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- ItemPossible Role of Parental Consanguinity on Having Offspring with Hearing Impairment(208-05-30) Amal Suleiman; Do’a Haj Hamad; Mhammad JaberHearing impairment could be caused of several factors regardless its type and degree of severity. The etiological role of genetic factors was confirmed in several international cohorts. It was also noted that parental consanguinity was factor for having offspring with HL. In this study, the aim is to test the degree of association of parental consanguinity and hearing impairment in Palestine. This study was carried out on 26 children with variable degrees of hearing impairment from Al-Murabitat school Qalqilya. The Study period started from October 2018 to February 2019 (5 months). We found that about 80.7% of parents were consanguineous. The most common type of consanguinity was first cousins (about 50%). These results are consistent with several national, region and international cohorts. Together, all these studies revealed that parental consanguinity was more common as risk factor of hearing impairment than it was thought before. The practice of consanguineous marriage should be discouraged.
- ItemRadon detection in the drinking water supply of Nablus city, Palestine(2011-05-20) Shaza, Yaser Issa; Dr. Hamzeh Al Zabadi, Dr. Samar MusmarIntroduction: Radon gas is the second cause of lung cancer and is found naturally in rock, soil, and water. The objective of this study is to determine the radon level in the drinking water in Nablus city and to compare it with world standard level. Methods:Samples were taken from 4 wells and 5 springs that supplied Nablus city residence with water. For each source, 3 samples were analysed by using RAD 7 device which manufactured by Durridge company. Each sample analysed for 4 cycles and the average for them was taken. Finally the average for each source was calculated. We also took 3 samples from tap water for each region of the 7 regions of Nablus city according to the division of Nablus municipality. And 10 samples from the old city. In Nablus,water pumped from main sources to pump stations, then mixed in the collecting reservoirs, then pumped to houses reservoirs and finally to taps. Results: Theconcentration of radon in main sources ranged from 2.3 to 23.4 Bq/L with a mean of 6.9 Bq/L. 4.6 Bq/L and 9.5 Bq/L are the means for springs and wells respectively. For tap water in the 7 regions the results ranged from 0.9 to 1.3 Bq/l with the mean of 1.0 Bq/L and for old city the mean was 2.3 Bq/L. Conclusion:radon concentration in wells and springs was below the United State environmental protection agency maximum contaminated level (MCL) except for Badan well. And much lower for tap water which reflects lesser risk from exposure to radon. Concentration of radon in the tap water of old city was higher than other regions of Nablus which may because the old city supplied from one source which is close to its dwellings.
- ItemInvestigation of the interchangeability between Cefuroxime Axetil tablets marketed in Palestine. Is there a quality reason behind the price?(2012-04-26) A Za’areer; S Abdelhafez; O Alqaryouti; A Saleem; Prof. Abed Naser ZaidBackground: According to Food and Drug Administration (FDA), therapeutically equivalent antibiotics are expected to have equivalent clinical efficacy and safety when used under the conditions of their labeling. However, any defect in the quality of an antibiotic may negatively affect its efficacy and safety and accordingly are considered a substandard drug. Cefuroxime is a semi-synthetic, broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic intended for oral administration. Any quality defect in this product may cause inefficacy and future bacterial resistance. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality and cost price of all commercial Cefuroxime Axetil tablet products available on the Palestinian market (One brand and two generic products). Method: A survey on the price of all commercial tablet products was conducted. To assess quality, all products were examined visually for their general appearance. They were tested for weight uniformity, friability, disintegration, and dissolution profile, and assayed for Cefuroxime content. Results: The original brand was more expensive than the two locally produced generic products. Based on our testing procedure, all Cefuroxime tablet products were equivalent to the brand product. Although, the two generic products released more than 85% of their Cefuroxim content within 15 minutes, while the brand released only 74.5%. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that generic Cefuroxime tablets produced by local manufacturers are often comparable in vitro to the brand product and have lower price. Accordingly, we encourage our physician to prescribe the local product since they may be interchangeable and have same safety and efficacy profile.
