Energy and Environmental Engineering

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    Feasibility Analysis for Establishing WtE Plant in Zahrat Al-Finjan landfill - Jenin.
    (2020-12-20) Hassiba, Dana
    The utilization of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) for energy production has been implemented globally for many decades. Palestine, however, is still dependent on landfills for only disposing of the generated MSW. Furthermore, the growing threat of energy insecurity and the inability to control the disposing of generated MSW properly can be reduced through the renewable and continuous provision of energy, where generated electrical energy from MSW will strongly achieve this purpose. Among the different alternatives for securing national energy sources, energy waste seems to be beneficial in providing energy and helps in reducing generated MSW quantities and their corresponding negative environmental consequences at the same time. In this research, the feasibility analysis was conducted for establishing WtE incineration and landfilling plant as a supposed MSW treatment method in the West Bank-Jenin government. Changes in waste generation quantities and waste composition as a result of the recycling process were also considered. Each method looked at the potential of producing electricity from a specific MSW capacity and consequently the related calculation of profitability factors. The first scenario involves treating 1200 daily tons of MSW, whereas the second and third scenarios involve treating 974 and 1148 daily tons of MSW, respectively, as a result of including the sorting process for extracting valuable waste composition such as plastic, metals, and glass in the second scenario and extracting valuable metals and glass only in the third scenario, before being incinerated. The results revealed that there is a distinction between the two suggested technologies in terms of initial investment cost, the potential of produced electrical energy, and resulting profitability factors. However, the amount of total produced electrical energy that could be obtained from the two WtE technologies is as follows: 1 GWh from the LFGtE plant, 10 GWh from the first scenario of incineration, and 6, and 10 GWh from the second and third scenarios of incineration, respectively. Furthermore, economic profitability factors NPV, LCOE, and IRR are 26 million dollars, 0.1065 USD/kWh, and 54%, respectively, for the LFGtE plant. That is 95 million dollars, 0.0883 USD/kWh, and 35% for the first incineration scenario. Whereas 40 million dollars, 0.1044 USD/kWh, and 25% and 132 million dollars, 0.0723 USD/kWh, and 51%, respectively, for the second and third incineration scenarios.
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    Biochar From Municipal Solid Waste (MSW)
    (2021-01-01) Qanaze’, Malak; Qaffaf, Hadeel
    This research presents a model for the production of biochar from municipal solid waste using the slow pyrolysis technique. In this research, biochar production methods and the benefit of using them were investigated. The proposed location for establishing the studied plant is in the Nablus waste transfer station. The waste quantityand contents are the main parameters for the initial design. After preparing the process flow diagram, mass and energy balance equations were applied to calculate the products and energy needed. At the end, feasibility and environmental analysis were performed on the suggested plant. The city of Nablus and some neighboring villages export about 250 tons of waste per day, for pyrolysis process, only organicportion (53%)will be considered as the raw material. The amount of solid waste that is entered in a whole day (24 hours) is equal to (120201 kg/day), but this amount is divided into 6 cycles per day, and the duration of one cycle is 4 hours. Any quantity (20033 kg/4 hours) with a moisture content of 40% is entered. Right down to the drying process, the weight was reduced to (12924 kg / 4 hours) with a moisture content of 7%. The second part of the process, the drying process. To facilitate this process, the dryer is supplied with dry and hot steam. The process continues until the humidity reaches 7% where the reactor moisture should be less than 10% and the raw materials are fed into the shredder which reduces the volume of waste. Small dry pieces arrive at the pyrolysis reactor which starts the heating process from 500°C and the materials settle in the reactor for a period of time until biochar, bio-oil and syngas are produced which enter into the process repeatedly as heat energy for the reactor to continue working.The results indicate that for every 1 kg of material 0.35 biochar, 0.35 syngas, and 0.30 biooil at an energy input of 1.8 MJ/kg. Therefore, the energy required for this quantity (12,924 kg / 4 h) is estimated at 36060 MJ / 4 h. Also, the amount of heat required for the drying process is 26,289 MJ / 4 h. Three scenarios were also developed to determine the economic effectiveness of the project. Considering the initial cost of 16 million, the selling price of biochar and bio-oil was estimated as 0.65 ($/kg), 0.79 ($/kg), respectively. In another scenario, the selling price was 0.65 ($/kg), 0.22 ($/kg), respectively. Ending with the scenario that means selling bio-oil only at 0.79 ($/kg). The expected payback period was 1.5, 2.5, and 7.5, respectively.
