Medical Imaging

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    (2022) Reem Jafar Abu-Sa’a
    This study is aiming to see the doses that reach the patient from CT scan ionizing radiation. Due to the high concerns recently about the affection of CT doses in producing longterm radiation risks. An estimating for the effective doses of chest and absorbed doses for each of liver,lung and breast in HRCT chest scan were done. A sample within (39) for patients that were undergoing scanning at .Thebet-Thabet hospital in Tulkarm city, Palestine. it was used for both genders at ages ranged from (13-82), important parameters were used to investigate doses such as DLP, CTDIw and mAs to calculate the total effective and absorbed dose. Methods of three types were used to estimate these doses such as virtual, manual method. By using the previous methods and analyzing the data, there was an obvious increase in female doses and patients how were above (40) y.o, and for organ absorbed doses, the lung was the highest than liver and breast and the least was liver doses. With the maximum effective doses (36.01), (23.94) and minimum effective doeses (1.5), (1.16) for virtual and manual methods respectively, which will be discuss later
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    Dosimetric Evaluation for Eye Lens and Thyroid Gland from Brain Computed Tomography Scan
    (2022) Haya Jamal Alruzieh
    Brain Computed Tomography scan is one of the most frequent examinations in the last years. This study was aim to estimate the effective dose (ED) and the organ doses from brain computed tomography (CT) scan, and cancer probability was for the thyroid gland. The manual calculation and commercially available Monte Carlo-based software VirtualDoseTM CT were used to achieve the objective of this study. A total of 80 adult patients from both genders were selected randomly from the Thabet-Thabet hospital. Helical and axial scan modes were applied. Demographic data for patients, scanning parameters, and dose indicators that involve the x-ray tube kilovoltage (kVp), milliamperesecond (mAs), dose length product (DLP), computed tomography dose index volume (CTDIvol) were recorded. The average value of EDDLP is 1.8 mSv compared to EDVirtual with an average value of 5.0 mSv for the helical scan. In an axial scan, the average value of EDDLP is 2.4 mSv compared to EDVirtual with an average value of 4.1 mSv. For Helical Scan, the highest calculated ED value was 2.1 mSv, belonging to females aged 82 years. For Axial Scan, the highest calculated ED value was 2.9 mSv, belonging to females aged 55 years old. Based on virtual software, in the helical scan mode, the highest value is 6.5 mSv, belonging to a female who is 81 years old. On the other hand, in the axial scan, the highest value was 8.3 mSv belonging to a female who is 55 years old.XV The average values of organ doses in the whole population were 43.1 and 19.7 mGy for the thyroid gland and eye lens, respectively in helical Scan. While axial scan was 9.1 mGy for thyroid, and 32.1mGy for eye lens. The highest value in thyroid cancer risk assessment is 2.3×106 found in 2 females who are 20, 68 years old in the helical scan. Also, for the axial scan, the highest value is 2.7×106 belonging to a female who is 55 years old. Generally, the calculated radiation doses from the brain CT exams in this study are minimal and similar to those described in other works of literature, however, the technologist should choose and adjust protocols to avoid unnecessary radiation to patients and satisfy the as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) principle
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    MRI Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) diagnostic findings in schizophrenia
    (2022) Mariam Maen Omar
    Schizophrenia is a wide spreading neurologic disease, that has been detected increasingly in different countries around the world. Verbal communication is known as the golden approach in psychology, it is used as the main method for diagnosing psychiatric cases and even the follow up of the patient’s improvement and rehabilitation. This project, aims to highlight the importance of medical imaging techniques along the therapeutic plan for the patient, The aim of the study to find if there’s a relationship between schizophrenia and associated changes in the brain structure (arcuate fasciculus) which can use later to find if these changes affect patient symptoms severity .and how it should be considered as an effective guide for the improvement of the patient and how far does the treatment succeed. This systemic review is about different studies that was done in order to declare the differences of patients with unstable neurologic state ( schizophrenia in particular) and define the changes that happens among the fiber tracts connectivity in the brain using a specific technique especially for brain imaging which is Magnetic resonance imaging DTI (diffusion tensor imaging), which is a special technique to evaluate fiber tracts of the brain and assess the fiber connectivity and the neuron tracts (white matter). The results that was concluded from different studies and reviews of the MRI tractography technique showed a several neurological changes among the brain and its tracts, and that schizophrenia can be assessed by the MRI DTI technique along its symptoms severity, and these radiographic signs might include: The degenerating of the neuro-tracts can be more evident4 on the left lobe of the brain: including long segments of the arcuate fasciculus (AF) fiber bundle. It also showed increased RD and Trace of the left external capsule, and decreased AD of the right SLFd along with decreased volume of the left SLFd indicating impairment of white matter integrity in these areas. The results suggest that the hallucinating schizophrenic group has a noted increased connectivity between the auditory areas in the temporal lobe and frontal and parietal areas associated with language.
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    Measurements of Radon Gaz Concentrations in Water Samples Using Rad7 in Palestine
    (2022) Shams tareq Elaria
    Radon is a radioactive noble gas that comes from the natural radioactive Breakdown of uranium within the ground. We are exposed to radon by two main Sources: radon in air and in water, to seek out the radon in water, we must Know, Radon gas can dissolve and accumulate in water from underground Sources (called ground water), like wells. Radon gas escapes from the water and Goes into the air, some radon also stays within the water . The measurements were performed by RAD 7 radon detector to measure radon Concentration in water sample. In this research, the types of water concern well Water. We have taken 22 samples from many places in Palestine and from many deep naturally occurring radon gas had come to be recognized as a potentially Serious health hazard. The decay of radon produces radioactive ―daughters can be ingested from well water or Can be absorbed in dust particles and then breathed into the lungs. Exposure to High concentrations of this radon and its daughters over the course of many Years can greatly increase the risk of developing lung cancer.So, the radon gas is the greatest cause of lung cancer among non-smoker.
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    The Extent of Awareness of An-Najah University Students about the Risks of Radiation
    (2022) Dima Bassam Kalbouneh
    Study Objective: Describe students' perceptions and understanding of radiation exposure and risks. To avoid unnecessary radiation exposure and facilitate joint decisionmaking, students should be aware of these problems. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire consisting of eighteen questions was designed: 258 students participated in the survey. Data were analyzed based on school year, college, population and gender. The survey was conducted over a week in December 2021 Students were excluded from the College of Medicine and Health Sciences and students from other universities The data was analyzed using SPSS (21.0). Results: A total of 166 surveys were completed. Most of the participants were females (67.5%) among current university students and graduates. The majority of the participants (91%) believe that there is radiation around us in nature and (43.4%) of the participants believe that all medical devices use radiation and (59.6%) They never discussed with healthcare professionals the risks related to their medical radiological procedures. (88.6%) would like their doctor to participate in the treatment, and (66.9%) said that radiation affects future generations, and (94.6%) believed Radiation is an important issue. Conclusion: The results showed that patients undergoing medical imaging had little awareness of radiation dose and risks associated with these examinations and received little information from physicians or medical personnel. There is a need for patients to be better informed of their exposure to radiation, and further studies focusing on radiation patient knowledge and risk are warranted