- ItemOutcomes of Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy among Obesity Patients in the Northern West Bank: A Retrospective Records Review(2012-05-20) Ahmad, Daqour; Dr. Hamzeh Al ZabadiBackground: Obesity has become a significant health problem in worldwide. Yet, conservative methods for weight loss are usually disappointing and therefore, bariatric surgeries such as Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy (LSG) should be considered. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the outcomes (mainly body mass index; BMI) of LSG among obesity patients in the Northern West Bank. Methods: Hospital medical records were reviewed after patients and administrative approvals for all patients who had undergone LSG since the year 2010 in the Arab specialized hospital in Nablus and the Palestinian Red Crescent society hospital in Tulkarem (N=36). In the second phase, patients have been invited again by phone calls to participate in the study. Those who agreed to participate (n=30; response rate=83.3%) were asked to self-report further required pre-operative and post-operative study measures. The primary study outcome was the change in BMI while the secondary outcomes included obesity associated co-morbidities’ measures; hypertension (HTN) and diabetes mellitus (DM). Results: The mean age (standard deviation; SD) of the study participants (n=30; 20 women and 10 men) was 34.06 (10.71) years. After a mean (SD) follow-up time of nearly 7.16 (5.05) months, there was a strong statistically significant reduction in the mean of BMI post-operatively. The mean±SD of the pre-operative BMI was 47.23±7.89 kg/m2 while 36.74±7.74 kg/m2 post-operatively (95% CI for mean differences and p<0.001; 8.83-12.14 and 0.001). For the 6 clinically diagnosed hypertensive patients, there was a mean (SD) reduction of 27.50 (9.87) in systolic pressure (P <0.026) and 18.33 (13.66) of the diastolic blood pressure (P<0.042). For the 3 diabetics in our study, there were clinically and biologically clear mean (SD) reductions in both fasting blood sugar and glycated hemoglobin A1c of about 82.00 (22.70) mg/dl and 1.90 (0.78) %; respectively.In multivariate linear regression analysis, only practicing sports or exercise (no/yes) remained statistically significant with post-operative BMI (regression coefficient B= -7.33;P-value and 95%CI for B; 0.009 and -12.68- -1.98). Conclusions: LSG can significantly improve the BMI and could improve or resolve obesity associated co-morbidities like HTN and DM. We suggest that LSG might be recommended as the useful and single intervention therapy for co-morbid obesity patients who usually fail to reach beneficial results from a structured weight loss programs.
- ItemLaparoscopic versus open cholecystectomy in high risky patients” An-Najah National University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, 2011-2012(2012-05-20) Ahmad, Isleem; Dr.Mahmoud MustafaLaparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is a minimal invasive procedure , however ,in elderly patients the situation is notthe same . the aim of this study is to compare the LC with open cholecystectomy (OC) and to define significant predictors of complications after surgery in elderly patient s. the records of patient who underwent LC or OC in Rafidia surgical hospital , from Jan/2009 to May/2011 were reviewed . the study cohort was divided into three group , group1 (60 -70 years) , group2 (70-80 years) , and group3 (> 80 years). The pre-, intra- and post –operative parameter including age, gender,length of stay (LOS) , complecations, conversion rate ,and mortality were reviewed for each group. Risk factors were examined using uni-and multivariate analysis. Total of 124 patients were included : 58 patient (46.8%) underwent LC and 66 patients (53.2%) had OC . the females were the dominant gender in both tyepes of operation . patients who underwent OC were older ,and more comorbidity and more emergency surgery than LC patients . the percentage of male gender, emergent surgeries, presence of acute inflammation , more comorbid diseases and increased time to surgery than LC patients . the percentage of male gender , emergent surgeries, presence of acute inflammation, more comorbid diseases and increased time to surgery from addition increase with age. Conversion rate was found to be 10.34% . LOS was longer in OC than than in LC ( mean 7.38 day and 5.21, respectively, p 0.013 ). Complication rate was significantly lower in LC 27.6% than in OC 48.5% ( p0.017 ). Male gender ( p<.0001 ) , presence of comorbidity ( p0.007 ) and increased time to surgery ( p < .0001 ) were all significantly associated with the incidence of complications. Shorter LOS, lower post-operative complications and lower mortality rate are among the most important consideration of LC. We believed that LC is a feasible and safe procedure with a pleased comparable result to OC in elderly patients with Gallbladder disease
