Master plan design for wastewater reuse sector in Jenin governorate

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Muna MN Masri
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Palestine has witnessed growing water stress in the last decades, both in terms of water scarcity and quality deterioration, the problem is not limited to this, but also the illegal Israeli practices which control all shared water resources including surface and groundwater, and utilize more than 85% of these resources, leaving less than 15% for Palestinians. Like any other developing country, Palestine is facing an unparalleled growth and rapidly increasing water demand and sanitation coverage that will continue to release growing volumes of wastewater. This problem has prompted many water experts to think seriously to find solutions, and to consider wastewater as a valuable resource that could be reused in different sectors. Wastewater is an important source of water and nutrients for irrigation in developing countries. While the use of wastewater has positive effects for farmers, mainly related to their income level, it also has negative effects on human health and the environment. The negative effects impact not only farmers but also a wide range of people. In order to implement sustainable reuse of wastewater and to contribute to food security, reuse projects need to be planned and constructed for the long term and based on local needs. The research investigated the implementation of policies and strategies regarding wastewater treatment reuse sector, and the possibility of implementing treated wastewater reuse projects by taking into consideration the opinions of the farmers, sellers, end users and costumers. Interviews with stakeholders and decision makers were conducted to assess the level of cooperation between the involved sides. The research reviews a study conducted on Jenin governorate which is located in the northern part of the west bank, focusing on the possibility of reusing wastewater in agriculture, by integrating all socio-economic, technical, and environmental frameworks, and conducting a governance assessment of the cooperation framework and responsibilities’ distribution between the involved stakeholders and decision makers in the wastewater reuse sector. Keywords: wastewater governance, reuse, governance assessment, risk, agriculture