Political Planning and Development
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Browsing Political Planning and Development by Author "Dr. Ra'ed N'erat"
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- ItemAuthority and State Study of the experience of Salam Fayyad’s government(2012) Mais Name Dsoqe Qaise; Dr. Ra'ed N'eratAbstract This study investigates the problem of the "Establishing the State and Finishing the Occupation" Proposal submitted by the government of Dr. Salam Fayad as a course to establish a Palestinian state. The researcher started by testing her hypothesis stating that "The proposal and its policies collectively shall not pave the way to establish a Palestinian state, but they will promote the growth of the Palestinian Authority establishments by creating a new de facto." The researcher selected to investigate this topic as a result of several factors that collectively represented the significance of this study. The first element is the birth of a Palestinian government through a birth-labor and exceptional circumstances during which it underwent several political phases. The second element comprises the resulting policies that put the issue of establishing a Palestinian state as a top priority of the strategic objective. Such elements encouraged the researcher to study the details of establishing a Palestinian state and ending the occupation in order to reach the objective of the study in highlighting the effectiveness and capabilities of such policies to achieve their strategic objective through assessing them and measuring the range of distance that separates the objective (i.e. the state" and the policies (i.e. the mechanisms). In her study, the researcher investigated the government's background and its philosophy; the environmental circumstances and surrounding factors; the nature of the Palestinian political system establishments; and identifying the identity of the problem and its policy. The problem is identified as general and historical whereas the policies brought by the proposal are symbolic, materialistic and organizational. The researcher determined the appropriate instrument to evaluate the policies of the thirteenth government. The DAY instrument consists of three categories of questions: the first contains descriptive questions; the second comprises the reasons; and the third contains the impacts of the general policies. Some links and criteria were added to expand the range of analysis with the six links that discuss the reciprocal effect of the general policy. Scientific criteria were added to evaluate and judge the extent of usefulness of the general policy according to the strategic objective. With this scientific combination, we obtained an instrument to evaluate the policies including its three basic constituents: the descriptive, analytical and evaluative. The researcher examined the policies and programs adopted by the government in order to achieve its announced objective related to establish the state and end the occupation. This is done by the descriptive basis. Following this, the researcher investigated the other two constituents: the analytical and evaluative through interpreting the general policy according to the reciprocal relationship of influence between the environmental forces and elements and the general policy. The first main question of the study, i.e. (To what extent is the thirteenth government general policy effective towards achieving its objective in establishing the Palestinian state and ending the occupation?) was answered through what the researcher reached by the process of analysis and evaluation of the proposal that showed the following: The general policy and the mechanisms adopted within the plan of establishing the state and ending the occupation do not achieve the strategic objective. Hence, the occupation has not been ended and neither has the state been established. However, it has been able to maintain the establishments of the Palestinian National Authority that were constructed during the time of the Oslo Agreement. On the other hand, few establishments have been built to keep up the requirements of the stage. In addition, it is not possible to establish the Palestinian State without embodying the demographic and geographic elements. The general policies were concerned with the local and international dimensions. The issue of managing the internal dimension suffered from political fragmentation without being able to achieve a consensus on the topic. In the international dimension, the outcome of voting for the complete membership of Palestine at the United Nations Organization showed that the compass of the international movement to promote the proposal was set inaccurately. Such policies had negative impacts upon the Palestinian community. The Palestinian political life and public freedoms were affected in several locations in one way or another. The researcher gave several recommendations, the most prominent of them are: The Palestinian leadership shall promote the Palestinian internal cohesion through reuniting the two parts of the homeland. The Proposal's instruments and mechanisms are to be developed so that it contains real and radical solutions for the demographic and geographic dimensions to establish the Palestinian State. In addition, it shall not ignore the fact of supplying a real effective political life. It is necessary to reform the PLO in order to become able to hold its responsibilities since the Palestinian National Authority does not possess the instruments or the capabilities to bear the proposal of establishing the Palestinian State. It is important to review the Palestinian diplomacy and the negotiation mechanisms with Israel and the agreements signed with it that reinforce the occupation.