- ItemIn vitro and in vivo postmarketing surveillance of Valsartan, alone or in combination with amlodipine or hydrochlorthiazide, among Palestinian hypertensive patients(2012-05-20) D Shweiki; H Shtewi; R Shaheen; S Al Helaly; Z Khayyat; Prof. Abed Naser ZaidObjectives: to evaluate the general quality of the most prescribed products of valsartan (VL) (alone or in combination) and to evaluate their efficacy and safety among Palestinian population through in vivo post-marketing surveillance. Methods: The first part was pharmacopeial quality control (QC) assay including dissolution, disintegration, friability and weight uniformity for VL. The second part was 3-months, cardiology clinics, observational, post marketing surveillance pilot study that included 103 hypertensive patients who were prescribed valsartan 80 or 160mg as monotherapy or combination therapy. The endpoint was the reduction of blood pressure (BP) and the rate of incidence of adverse effects (AEs) at weeks 4 and 8. Results: according to our QC tests all VL products showed high quality standards according to the international guidelines. A reduction of BP was observed at week 4 and 8 and no significant difference was observed between 80 and 160 strengths, higher BP reduction was observed after the use of combination therapy. Moreover, VL was well tolerated; most of AEs were of mild to moderate intensity. In general, the most frequently reported AEs included headache (17.5%), dizziness (11.75%) and weakness (11.7%). No serious AEs or Death cases were reported during the study period. Conclusion: High quality of the used VL tablet products, so the observed efficacy and safety results should be related to patient’s factors and not due to any product defects or substandard quality. Moreover, VL is an effective treatment for essential hypertension.
- ItemEvaluation and management of postoperative nausea and vomiting(2012-05-26) Alla Nader; Bayan Ghazal; Dr. Samah Al- Jabi , Dr. Sa'ed ZyoudIntroduction: Nausea and emetic episodes are common complaints following anaesthesia and surgery and are among the leading cause to decrease patient satisfaction after surgery. Objectives of the study:To Recognize a predictive risk factors that would be unique in the Palestinian population, quantification of the relative impact of the risk factors on postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and to develop a model to stratify risk categories and identify those patients at higher risk for PONV . Method: We enrolled a sample of inpatients over 18 years old from 1 July to 1 November 2012 in this prospective observational cohort study. The patients were interviewed 6 hr and 24 hr postoperatively using a data collection form concerning the patient’s subjective sensation of feeling sick or wishing to vomit and PONV intensity scale. Logistic regression analysis was performed to predict the occurrence of PONV Results:One hundred and fifty nine (39.8%) out of the 400 patients who were included in the study had experienced PONV during their hospital stay. Using a univariate analysis female gender (P=0.014), Previous PONV (P=0.001), Post-operative opioid use (P=0.003) and propofol use (P=.043) were the main predictors in assessing PONV. And it showed that the use of propofol may significantly reduce the risk of PONV (p = 0.043). The results of the binary logistic regression analysis showed that the occurrence of PONV was 1.7 times higher in females comparing to males. In addition, the odds of PONV were 2.5 times higher in patients who had had a previous PONV, and 2.2 times higher in patients who used opioids post-operation. On the other hand, using propofol in anesthetic medication regimen could reduce the risk of the occurrence of PONV by 50%. Using the binary logistic regression we developed this equation for calculating the overall risk of PONV: P (probability of PONV) =1/1+e-Z /Where Z=0.517 (gender) +0.910 (history) + 0.784 (use of post-operative opioid)-0.624(Propofol use). [Gender: female=1, male=0; history of previous PONV or motion sickness: yes=1, no=0; use of post-operative opioid: yes=1, no=0; use of propofol yes=1, no=0] Conclusion:The occurrence of PONV is common with a percentage of 39.8%, the major predictive risk factors for PONV in the Palestinian population were identified which are female gender, history of PONV, post-operative opioid use and the use of propofol .In addition, a predictive model has been developed for assessing PONV among a group of Palestinian patients.
- ItemBiowaiver studies of amlodipine (5 mg/tablet): An alternative to in vivo bioequivalence studies(2012-05-26) I Issa; A Khraim; S Hirzallah; Prof. Abed Naser ZaidBackground: Amlodipine is an anti hypertensive agent. According to the BCS, AM can be classified as class I, especially for 5 mg dose. Objectives: The aim of this study was to prepare a biowaiver monograph based on both literature data and in vitro testing of AM as the only API present in tablet products. This kind of studies is based on the BCS properties and the risk of waiving in vivo studies of the API. Methods: Literature data regarding safety, permeability & physicochemical properties of AM was collected using Pubmed & Google Scholar. In vitro testing was conducted to measure the dissolution behavior in three pH (1.2, 4.5, 6.8) media for the brand and generics. AM content was assessed using UV spectrophotometer as reported in the USP and similarity and non similarity factors were calculated. Results: Release of AM from generics and brand tablet products showed comparable dissolution behavior in all three recommended pH media for similarity studies. Similarity factor in three media was more than 50 and non similarity factor was less than 15 in all three media for both Amlovasc & Vascopin. Conclusion: Based on the current BCS-based biowaiver criteria, the in vivo bioequivalence requirements can be waived for AM (5mg/tablet).
