- ItemPolymer Melt Flow in 3D Printing(2024-02-12) Ahmed Qadi; Abdul Hakim FutyanAbstract Material extrusion additive manufacturing is a widely used process for producing complex parts from thermoplastic polymers. However, the quality of the final product is heavily influenced by the flow behavior of the polymer melt through the hot-end and the nozzle. In order to optimize the extrusion process, reduce defects such as extrusion inconsistencies, and improve the quality and performance of the final product, a comprehensive understanding of the flow behavior is essential. In this project, the flow behavior of polymer melts in fused filament fabrication 3D printing technology through the extrusion mechanism known as the hot-end will be investigated experimentally. A test setup was built to extrude polymer melts at different melt temperatures while measuring the force exerted using load cell. The goal is to develop a control system that can optimize the extrusion process and interpret the force data to achieve optimal results. Additionally, a key objective of this study is to conduct a comparative analysis of PLA (Polylactic acid) and TPU (thermoplastic polyurethane) materials, assessing how each responds to varying extrusion conditions. This comparison aims to uncover the distinct properties and behaviors of these polymers, offering valuable insights for their application in 3D printing. The results of this comparison are crucial for understanding material-specific requirements and tailoring the extrusion process accordingly. Data from the test setup were collected and analyzed using MATLAB. A key challenge encountered was the non-linear behavior of the heater model, which led to the development of the advanced Hammerstein model. However, due to complexities in designing a controller for this model, a PID Controller was employed. Utilizing MATLAB's PID tuner, optimal values for Kp, Ki, and Kd were determined to effectively control the heater. The study demonstrates that extrusion parameters like speed, temperature, and feeding force critically affect the quality of 3D prints. It thoroughly investigates how these factors interact, enhancing our understanding of their role in 3D printing. This research significantly advances the field by providing deeper insights into material properties and suggesting ways to improve 3D printing techniques, laying groundwork for future advancements
- ItemPhotovoltaic Grass Cutter(2024-02-07)The continuing increase in fuel costs and the impact of gas emissions from burned fuel into the atmosphere makes it necessary to use the sun's plentiful solar energy as a source of electricity to run a lawn mower. Based on the fundamentals of mowing, a solar-powered lawn mower was created. The direct current (D.C.) motor, a rechargeable battery, a solar panel, a stainless-steel blade, and a control switch make up the intended solar lawnmower. An app is used to operate the solar- powered lawnmower, which shuts the circuit and allows current to pass through the motor, which drives the blade used for cutting grass. Through the solar charging controller, the battery is recharged.
- Item3 axis laser engraver CNC machine(2023-06-19) Tha’er Dwikat; Abd Alhameed BahishABSTRACT CNC technology has become a requirement in the industrial world, manufacturers of this type of machine are trying to conform to the market requirements in terms of quality, price, and quantity, and so the CNC machine can meet the requirements and has acquired a leading position. Using CNC machines is more cost-effective, accurate, and much faster. It’s the ability to manufacture complex shapes with high quality and accuracy compared to the ordinary machines. The vast majority of today’s CNC arsenals are completely electronic. Some of the more common CNC-operated processes include ultrasonic welding, hole-punching and laser cutting. In this final project, a 3-axis laser engraver CNC was designed and developed, that has two linear axis and one rotational axis capable of engrave "draw" on cylindrical parts. Starting from the mechanical design, then the electric and controller selection, followed by the software, programing and finally the results and dissolution.
- ItemGraduation Project Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of The Requirements for The Degrees of B.Sc. In Mechatronics & Mechanical Engineering(2023) Ismaeel Sbeih; Yazan JawwabrehRobotic exoskeleton systems are one of the hottest subjects in robotic research right now. These systems have undergone extensive development in order to be used in the assessment of human power and robotic rehabilitation. Unlike industrial robots, robotic exoskeleton systems require unique consideration in terms of mechanical and control approaches since they interface directly with humans. Moving ranges, safety, comfort wearing, low inertia, and adaptability should all be taken into account while designing these systems mechanically. The controllers of exoskeleton systems should prioritize controllability, responsiveness, flexible and smooth motion generation, and safety. In addition, the controller should generate motions that are consistent with the human motion goal. The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of exoskeleton systems and design an exoskeleton that provides support when lifting a load so that the human body is not affected by any injury during work. The design will be tested on a load of 70 kg and using different types of materials, type of control for motors and sensors. A prototype arm of the exoskeleton was made and how to transfer movement from the user to the exoskeleton was studied by studying several sensors, but a flex sensor was chosen to transmit movement, but we noticed that there were several problems during work, including that the sensor was poorly made and did not give correct readings, so we resorted to using potentiometer.
- ItemSolar-powered water pumping system(2023-01-03) ● Abdelrahman Braik; ● Bisan NazzalThe economy of Palestine depends mainly on agriculture, this requires different types of irrigation, which is practised at different levels around the world. With the increase in crop yields, irrigation systems continue to consume large amounts of traditional energy such as electricity and fuel. With the rise in diesel prices and the difficulty of transporting it to remote places, the need for a system that reduces this has increased significantly. The photovoltaic system is ideal, especially in areas with no electrical network. A solar-powered automatic irrigation system provides a sustainable solution to enhance water use efficiency in agricultural fields by using a renewable energy system that protects the environment from emissions. This photovoltaic (PV) irrigation system will contribute to social and economic development. It is the proposed solution to the energy crisis for Palestinian farmers. In this project, the following main points will be discussed: 1. Methods for designing and sizing photovoltaic pumping system in Nablus and Tulkarm 2. PVsyst software 3. Estimating the Optimum Tilt Angles for South-Facing Surfaces in Palestine. 4. The difference in emissions produced with the two systems. 5. Savings($). The water volume power increased by 2.13% monthly, 1.6% quarterly, 1.4 semi-annually, and 0% annually in Nablus, when the tilt angle was changed. In Tulkarm the water volume power increased 3.41% monthly, 2.78% quarterly, 2.85% semi-annually, and 0% annually. When the Photovoltaic (PV) system was used instead of the diesel generators, the yearly savings for Nablus were $12,586 and were $12,338 for Tulkarm. Emissions produced by the Photovoltaic (PV) pumping system are 0Kg CO2 per year compared to the massive amount of emissions produced by the diesel generator, being 27,506.4Kg CO2 per year.