- ItemThe Experience of Palestinian Women in the Parliamentary Work, and its Effect on the Promotion of Political Participation (1996, 2006(2012) Omar Abed Allateef Shtaya; Dr. Ra'ed N'eratAbstract This study comes to treat and evaluate the role that women played in the Palestinian political field, specifically in the Legislative Council, and the extension of their contribution in making decisions and legislations through the Legislative Council. The study was proposed to assess truth in the hypothesis which claims and assumes that women in the PLC have worked in isolation and have blended themselves within their parties which negatively impacted the reinforcement of female political participation. Therefore, women in the PLC could not launch any united feminist political efforts that would help to form feminist partisan policies or take decisions related to feminist activism in its specific sense. In a novel approach, this study deals with the role women played in both of the Palestinian electoral periods (1996 and 2006) in addition to exploring the factors affecting their decision making firstly in winning seats in the Legislative Council and secondly in participating politically and legislatively. The study follows a descriptive analytical approach. Interviews with the MPs were also used. The study draws a number of conclusions. Most importantly that the participation of women in official institutions has not arrived at the level of the important role that women played and still play in the Palestinian society, on both the national and political levels, which limits the possibility of their impact in policy making and modifying the current legislations. The study has also found that the political parties have supported women in a way that served their own partisan interests and did not help women or recognize their rights. The ambiguity of women’s platform and the lack of connection between it and public and social issues has negatively impacted the performance of the women MPs. Based on the results obtained, the study recommends that it is very urgent to review governmental policies and to restudy their suitability for women’s participation in decision making. It is also essential to increase opportunities for women to partake in official institutions, specifically the legislative ones and allow more room for their contributions in development, in policy making and in modification of laws in a way that serves their interests.
- ItemMethods of Political Change for Islamic Political Groups Between Ideology and Practice "Muslim Brotherhood Movement in Egypt as aCase Study"(2012) Ra'ed Muhammad Abdel Fattah Debiy; Dr. Ra'ed N'eratAbstract This study discusses the methods of political change among the Islamic political movements. "The Muslim Brotherhood Movement in Egypt 1928-2005" will be a case study, Islamic political movement has been crucial role in modern middle east history. The role is expected to increase further in light of the revolutions that are taking place in the Arab world2011 which resulted in the elections that were organized in a number of Arab countries such as Tunisia, Morocco and Egypt. results have shown the growing role of the Islamic political movements as a partner in the decision-making process after long absence from the official political scene. We argue in the study that the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt has adopted, in its quest to make the change it desires in the Egyptian society, a number of different methods that are sometimes seen as contradictory. However, the selection mechanism of these methods and their execution in light of the prohibition that the Brotherhood Movement experiences often come close to changes in intellect and ideology. For that purpose, the study laid down a number of questions about the nature of these methods and the mechanisms that the Egyptian Brotherhood Movement has adopted in its quest to achieve full change in the Egyptian society since its establishment in 1928 until the year 2005. Based on this, the study suggests the variability of the methods that the Muslim Brotherhood Movement have adopted in order to achieve political change that corresponds to its intellectual visions; however, it did not succeed in forming a government that has an Islamic reference. A number of scientific research methodologies such as, the analytical, descriptive methodology in order to analyze the positions, ideas and behaviors of the Movement in different stages to achieve total change; The extent to which these methods did or did not fulfill the goals of the Movement was examined. Moreover, the researcher followed the historical methodology to shed light on the most significant historical stages in the Movement's history. The study was concluded with a number of results. First, it emphasized the hypothesis which said that the Brotherhood Movement did not succeed in quest to achieve change during the period of the study. Second, The movement was able to obtain the accomplishment and de facto legitimacy during its quest to change in spite of the fact that the Movement was banned over a long time of its history and existence. Finally, the study recommens for more success first, that it is necessary for the Brotherhood Movement to change its stereotype which always depicted it as a movement that uses violence , second it is important for Muslim Brotherhood Movement to adopt a clear discourse not subject to different interpretation about its vision of the shape of the Egyptian state, the role of the Copts and women.