- ItemRelation between Clinical and Therapeutic variables and Quality of Life in Palestinian Hypertensive Patients(2012-06-25) Saleem Hayat Alayasah Mohammad Badwan; Aysha Wild Ali; Hanan Saleem; Hayat Alayasah; Mohammad Badwan; Dr. Samah Al-Jabi Dr. Sa'ed ZyoudBackground:The ability to identify indicators of poor health-related quality of life HRQoL is very important for both improving clinical care and making interventions to improve treatment outcome. Objectives:In this study we aimed to assess HRQoL among hypertensive Palestinian patients and to determine the socio-demographic and therapeutic characteristics associated with poor HRQoL. Methods:A cross-sectional descriptive study was undertaken with a cohort of hypertensive patients attending the outpatients’ clinics at the Al-Makhfyah primary health care clinic and from Alwatani hospital, Nablus - Palestine. The EuroQoL EQ-5D scale was used for the assessment of HRQoL. Descriptive statistics were used to describe socio-demographic and disease-related characteristics of the patients. HRQoL was scored using values adapted from the United Kingdom general population survey. All analysis were performed using SPSS version 15.0. Results: The study sample was 410 patients, of these 213 (52%) were female. The mean age of the study sample was 58.38 ± 1.065 years, 192 patients were obese, 81.2% of the patients were nonsmokers, and the majority of the patients (86.8%) were on combination antihypertensive therapy. HRQoL was good, the mean of the EQ-5D index was 0.80 ± 0.16 and the mean of the EQ-5D visual analogue scale (EQ- VAS) was 74.1 ± 15.6. A significant difference in EQ-5D index value was found between patients when grouped according to age, occupation, marital status, educational level, income, duration of the disease, total number of chronic diseases and total number of medications (Kruskal-Wallis p < 0 .05) as well as gender and therapy type (Mann-Whitney p < 0.05). Conclusion: Palestinian hypertensive patients have good quality of life (QoL). Socio-demographic, co-morbid diseases and therapeutic regimen have a great impact on QoL. The study findings could be helpful in clinical practice, mainly in the early treatment of hypertensive patients, at a point to improve HRQoL.
- ItemMale Students Perspective Regard their Learning Experience During the Clinical Course of Maternity Health Care(2013-04-25) Basel Zawaw; Omar Sawalmeh; Anees SHhab; Yazeed Abu Tammam; Dr. Mariam Al-TellBackground: Nursing as profession historically was considered as a feminine and socially job, number of male entering the profession is recently changed and increased. Culture and population background and religion might have its impact on health care provision, some cultures may considered those who working with female as gay, other cultures don’t prefers working and caring with mothers and women from religion point of views, other might accept some type of caring and not accepting other aspects of care especially that considered invading of intimate space of mothers. The aim of this study: Was to explore the male student nurse's experience of the clinical maternity course. Methodology: It was a descriptive quantitative design study. The sample was convenient sample that randomly selected from the 4 universities that teach nursing of total 77 students who completed their maternity course. The tool was self administrative questionnaire composed of 6 parts; demographic data, gender preferences and related perception, common problems, students clinical experience and suggestions. All students were reached at their universities. Data was analyzed used SPSS software. Results: The results revealed that there were no significant differences between universities in relation to the students’ experience, factors and problems faced them. It also showed that high percentage of students didn’t perform the most embarrassing procedures in maternity such as vaginal examination, assessment of perineum, and attending or assist in normal vaginal delivery especially in private hospitals. Whereas the less embarrassing procedures such as abdominal examination, fetal heart auscultation, and educational sessions were done by most of students. Recommendation: Changes and actions have to be taken at level of universities and training areas to further involve male student nursing in women care
- ItemPattern of fine needle aspiration breast lesion, results in north west bank-a cross sectional study(2013-05-20) An'am, Dweikat; Dr. Rami ZaghaWorldwide, breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed life-threatening cancer in women and is the second leading cause of cancer death among women after lung cancer. Breast cancer detection, treatment, and prevention are prominent issues in public health of medical practice. The aim of the study was revealing the pattern of FNA results of breast lesions and assessing the ability of this modality to detect benign Vs malignant lesions. Common benign pattern of this tests are consistent with international results.
