Translation and Applied Linguistics

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    ENANI’S AND MUTRAN'S TRANSLATIONS OF RELIGIOUS NAMES AND TERMS OF ADDRESS IN SHAKESPEARE'S THE MERCHANT OF VENICE
    (جامعة النجاح الوطنية, 2022-07-20) Ayash, Sara
    Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice deepens the religious conflict of the self and the other by the extensive use of religious proper names to reveal the identity of Shakespeare’s characters and the use of religious terms of address to show their recognition within the Venetian society. However, when these proper names are translated into the other (Arabic language and culture, in this case), they become the other of the other. These proper names and terms of address have the identification and recognition of the self. By moving them, in the act of translation, to the other’s environment, they become alien both to the other and to the self in the translated text. This thesis has shed light on the translation of religious proper names and terms of address from self (ST) to the other (TT), and has reported how the translators’ choices of translating proper names and terms of address affected the original text of The Merchant of Venice as the self and the Arab audience as the other. Data were collected from The Merchant of Venice and two of translations of the play: Khalil Mutran’s and Mohammad Enani’s translations. Religious proper names were analyzed based on Herman’s translation model of proper names translation. In contrast, religious terms of address were analyzed based on Vinay and Darbelnet’s model. Strategies adopted/used in translating religious proper names and terms of address mainly followed the overall method used in translation of the whole text: Venuti's domestication or foreignization. Key words: Translations; religious; names terms of address; Shakespeare’s the Merchant of Venice.
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    Translating Football Nicknames in the Arabic Media
    (An-Najah National University, 2018-11-07) Obeid, Tamer
    Football is the most famous sport all over the world. Millions of people play it, follow its matches, and encourage the players and their teams. Nicknames play an important role in increasing its popularity and followers since its fans give nicknames to the epical and local matches between rivals. Moreover, nicknames are given to the players, coaches, teams, clubs and stadiums. In addition, many football exclusive events are given special nicknames. Description and analytic method were followed in examining the relationship between nicknames and culture since nicknames refer to the culture of the nicknamed entity and give a full description of its reality. Moreover, the study examines the strategies that the translators use in bridging the gap between the SL and TL cultures, that enables the TL reader to comprehend the meaning of the nickname and the message that it connotes. Results of the research show that translators use various strategies, especially transliteration and literal translations. These strategies cause a loss in meaning and can not enable the TL reader to recognize the full image as it is in the SL. On the other hand, Arabic is injected with many foreign terms because of using copying and transliterating strategies instead of using an Arabic equivalent. Finally, the researcher recommends to follow different strategies, such as the exegetic and the communicative that enable the translator to explain and clarify the nickname in the way that enables the TL reader to understand the meaning and recognize the hidden message.
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    Translating Terms of Islamic Architecture: A Semiotic Study
    (Taqwa Abdel-Hadi Mohammad Ateeq, 2019-06-19) Ateeq, Taqwa
    This study examines the process of translating terms of Islamic architecture from Arabic into English and vice versa. Three English books about Islamic architecture are investigated, in addition to Arabic translated versions of two of them. The translation strategies used in these texts are presented to explain how the TL expressions cause problems in signification. Cultural equivalents signify a TL sign which differs from the original in its design or function. Most of the descriptions lack the sign's value, which is its distinctive feature. They are confusing for the reader, as they do not enable him/her to signify the intended element. The examined texts also show use of transference strategy, even though the transliterated term does not function in the TL culture. This study suggests to apply Basel Hatim's model of semiotic translation, besides Saussure's concept of the sign's value to produce translations which help the reader to perceive an accurate conceptual image of the transferred sign. This study also indicates that these problems are aggravated when translating the English expressions back into Arabic. Translators should use the original Arabic terms employed to signify these signs instead of applying translation strategies as if signs of Islamic architecture were foreign to the Arabic linguistic community.
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    Language Errors in Machine Translation of Scientific Biological Texts from English to Arabic: The Case of Google Translate
    (Hanan Jamal Alawneh, 2019-05-16) Alawneh, Hanan
    Machine translation has planted its roots deeply in research domains since it becomes the first aid for survival in this era of "globalization". Thus, the present research explores the areas of efficiency/deficiency in Google Translate performance in scientific biological texts translation from English to Arabic. More specifically, the research aims to test GT performance at two levels: sentence and paragraph levels. Thus, Catford’s translation shifts (1965), Halliday and Hassan's model of cohesive devices (1976) and types of paragraphs frequently used in scientific texts are the main tools used to judge GT output. Finally, the researcher attempts to propose solutions for the errors encountered to enhance GT performance in this particular text type to help GT produce translations with high accuracy rates.
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    Traces of Ideology in Qur’an Translations: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Some Themes
    (Shaima’ Hanini Al-Hanini, 2018-02-05) Al-Hanini, Shaima’
    This research attempts to explore the effect of translators' ideology on the translation of the Holy Qur’an. To achieve its end, the study relies on a critical discourse analysis of Mohammed Asad’s The Message of the Qur’an (1980) and Mohammed Ali’s English Translation and Commentary of The Holy Qur’an (1973). The two books are analyzed and compared on the basis of their translation of a number of Qur’anic themes; namely Miracles, Angles, Satan, Al jinn and Al Ka’bah. For each theme a number of representative examples are given from both translations. The study shows that both translators were consciously implying their ideologies as consistently expressed by their lexical choices. Mohammed Asad was influenced by his Mu’tazila’s ideology and by the neo-Mu’tazila figures Mohammed Abdu and Rashid Ridha. In addition, the way he translated some concepts reflects his beliefs as a Jewish person before converting to Islam. The study also shows that Mohammed Ali’s attempt to rationalize miracles was influenced by his Qadiani doctrines, which proved to influence the understanding of the meanings of the Holy Qur’an, especially among non -Arabic readers who assume that these translations are authentic and professional. Readers are more likely to adopt the translators’ ideologically-motivated world view which may contradict the true Islamic conceptualizations, especially if the readers are not aware of the translators’ backgrounds. In the end, the study gives some insights of how to get into a more faithful and authentic translation of the Qur’an.