- ItemThe Palestinian Political Elite and its Impact on the National Unity "The Second Palestinian Legislative Elite as a MODEL"(2012) Maysoon Muhammad Ahmed Omair; Dr. Ra'ed N'eratThis study which consists of three chapters addresses the Palestinian political elite with respect to its definition, the intellectual and social requirements of the political elite, and the situation of the Palestinian political elite. It also discusses the idea of the Palestinian national unity and its elements, in addition to the vision by the political elite in the second Palestinian Legislative Council regarding the Palestinian national unity. The impact of the Palestinian political elite was measured through conducting personal interviews. The problem of the study lies in the identification of the impact that the Palestinian political elite in the second Palestinian Legislative Council have made, in addition to the role of the elite in formulating a concept of the Palestinian national unity and transform that into a political project. For this purpose, the study puts down a number of questions regarding the characteristics of the Palestinian political elite in general and the political elite of the Second Palestinian Legislative Council in particular. In addition to this, the study lays questions about the nature of the changes that occurred to the Palestinian political elites after the Oslo Convention and the second Palestinian legislative elections, the concept of the Palestinian national unity, its foundations, and the legislative elections which is considered as one of the major elements of the Palestinian national unity. The significance of the study is to identify the role of elites in the political impasse (the political division and the difficulties of achieving the national reconciliation. Which make it easier to get the desired solution in addition to the effects caused by the elites of the Palestinian legislative second national unity. Other questions are concerned with the duties and authorities of the elite of the Palestinian Legislative Council in light of the political and geographical division, as well as the role that the Second Palestinian Legislative Council’s elite have been played in the issue of the division and national reconciliation talks. The study hypothesizes that the absence of a specific definition of the Palestinian national unity is the reason that made the Palestinian legislative elites unable to transform the slogans of national unity into apolitical project. In order to achieve the study hypothesis , the Elite Approach Methodology and the Descriptive, Analytical Approach to answer the questions of the study and check the validity of the hypothesis through the use of different tools such as individual interviews with members of the Palestinian political elite represented by members of the Second Palestinian Legislative Council have been adopted , in addition to preparing hypothetical framework about the political elite and the national unity. The study has come up with a number of results including the fact that the Palestinian legislative elite was unable to affect the course of the national unity and push it forward as the will of the political party is still stronger and more dominant than that of the elite. Therefore, the hypothesis is upon which the study is established which says that the absence of a specific definition for the national unity has made the Palestinian legislative elites unable to transform its slogans into areal political project has been true in light of the study’s inputs and the results of the individual interviews. Several recommendations have been suggested according to the study results: 1. The pressure on the national legislative elite through institutions and individuals should be intensified in order to enable it restructuring itself again so that it could perform as a unified entity since the unification of the legislative council is the key for making the Palestinian political work successful. 2. Working for formulating a unified, applicable and executable political program that Palestinians could see in the institutions and other areas since the slogans only are no more acceptable.
- ItemThe Reform of the security sector point in Palestinian security from the view of employee and the result of that on the political development(west Bank model)(2013) Ibrahim Hafez Abed Al-rahman Khatatbeh; Dr. Ra'ed N'eratThis study aims to examine security sector reform in the Palestinian Authority from the prepoint of its employees and the effict it has on political development the researcher used statistical analysis questionnaire to explore employees point of view on this issue. And to achieve that. This study was conducted on a sample of administrators in security sector on West Bank regions. And the data was treated statistically using the Arithmetic averages, percentages, (T) test on two independent and groups, ANOVA different, and (LSD) exam for Amgarn at posterior between arithmetic averages. The study reched these conclousions to this class college field reached (77.39%) and that is abige rate. From here one can say the effect of there form organizational structure on the security section has on amounted to a large degree. • We can find from the results that the effect of financial reform on the security services on the political development on the West Bank is (71.76%), and this can point at abig presentage agreement towered the questions on this field. • And the analysis out comes pointed at the degree of effect of the administrative reform political development services on West Bank from the point of view of the authuritity employee has reched (71.76%). • Also the out comes of the study that the legal (low) reform of the security services on political development on West Bank is(72.60%). The study came up with several recommendations including: • The need to be characterized by the organizational structure of the security sector clarity so that knows everyone in the security services and the duties and rights and job descriptions flour for his career, which helps reduce the administrative burden caused by interference in the exercise of errands, and therefore This helps in the development of workers politically. • The need for a prior censorship of control devices and internal audit in the security services and publish monthly reports on the financial performance of the security. • It is recommended that the use of information technology in the redesign of administrative operations of the security services and take advantage of the enormous potential offered by technology in the planning, supervision and regulation and guidance and try to move towards the concept of e-governance in these devices achieve the quality, speed, and raise the level of performance of workers in these devices. • It is essential to make the necessary legislative reforms to the laws and regulations, especially regulations governing the responsibilities of the staff and their powers