Animal Production

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    (2023-09-20) Mohammad Hamza Mohammad Saleem
    Abstract The main objectives of this study were to measure the effect of feeding different levels of pelleted date palm leaves (PDPL) on the performance, digestibility and some blood metabolites of fattening Awassi lambs. A total of 24 Awassi lambs soon after weaning (2-4 month of age) were used in a 70-day fattening trial. Lambs were divided into 3 experimental groups and control group. Lambs in the control group were fed a traditional corn-soybean meal fattening ration. This ration composed of 18% crude protein concentrate plus wheat straw. In the other 3 experimental groups, the pelleted date palm leaves (PDPL) were incorporated at three different levels (25%, 50 %and 75%) as part of wheat straw. Lambs were fed separately and monitored for body weight and feed intake at weekly basis. Feed conversion ratios were also monitored. At the termination of the fattening trial three lambs from each group were slaughtered for testing the carcass cuts and the visceral organ mass. The blood parameters were tested at termination of the feeding trial from 3 lambs of each treatment. Results of study showed that feeding pelleted DPL at different levels had no effect on lambs’ performance. Similarly, DPL had no effects on the feed conversion ratios, and blood metabolites. Visceral organs and carcass cuts were not affected by pelleted DPL. Digestibility of nutrients were affected by pelleting. In general digestibility of crude protein (CP) decreased with pelleting level. Same trend was observed with fat digestibility. However, crude fiber digestibility increased with pelleting level. Digestibility of DM was decreased with a highly level of pelleted DPL. Feeding DPL had no harm effect on lambs; however, cost of fattening was reduced which can be considered as an advantage of incorporating its ingredient in fattening rations. Keywords: Blood Parameters; Carcass Cuts; Digestibility; Feed Conversion Ratio; Feed Intake; Pelleted Date Palm Leaves.
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    (2023-08-08) Lama Omar Ahmad Omar
    Abiotic stress factors are the most limiting for plant growth and production. Drought caused by water shortage is among the most impacting factor. Palestine has most of the limited renewable water resources. The agricultural sector depends on 51.5% of the total water consumption. Thus, is highly affected. Another major factor that limits productivity is high salinity mainly in arid and semi-arid region like Palestine, the deleterious impact of salinity is associated with water stress as well as nutritional imbalance. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the use of DISPER as an osmoregulator on pepper growth under saline condition. Three levels of Osmo-Regulators (DISPER Osmotic GS) with (0, 0.5, and 1 g/plant) combined with three salt concentrations (0, 100, and 200 mM) of sodium chloride were used. The experiments were conducted in Tulkarm in northern Palestine. Pepper seedlings (Capsicum annuum) variety (Sharbaty) were grown in a greenhouse under natural light condition during the period from 14th October, 2021 to the 22nd January, 2022. One plant was grown in each pot (30 X30cm diameter and height). Filled with a soil mixture of 2:1 sand to peatmoss. The results revealed positive effect of adding DISPER Osmotic GS on plant growth and production of pepper plants under salinity stress. DISPER Osmotic salinity levels of saline water irrigated (100, and 200 mM) saline water, the researcher obtained the best result on chlorophyll content of pepper leaves by (53.775, 41.175 mg/m³) and flower parameters by (12.500, 6.500) respectively, compared to the controller. In addition, the results showed a higher fresh weight of root (14.090, 9.250 g) and the average length of fruits (12, 6 cm) for all measurements respectively. The of DISPER Osmotic GS at 0.5 and 1 gm increased the average area of leaves (179 cm2, 169.632). As a result, DISPER application can be used to alleviate the salinity harmful effects on plant growth and development of pepper plants under saline condition. Keywords: Osmotic GS, DISPER, Salinity irrigation levels, Saline water.
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    (2023-08-01) Lara Mohammad Shaker Bdier
    Water scarcity is one of the most significant global factors influencing food productivity. Palestine has one of the world's most limited renewable water resources. Agriculture consumes 51.5 percent of total water consumption. Therefore, other water resources and staratigies are needed to cope with this situation. Soil amendments play an important role in enhancing crop growth and production.The objective of the study is to reduce the amount of water requirement of pepper plant through applying inorganic and organic soil amendments. In this study, different soil amendments including hydrogel, stevia straw, and compost were used under different irrigation levels (100%, 70%, and 50%) to irrigate ‘‘Nahas” pepper plants. Pepper seedlings was grown into 10 Litre- sized pots with one seedling per pot.Pots were filled with sand and peat moss, 3:1 ratio. The amendments were applied to the soil in each pots at a rate of 250 g of straw stevia, 250 g of compost, and 2.5 g of a hydrogel. The results showed that adding hydrogel (2.5 gm/plant) increased significantly plant height by 48.4cm, number of fruits by5.2, fresh plant weight by 58.1 g, dry plant weight by 17.2 g, fresh fruit weight by 62.4g, dry fruit weight by 45.8g, and fresh root weight by 21 g. However, adding hydrogel under 50% irrigation levels resulted in higher plant length by 51.7 cm, leaf chlorophyll content by 63.7, average number of fruit / plant by 3, fresh shoot weight by 60.8 g, fresh fruit weight by 44.7 g and fresh root weight by 21.2 g. The addition of compost and stevia straw to soil increased soil moisture but they had a negative effect on plant growth and productivity. In conclusion, the results of this study indicated the positive effect of applying hydrogel in conserving soil moisture content through its water-absorbing properties. Hydrogel helps to alleviate water stress, maintain soil moisture, and optimize water use efficiency, especially in regions facing water scarcity or drought conditions, and reduced the amount of water used for irrigation by 50% of irrigation. According to the results obtained under the comdition of this experiment could be recommended that adding hydrogel could be used under drought condition effective tool for soil water management. Keywords: Soil amendment; Hydrogel; Compost; Stevia straw; Irrigation levels.
