Plant Production

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    Screening for Genetic Variation in the Circadian Clock in Diverse Barley Collection
    (ِAn-Najah National University, 2020-02-16) Hamdan, Abd Al-Rahim
    الساعة البيولوجية هي آلية متكيفة ذاتيا التي تنظم مجموعة واسعة من العمليات الفسيولوجية والجزيئية خلال فترة 24 ساعة وبالتالي تتيح للنباتات خاصية التكيف مع مختلف التغيرات اليومية والموسمية في بيئتها. ومع ذالك هناك معلومات محدودة حول كيفية تأثير الساعة البيولوجية على أداء المحاصيل. في نبات الشعير (Hordeum vulgare), آلية المذبذب الأساسية تتكون من عدة عناصر هي: معامل النسخ في الصباح (CCA1) و معامل النسخ في المساء (TOC1). وتنظيم هذه الجينات هو جزء مهم من الساعة البيولوجية, والكشف عن تلك الآليات التنظيمية يمكن أن يلقي الضوء على كيفية عمل الساعة واقترانها بالبيئة المحيطة. الأهداف الرئيسية لهذه الدراسة هي التعرف على التباين الطبيعي في الساعة البيولوجية في مجموعة متنوعة من الشعير باستخدام تقنية قياس الفلورسنس بالإضافة إلى تحديد اختلاف المعاملات الإيقاعية استجابة للتغيرات البيئية. تم استخدام تقنية قياس الفلورسنس كأداة لدراسة الإيقاعات البيولوجية في مجموعة مختلفة من الشعير, وأيضا باستخدام هذه التقنية تم تحليل العلاقة بين المعاملات الإيقاعية والاختلافات الجغرافية (الارتفاع) في موقع منشأ هذه النباتات. وأشارت النتائج التي تم الحصول عليها من هذه الدراسة إلى أن هناك تذبذبات واضحة ومختلفة بين مختلف نباتات الشعير نتيجةCCA1 التي أحدثت تغيير في تنظيم التذبذبات الإيقاعية للفلورسنس. كما أظهرت النباتات وجود ارتباطا قويا بين المعاملات الإيقاعية للفلورسنس والاختلافات الجغرافية ( الارتفاع) في موقع منشأ النباتات.
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    Study of Morphological and Agronomic Variation of Local and Improved Barley Lines
    (Tariq Abu Baker, 2018-12-09) Abu Baker, Tariq
    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)is one of the most important field crops in Palestine. The area Planted with barley exceeds 9270 ha. The average productivity in Palestine is about 1.7 ton/ha, which is less than 56% of average world productivity. This shortage is due to the effect of unfavourable local environmental conditions for used cultivars. Introducing high yielding and well-adapted cultivars could be one of the best solutions to overcome the low productivity of barley in palestine. Eighty-four accessions of landraces and cultivated varieties of barley were collected from different countries, mainly from the Fertile Crescent. A field experiment was conducted at the Faculty of Agriculture – An-Najah National University during two growing seasons 2015-2016 and 2016-2017 to evaluate several agronomical traits and to test the agronomic performance of the barley varieties under rain-fed conditions. The traits that were analysed are days to stem elongation, days to heading, days to maturity, tiller number, spike number, plant height, total grain yield, thousand kernel weight and vegetative biomass. The results obtained from this study led to a clear morphological identification of studied varieties. Also the results indicated high genetic diversity among barley varieties, which make them potential sources for selection and hybridization programmes. The results also show that there are clear differences in most of the varieties between season 2015-2016 and season 2016-2017. These differences are due to the different climatic conditions between the two seasons in addition to the biotic and abiotic factors. The results also indicated that many of these genotypes are promising for grain yield as MK_RB_269 (409 g/m2) variety, and others for vegetative biomass yield as MK_RB_113 (2062g/m2) variety. Further studies are needed to compare the productivity of these genotypes with international varieties and identify QTL controlling the productivity of these genotypes and to study the variation between and within these genotypes at the molecular level.
