate of 15.11%. The educational use (schools) came in the fourth place with a rate of 11.31%. The rate of the religious use (mosques) was 1.75%, the governmental use was 3.38%, the health use rate was 3.38%, the agricultural use rate was 3.60%, the rangeland use rate was 9.48%, and the transportation use rate was 10%. Upon what had been preceded , it is recommended that: 1-It is important for public and private institutions such as planning and educational institutions to use GIS technology as an effective tool in research work and planning. 2-It is recommended that the industrial activities to be removed from among the residential quarters for their negative effect on both environment and residents. 3-The city suffers from lack of roads. So, it is recommended to open new roads in order to ease the traffic inside the city.