Pharmaceutical Sciences

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    (جامعة النجاح الوطنية, 2022-03-13) Ibrahim, Mohammad
    Background: There is an urgent need to understand the measures related to juveniles and the mechanism for implementation through researching these measures, especially after the issuance of the decision by Law No. 4 of 2016 regarding juvenile trial, which starts new stage in the development of Palestinian courts about the punitive measures imposed on juveniles in order to achieve the interest best event Purpose: The purpose of this research is to shed light on the measures stipulated in Decree-Law No. 4 of 2016 related to juveniles by examining the measures and their compatibility with the Palestinian reality, familiarity with the measures and the ability to differentiate between freedom- and non-custodial measures under the age of fifteen, as well as the measures relating to juveniles depriving of liberty issued over the age of fifteen, and to find out the mechanism for implementing judicial rulings issued by the competent courts regarding juveniles and the mechanism for monitoring implementation these measures in order to achieve the best interest of the juvenile. Method: The legal framework is determined in Decree-Law No. (4) of 2016, an analytical study of the texts of articles from Article 36-49 of Decree-Law No. 4 of 2016, Criminal Procedures Law No. (3) of 2001 in force in Palestine and Jordanian Penal Code No. 16 of 1960 The Jordanian Juvenile Reform Law of 1954 and Child Law No. 7 of 2004. Results: After the application of the decision by Law No. 4 of 2016, the decision by law under this study clarified how to implement the measure of the social control order in some detail, leaving the matter to the discretion of the Child Protection Guide and others who implement the measures related to juveniles. Likewise, the juvenile judge is not considered a full-time judge in cases involving juveniles, but rather he is a delegated judge who adjudicates juvenile cases and other cases that fall within the scope of his work and his jurisdiction, both criminally and civilly. Conclusion: Emphasis on the need to review the provisions of the decree-law as soon as possible, given the failure to achieve its main objective, which is to achieve the best interest of the juvenile, and to establish more vocational training centers and social welfare homes to distribute them in the Palestinian governorates in order to deposit juveniles sentenced to a measure due to the lack of A large number of such centers.
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    (جامعة النجاح الوطنية, 2022-07-28) Hamdi Al-Bazian, Yazan
    This study aims to recognize the level of Irrational thoughts and its relationship to Psychological security, Social Adjustment‎, and the Quality of life Among An-Najah National University Students. This research relies on the descriptive correlational approach to extract its results. The study population include the students of An-Najah National University, and an accessible random sample is select that consist of 200 male and female students from the original research community. Four criteria are applied in the study: the Irrational thoughts scale, the Psychological security scale the Social Adjustment‎ scale, and the Quality of life scale. The study sums up that the level of Irrational thoughts among An-Najah National University students is middle, and the existence of a statistically significant inverse correlation between the level of Irrational thoughts and Psychological security among them. Also, there is a statistically significant inverse correlation between the level of Irrational thoughts and the GPA, grade point average. Whereas there is no relationship with the rest of the variables (social adaptation and Quality of life). The study came out with several recommendations, the most important of which are, working to enhance rational thinking among students through programs that serve the process of strengthening this thinking across the various university platforms, and building specialized counseling programs in universities on problem-solving skills for university students, and improving their behavior, which It enhances the level of rational thoughts, and his sense of psychological security, in addition to including this in educational curricula at universities
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    (جامعة النجاح الوطنية, 2022-06-05) Aqel, Samah
    Introduction: Xanthone and thioxanthone were used to synthesize a derivative of compounds to test for anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. In order to do this, Grignard reagent was added to xanthone and thioxanthone to give a library of tertiary alcohol of phenyl and benzyl xanthone and thioxanthones. After that, some of them were followed by coupling with cysteine to make cysteine analogous. A total of seven compounds were synthesized. The compounds were characterized using the proton and carbon NMR and IR. The synthesized structures were tested for their anticancer, antioxidant, antimicrobial and ant-inflammatory activities. Results: The test results were promising; compounds Ⅲ showed a very good activity (IC 50= 2.79 µg/ml) against Colon cancer cells (CaCo). While compound 2 showed a good inhibition activity against hepatic HEPG cells (IC 50= 49.2 µg/ml) and compound Ⅰ showed a very good inhibition activity against HeLa cells (IC 50= 60 µg/ml). Compound Ⅳ has a potent antioxidant inhibition activity (IC50= 4.22 µg/ml). Moreover, compound Ⅶ Showed a good anti-inflammatory activity with a COX2 inhibition activity (1.72 µg/ml) and also good selectivity for COX2 (3.81). However, none of the compounds showed antimicrobial activity. The future work requires further an in-vivo testing to understand its pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic activity in living system. Conclusion: Further future work will be carried out to better understand the SAR effects of these compounds.
