Translation and Applied Linguistics

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    (جامعة النجاح الوطنية, 2023-08-20) Tasneem Jamal Fayez Sa'd
    Translating the Holy Qur’an is difficult and complex due to the necessity of translating it with the highest level of accuracy and authenticity. It is considered the guiding book for all aspects of Muslims' lives worldwide, not just for Arabic-speaking Muslims. Additionally, the Holy Qur’an is distinguished by a unique and high-level Arabic language with linguistic features. Therefore, the translator must take all these factors into consideration when translating it. There have been several attempts to translate the Qur’an in different ways and using various strategies. However, none of these translations have taken gender into consideration when translating expressions related to females mentioned in the Qur’an. This has led to the emergence of feminist translation that is concerned with the issue of gender and takes into account matters related to females when translating feminine expressions in the Qur’an into the target language. This study compares the feminist translation by Laleh Bakhtiar (2007) with two other different translations by well-known translators: Pickthall (1992) and Amina Wadud (1997), in order to examine the gender-related issues faced by the feminist translator in translating feminine expressions in Surah An-Nisa from Arabic to English. The study used the comparative-qualitative approach. The syudy involves analyzing the given examples by comparing feminist translation with two other translations to find the ratio of differences and variations between them. The analysis of these differences is based on the methodology of feminist translation according to Flotow (2016). The study summarized that feminist translation of the Holy Qur’an emerged due to previous translations that neglected the concept of gender while translating the feminine expressions mentioned in the Holy Qur’an. Additionally, translators cannot intervene much in the translation of the Holy Qur’an, which led to the decision of not fully adopting Flotow's strategies for feminist translation during the translation of the Holy Qur’an. This research recommends the necessity of justifying the feminist translator's different translation of some verses and terms, based on logical justifications relying on the Hadith and the noble Sunnah, not just superficial linguistic justifications. This is to ensure that the translation is complete, logical, and acceptable to readers as well as to protect the translator from attack )verbal aggressiveness) and criticism from readers.
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    (جامعة النجاح الوطنية, 2022-07-20) Ayash, Sara
    Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice deepens the religious conflict of the self and the other by the extensive use of religious proper names to reveal the identity of Shakespeare’s characters and the use of religious terms of address to show their recognition within the Venetian society. However, when these proper names are translated into the other (Arabic language and culture, in this case), they become the other of the other. These proper names and terms of address have the identification and recognition of the self. By moving them, in the act of translation, to the other’s environment, they become alien both to the other and to the self in the translated text. This thesis has shed light on the translation of religious proper names and terms of address from self (ST) to the other (TT), and has reported how the translators’ choices of translating proper names and terms of address affected the original text of The Merchant of Venice as the self and the Arab audience as the other. Data were collected from The Merchant of Venice and two of translations of the play: Khalil Mutran’s and Mohammad Enani’s translations. Religious proper names were analyzed based on Herman’s translation model of proper names translation. In contrast, religious terms of address were analyzed based on Vinay and Darbelnet’s model. Strategies adopted/used in translating religious proper names and terms of address mainly followed the overall method used in translation of the whole text: Venuti's domestication or foreignization. Key words: Translations; religious; names terms of address; Shakespeare’s the Merchant of Venice.
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    Translating Football Nicknames in the Arabic Media
    (An-Najah National University, 2018-11-07) Obeid, Tamer
    Football is the most famous sport all over the world. Millions of people play it, follow its matches, and encourage the players and their teams. Nicknames play an important role in increasing its popularity and followers since its fans give nicknames to the epical and local matches between rivals. Moreover, nicknames are given to the players, coaches, teams, clubs and stadiums. In addition, many football exclusive events are given special nicknames. Description and analytic method were followed in examining the relationship between nicknames and culture since nicknames refer to the culture of the nicknamed entity and give a full description of its reality. Moreover, the study examines the strategies that the translators use in bridging the gap between the SL and TL cultures, that enables the TL reader to comprehend the meaning of the nickname and the message that it connotes. Results of the research show that translators use various strategies, especially transliteration and literal translations. These strategies cause a loss in meaning and can not enable the TL reader to recognize the full image as it is in the SL. On the other hand, Arabic is injected with many foreign terms because of using copying and transliterating strategies instead of using an Arabic equivalent. Finally, the researcher recommends to follow different strategies, such as the exegetic and the communicative that enable the translator to explain and clarify the nickname in the way that enables the TL reader to understand the meaning and recognize the hidden message.
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    Translating Terms of Islamic Architecture: A Semiotic Study
    (Taqwa Abdel-Hadi Mohammad Ateeq, 2019-06-19) Ateeq, Taqwa
    This study examines the process of translating terms of Islamic architecture from Arabic into English and vice versa. Three English books about Islamic architecture are investigated, in addition to Arabic translated versions of two of them. The translation strategies used in these texts are presented to explain how the TL expressions cause problems in signification. Cultural equivalents signify a TL sign which differs from the original in its design or function. Most of the descriptions lack the sign's value, which is its distinctive feature. They are confusing for the reader, as they do not enable him/her to signify the intended element. The examined texts also show use of transference strategy, even though the transliterated term does not function in the TL culture. This study suggests to apply Basel Hatim's model of semiotic translation, besides Saussure's concept of the sign's value to produce translations which help the reader to perceive an accurate conceptual image of the transferred sign. This study also indicates that these problems are aggravated when translating the English expressions back into Arabic. Translators should use the original Arabic terms employed to signify these signs instead of applying translation strategies as if signs of Islamic architecture were foreign to the Arabic linguistic community.
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    Language Errors in Machine Translation of Scientific Biological Texts from English to Arabic: The Case of Google Translate
    (Hanan Jamal Alawneh, 2019-05-16) Alawneh, Hanan
    Machine translation has planted its roots deeply in research domains since it becomes the first aid for survival in this era of "globalization". Thus, the present research explores the areas of efficiency/deficiency in Google Translate performance in scientific biological texts translation from English to Arabic. More specifically, the research aims to test GT performance at two levels: sentence and paragraph levels. Thus, Catford’s translation shifts (1965), Halliday and Hassan's model of cohesive devices (1976) and types of paragraphs frequently used in scientific texts are the main tools used to judge GT output. Finally, the researcher attempts to propose solutions for the errors encountered to enhance GT performance in this particular text type to help GT produce translations with high accuracy rates.