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    (جامعة النجاح الوطنية, 2022-01-12) Halawa, Wael
    Raising sheep in Palestine is not only an economic or income generation activity, but also a distinctive trait, cultural and tradition of Palestinian people. Livestock production is an integral part of Palestine’s agricultural sector, which contributes up to 46% of total agricultural income. The objective of this experiment was to study the effect of different suckling method on lamb’s growth performance and mortality rate. A total of 97 lambs were used in the study with lambing periods started from October 2020 to January 2021. Ewes’ parities were 1, 2 and 3. Directly after lambing, lambs were randomly distributed according to suckling method into three groups. First group, natural suckling where lambs suckle their mothers (G1, 39 lambs), second group lambs fed completely with milk replacer (G2, 29 lambs), and the third group fed milk replacer at rate of 4 times per day (G3, 29 lambs). Single lambs of G1 were (59%) and 41% twins. Lambs from first, second and third parity were 8, 21 and 28%, respectively. Single lambs of G2 were 62% while twin lambs were 38%. Lambs from first, second and third parties were 14, 48 and 38%, respectively. However, 69% of G3 were singles. Most of the singles (44%) and twins (21%) lambs were from the second parity. Same trend was for lambs of G2 and G3. After half an hour of lambing, lambs were isolated from their dams and placed in small wooden boxes provided by heaters and given colostrum twice daily. The natural suckling lambs (G1) were kept with their dams for free suckling until weaning at 60 days of age. However, the artificial suckling groups (G2) were isolated from dams and fed milk replacer adlibitum until weaning at 40 days of age. Lambs of the) G3(were isolated from mothers and took their milk replacer through automatic suckling machine 4 times a day half hour each time until weaning at 40 days. Results of this study showed that suckling method had no effect (P>0.05) on weaning weight at age at 40 and 60 days of single lambs. Weaning weights at 40 d were 13.7, 12.83 and 13 kg for lambs in G1, G2 and G3, respectively. The rate of mortality was affected (P<0.05) by suckling method. Mortality rate decreased from 18% in G1 to 7 and 3.5% in G2 and G3, respectively. Most of dead lambs were in single lambs. Liter size and suckling method had no effects (P>0.05) on total weight gain and average daily gain of lambs. Also, mortalities were not affected by these parameters. Sex of lambs and suckling method had no effect (P>0.05) on total weight gain and the average daily gain. Lambs total gain and average daily gain were not affected (P>0.05) by numbers of ewe’s parity. Significant cost effect (P<0.05) were observed by feeding milk replacer to suckling lambs. Cost of milk per lamb was reduced from 120 to 40 USD. It was concluded that significant reduction will be achieved through feeding milk replacers to suckling lambs. However, these reductions are expected from the saving in milk expenses and the significant decrease of lamb’s mortality rate. We recommend to use milk replacer in manage of newborn lambs.
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    (جامعة النجاح الوطنية, 2022-02-10) حامد أحمد اشتيه, معين
    الهدف من هذه الدراسة هو معرفة تأثير تغذية أشكال مختلفة من سعف النخيل (DPL) وقشر اللوز (AH) على أداء تسمين الحملان والجدوى الاقتصادية لهذه الممارسة. تم دمج كلاهما سعف النخيل (DPL ) وقشر اللوز (AH) في علائق التسمين كمكونات خام، (مجروشه أو سيلاج أومعالجة قلوية). تم استخدام ثمانية وعشرين خاروف هجينا في هذه الدراسة. قسمت الخراف إلى سبع مجموعات، في كل مجموعة أربعة خراف. كانت المجموعة (G1) عبارة عن مجموعة شاهد , العليقة تحتوي على 85٪ مركز و15٪ قش قمح، اما بالنسبة للمجموعات التجريبية G2 إلى G7، إضافة المخلفات إلى العلائق لتحل محل نصف قش القمح. تم حساب نسبة الهضمية وقياس تحليل الدم ودراسة خصائص الذبيحة في نهاية التجربة 87 يوم. أظهرت نتائج الدراسة أن استخدام المخلفات الزراعية من (DPL&AH) لم يكن لها أي تأثير على معايير الأداء (تناول العلف، FI، زيادة الوزن، WG، نسبة الكفاءة التحويل للعلف، FCR). لم تتأثر قابلية هضم العناصر الغذائية وخصائص الذبيحة والأعضاء الداخلية ونتائج تحليل الدم بنوع النظام الغذائي المقدم مقارنة بالشاهد. كما تبين ان تغذية المجموعات المختلفة باستخدام DPL وAH ادى إلى خفض تكلفة التغذية بنسبة تصل إلى 20٪. أن تغذية المجموعات على DPL وAH في شكلها الخام او سيلاج، او معالجتها قلويا) له فائدة كبيرة في الزيادة الوزنية، والكفاءة التحويلية. كما انها تقلل من تكاليف سعر الاعلاف المستخدمة في عملية التسمين. بالإضافة إلى حماية البيئة من التلوث , كما ينبغي التحقيق في أفضل مستويات التغذية والحصول على افضل النتائج .