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    "Design a PV grid connected Car Parking system for Eastern Car Complex of Nablus Municipality"
    (2021-05-30) Melhem, Khaled; Kmail, Mohammad
    Cities in Palestine in general and Nablus in particular suffer from a shortage of electric power due to several reasons, the most important of which is the occupation, as the occupation prevents us from exploiting resources and disconnecting from it and places strict restrictions to keep the occupation not only limited to the land, but includes all aspects of life, including energy. This project was designated to help meet part of the needs of the Nablus city for electric power by exploiting the Eastern car Complex to design solar energy systems and exploit all available places within it. As three design cases were assumed to take into account all options and capabilities available to us, where the best and latest global programs Specialized in this field were used, such as HelioScope, sketch up and AutoCAD to get the most accurate results that are: 35.4 kilowatts were obtained, which is equivalent to the consumption of 11 Palestinian homes in the first case, 44.8 kilowatts were obtained, which is equivalent to the consumption of 15 Palestinian homes in the second case and 108 kilowatts which is equivalent to the consumption of 36 Palestinian homes in the third case were obtained
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    In partial fulfillment of the requirements for Bachelor degree in Energy And Environmental Engineering
    (2020-12-22) Sawalha, Heba
    A correction was made to the standard conditions used in the equation of calculating the Nominal Operating cell temperature (NOCT) of the cell based on the area in which the test was performed by calculating the average maximum solar radiation, the average value of the ambient temperature, and the average value of the wind speed at the maximum solar radiation using a data for 8759 readings during a year. Its effectiveness has been proven on the most common four types of PV modules used in Palestine with two different cell types (Mono-c-Si and Multi-c-Si), where the values of the NOCT calculated using the new correction were close to the theoretical values by around 5°C from the ones calculated with the original equation. An Estimation of yearly module temperature was also made for the four modules, it was found that the root mean square error (RMSE) is ± (5.61°C, 6.21°C, 6.26°C, 6.58°C) for the four modules respectively.
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    Environmental impact of waste management systems using life cycle assessment
    (2020-05-01) Weld Ali, Madlien; Awaysa, Rawan
    Abstract Developing countries face many problems. One of these is the waste problem. There are large quantities of waste generated every year that requires a huge amount of space for disposal. Concurrently, the energy sector suffers from a shortage of resources and increasing demand. Fortunately, by using new technologies, we can solve these two issues Synchronously by converting undesirable waste into useful energy. Palestinian government strategic plans (2017-2022) seek to minimize dependency on imported energy, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and implement sustainable solutions for municipal solid waste disposal. Converting waste into energy is considered a potential approach to achieve the objectives set by the Palestinian government. The scope of this study is to investigate and compare the environmental impact of two different waste management systems in Zahrat Al-finjan landfill by using the LCA approach, from GWP, and CED points of view. The first system is landfill with three scenarios. The first scenario is currently in use, which is landfill without any gas collection, the second one is methane collection and flaring, and the third scenario is LFG recovery. while the second system is establishing an incineration plant, which generates electricity by converting waste into energy. After data collection, models were developed using IPCC formulas and LandGEM software to perform an environmental impact assessment from a life cycle perspective. For incineration and landfill, respectively. In addition, the amount of electrical energy that could be obtained from waste incineration, and LFG recovery was estimated at 8,019 GWh, 668.87 GWh, respectively. The results show that using an incineration plant as a waste management system to generate electricity by waste incineration is the most suitable option for Zahrat Al-finjan landfill. And considerable environmental savings can be achieved when the existing landfill system is replaced with the incineration plant. The CO2-equivalent emissions from incineration were 4.6 Mt, while from landfill without gas collection, methane flaring, and LFG recovery is 5.04 Mt, 2.5 Mt, and 2.5 Mt, respectively. Moreover, the CO2-equivalent reduction from using incineration plant, and LFG recovery output electricity instead of IEC electricity is 6 Mt, and 0.51 Mt, respectively. As for the CED, it is 1.2×1010 MJ for the incineration plant, and 16.6×106 MJ, 16.6×106 MJ, and 7.7×109 MJ for the landfill system with its three scenarios, respectively.