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    “Selective Cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitors: synthesis and biological evaluation”
    (An-Najah National University, 2019-12-12) Sawaftah, Hadeel
    Derivatives of diaryl pyrazoles and triazoles were synthesized to produce series of selective COX-2 inhibitors. In order to synthesize the series of these derivatives, Vilsmeier-Haack reaction and click reaction were followed in the synthesis of pyrzoles and triazoles based derivatives respectively. All produced compounds were In vitro evaluated by inhibition studies on COX-1 and COX-2 isozymes. Eleven compounds were successfully synthesized. Five compounds were the most potent and selective on COX-2 isozyme with IC50 values in 0.551–0.002 μM range. In diarylpyrazole derivatives best inhibition was showed by compound 4b with IC50 = 0.017 µM as the N-aromatic rings was substituted with sulfonamide and the other aromatic ring was unsubstituted. However, Compound 4d showed the best selectivity onCOX-2 (IC50 = 0.098 µM, SI = 54.847) as the N-aromatic ring was substituted with sulfonamide and the other aromatic ring was substituted with sulfone. In the diaryltriazole based derivatives, compound 15a was the most potent among the entire synthesized library including the reference compound (Celecoxib) with IC50 = 0.002 µM and SI = 162.5 as the presence of spacer could facilitate binding with extra hydrophobic pocket of COX-2 enzyme. Compounds with a variety of substitutions on pyrazole and triazole cores and different linker lengths are recommended to be synthesized in further studies to evaluate their COX-2 inhibitory activity and selectivity. Moreover, an in vivo anti-inflammatory and cardiotoxicity studies will be managed to support the obtained in vitro results.
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    (An Najah National University, 2022-05-29) Barkat, Alaa
    Introduction: In Palestinian traditional medicine, Thymus capitatus is a widely utilized medicinal plant. The main goal of this study was to assess the phytochemical content of T.capitatus essential oils (EOs) from three Palestinian regions using hydro distillation and microwave ultrasonic technologies. Also, the essential oil that was taken from the plant was put through some biological tests. Methodology: identification and quantification of the various elements in the EOs examined were accomplished using GC-MS spectrometry. The DPPH assay and the β-carotene-linoleic acid assay were utilized in order to determine the levels of antioxidant activity. In order to determine whether or not T.capitatus possesses anti-lipase activity. α-amylase inhibitory activity of the EOs samples was studied in comparison with the hypoglycemic drug, Acarbose. An anti-microbial assay was conducted against seven different types of the most common bacteria and fungi. Additionally, Hep-G2 cells were used to assess the anticancer activity. Results: The EOs presented several components, mainly monoterpenes, thymol and carvacroal. Chemical components of the EOs varied between districts (Ramallah: carvacrol (31.25%), γ-terpinene (30.94%), Jenin: γ-terpinene (67%), cis-b-terpineol (12.91%), Hebron: thymol (40.35%), b-Caryophyllene (13.23%) were the main components of the EOs in the districts). According to the results, the antioxidant activity of T.capitatus EOs was shown to be high and dose dependent. DPPH assay results showed that the three districts had nearly the same IC50, which was a fourth-fold of gallic acid. On the other hand, β-carotene-linoleic acid assay results showed that all samples had higher antioxidant efficiency than water (control) and the synthetic antioxidant α-tocopherol, which gave the highest β-carotene degradation. T.capitatus EO worked against all bacteria and fungi that were tested in terms of antibacterial activity, with MIC values between 0.1953 and 1.5625 μg/ml. The Hebron sample gave distinguishable results at low concentrations. All samples showed anti-lipase activity even higher than Orlistat at concentrations equal to or higher than 200 g/ml. Furthermore, all three EO samples inhibited α-amylase concentration dependently; statistical analysis revealed a slight difference between the samples, but all of them showed nearly the same percent inhibition at 400 g/ml, which is 50% acarbose. Finally, according to cytotoxic activity, all samples showed promising results against Hep-G2, with an average percent inhibition of 85% at a concentration of 62.5 μg/ml with slight differences between the districts. Conclusion: The chemical structure of the EO of T.capitatus can be related to the plant's origin, soil components, genetic variables, and climatic conditions, which in turn reflect on the biological activity of it.