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    Characterization of novel sources of Fusarium resistance in Faqous (Cucumis melo subsp. melo var. flexuosus) by phytopathological approach
    (ِAn-Najah National University, 2019-02-07) Eid, Imad
    الخلفية: يزرع الفقوس على نطاق واسع في فلسطين ويظهر تكيف جيد مع المناخ، بالإضافة الى تحمل بعض الامراض والظروف القاسية. الاهداف: الهدف من هذه الدراسة البحث عن اصول جينية يمكن استخدامها في تهجين نبات شمام مقاوم للفيوزاريوم من خلال التركيز على الاصول المحلية المتكيفة مع المناخ والتي تزرع من قبل المزارعين الذين يملكون حيازات صغيرة. المنهجية: تم فحص 47 سلالة من الفقوس تمثل 47 حقل من الضفة الغربية لمقاومتها للذبول الناجم عن الفطر Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis للسلالات ((0, 1, 2, 37 من هذه السلالات (سلالات الفقوس) تم فحصها لمقاومتها لسلالة الفطر 1.2 باستخدام تركيز 106x 1 ابواغ/مل بطريقة غمس الجذور بمعلق الابواغ، بالاضافة الى سلالات الفقوس تم استخدام Differential Melon Lines ككاشف ((as controls . النتائج: جميع السلالات التي فحصت كانت مقاومة للفيوزاريوم سلالة صفرFOM0) ) و والسلالة 2 (FOM2). لقد كان ادنى متوسط 0.52 للمساحة تحت منحنى تقدم المرض (rAUDPC) للفيوزاريوم FOM1.2 للسلالة RB38. معظم قيم rAUDPC للفيوزاريوم FOM1 كانت قريبه من بعضها حيث كانت اعلى قيمة 0.81 للسلالة AB59 من قرية بردلة بينما كانت اقل قيمة 0.41 للسلالة SD30 من قرية دير بلوت. بالاضافة الى ذلك لم يوجد اي فروقات معنوية في rAUDPC للفيوزاريوم FOM 1.2 بينما وجد فرق معنوي في rAUDPC للفيوزاريوم FOM1 بين السلالات التي جمعت من سلفيت ومعظم السلالات التي جمعت من مناطق اخرى. الإستنتاجات: جميع الفقوس الذي تم فحصة مقاوم للفيوزاريوم FOM 0 و FOM 2 وحساس الى مقاوم جزئيا للفيوزاريوم FOM 1 وFOM1.2 . Keywords: Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis, Differential Melon Lines, rAUDPC سلالة, تركيز الابواغ,
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    Evaluation of Pearl Millet Ecotypes Under Saline Conditions
    (Ihsan Abu Ali, 2018-10-04) Abu Ali, Ihsan
    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of differential saline levels on the growth and development of nine Pearl millet accessions (Pennisetum glaucum). The experiment was conducted at the research station of the Faculty of Agriculture, An Najah University, Tulkarm, Palestine. The seeds were planted on 4th of April 2016; seeds of the nine accessions were planted in plastic containers filled with sandy soil. Five plants were placed in each container. The plants were irrigated with three salinity levels (fresh water as a control, 75 mM , 150 mM NaCl), with three replicates for each treatment. The results demonstrated that germination percentages, radical and coleoptile length were significantly affected by increasing salinity level. Highest germination percentages at 0 salinity level (control) were observed in accessions IP 6104. The germination percentage for all accession decreased significantly for 100 mM , 150 mM and 200 mM except IP 6104 accession . in the high level 250 mM the germination percentage decreased significantly, the highest germination percentage IP 19612 accession. the lowest germination percentage was recorded with Sudan pop III, Sudan pop I, ICMS 7704, MC 94 C2 and ICMV 155 accessions. Shoot length was found to be significantly reduced when salinity level was increased. However, the average tillers number was not affected by salinity. And significant differences were observed among accessions on shoot length and tillers number. Chlorophyll content was found to be significantly affected by salinity. were the chlorophyll content decrease when salinity level increase. No significantly different was conducted between accessions. the nine accessions exhibited statistically different root fresh and dry weight and shoot fresh weight but shoot dry weight not affected significantly . Ash content decrease significantly per salinity treatment and at all accessions Ash content was differ. Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content of the different accession was not significantly affected with salinity treatment. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated the ability of pearl millet to grow under saline condition. As such, indicating that this forage crop has a good potential for planting in areas with high soil salinity. Additionally, cluster analysis show that the MC 94 C2 accession provided the best results in germination and field experimentation.
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    استجابة الاجهاد الملحي في نبات البندورة باستخدام نظام الزراعة المائية المعاملة ب البكتيريا المحفزة للنمو (PGPR)
    (جامعة النجاح الوطنية, 2021-02-14) Salahat, Taj Matar Talal
    This research was designed to evaluate and measure the impact of various level of sodium chloride (NaCl) on tomato plant in the presence or absence of Pseudomonas fluorescence bacteria. The study conducted under hydroponic system using one variety of tomato plant under different salinity levels (0,100,150) mM with and without P. fluorescence. The lines in the system was irrigated with different concentrations of NaCl, each salinity level was subjected to inoculation with P. fluorescence and no inoculation. The result of this study showed that salt stress without P. fluorescence inoculation caused reduction in growth and yield parameter such as (shoot height, fruit number, flowering intensity, number of leaves, root mass, and fresh and dry weight.....). the most remarkable effect of P. fluorescence inoculation was a twofold increase in flowering intensity and fruit number and more than threefold increase in fruit weight. Which indicate higher productive due to the P. fluorescence inoculation. The chemical analysis showed accumulation of sodium and chloride in root for inoculated plant with bacteria in relation to salinity and no interaction between bacterial inoculation and salinity in Ca, N, Na and Cl leaf content, which might indicates a response of osmotic potential. results that plant inoculated with P. fluorescence revealed less N content than non-inoculated plant with 0.18% compared to 0.29% respectively. However, Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria (PGPB) can improve and enhance plant growth and development, also stress adaptation in present of salinity this lead to improve and enhance plant growth and yield. The inoculation of remarkably of P. fluorescence increased plant height, number of leaves and flower, total biomass of plant, early flowering, enhance root system also increased absorption of (K and P) in root and leaf, The Ca in root was 5% for inoculated plant with P. fluorescence at control level compared with 4.83% for non-inoculated plant at the same level of salinity. Plant inoculated with P. fluorescence showed moderate tolerance to salt stress than non-inoculated plant. Many studies revealed that the effect of high salinity on bacteria activity throw increase osmotic strength and toxic effect but present of salt tolerant bacteria as (P. fluorescence) might increase productivity of plant under saline condition. The study revealed that the effect of saline irrigation water in (hydroponic system),degree of effect that reduced by addition of P. fluorescence to plant than non-inoculated.