- ItemOutcomes of Bristow-Latarjet Procedure in the Treatment of Recurrent Anterior Shoulder Dislocation(2013-05-20) Saja Omar Adas; Dr. Marwan Al-JayousiOperative stabilization is considered the usual treatment for recurrent shoulder dislocation after failure of the supervised rehabilitation program. Many types of procedures have been proposed for the treatment of recurrent shoulder dislocation with different long term results in terms of shoulder function and stability. In the present study we aimed to analyze the clinical and radiological outcomes of Bristow-Latarjet procedure in patients with recurrent anterior shoulder dislocation. Thirteen patients who underwent Bristow-Latarjet operation from 2002 to 2011 were followed up for 2-10 years. Rowe score for instability, physical and radiological examinations were used to assess outcomes. There had been no recurrences of dislocation after surgery among all patients, but two patients (15.4%) reported subluxation. Six cases (46.2%) had limitation of external rotation compared with the non-operated shoulders. The mean postoperative Rowe score at follow-up was 88 excellent (range 55-100).10 patients had excellent scores (76.9%), one had a good score (7.7 %) and two had scored fair (15.4 %). In conclusion, Bristow-Latarjet procedure is a good reliable surgical method for treatment of patients with recurrent anterior shoulder dislocation and is associated with high rate of satisfaction and good functional results.
- ItemThe prevalence and predisposing factors of urinary incontinence in female patients visiting gynecology out patients clinics(2013-05-20) Raya Bedar; Lana Daraghma; Dr.Mahmoud MustafaObjectives:To determine the percentage and risk factors of urinary incontinence (UI) in general and stress UI in particular in women of north West Bank. Methods:In this cross-sectional study, 300 women aged over 25 years were interviewed and a data collection form was filled. Results:The overall prevalence of UI was 58.7% (n = 185). Among these women, 115 (38.3%) had stress, 28 (9.3%) urge and 33 (11%) mixed type UI. The prevalence rate increased with advancing age. UI was significantly associated with obesity, smoking, hypertension and hysterectomy. On the other hand, stress UI was significantly associated with episiotomy, DM, smoking, hypertension and obesity. Overall, 123 (70%) women stated that UI have negative impact on the quality of life, but only 20 (10.7%) sought medical attention. Conclusions:UI affect approximately half of North West Bank women. The results emphasize that UI is a major health problem that many women are ashamed to talk with their physicians about it, so preventive measures should be taken and women should be educated about this problem.
- ItemThe Prevalence of Uncontrolled Hypertension among Patients Taking Antihypertensive Medications and Associated Factors in Nablus Governorate-North West Bank(2013-05-20) Issa Alawneh; Ahmad Yasin; Dr. Samar MusmarBackground: Uncontrolled hypertension (HTN) is a challenge for public health professionals all over the world. It is the leading and most important modifiable risk factor for coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, stroke, renal diseases and retinopathy. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of uncontrolled HTN among Palestinian hypertensive patients on treatment and under primary health care( PHC) settings follow-up in Nablus governorate – North West Bank. In addition, the study aimed to explore the relationship of some socio-demographic and clinical factors with HTN control. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted at central PHC setting in Nablus city. By using convenience sampling method, the sample size was 218 adults, aged 18 years and above who satisfied the inclusion criteria and consisted of 87 (39.9%) men and 131 (60.1%) women. A systematic random method was used for the selection of the above sample. A structural questionnaire was completed during a face -to- face interview. Blood pressure (BP) was measured using a mercury sphygmomanometer according to the recommendations of the 7th report of The Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC-7). Height was measured with an ordinary measuring tape to the nearest centimeter (cm). Weight was measured with ordinary scale- non electronic portable balance to the nearest 0.5 kilogram (kg). Chi Square Test and multivariate logistic regression were applied for data analysis. Results: The targets for adequate BP control were achieved in 37.6 % of the studied patients. Lower BP control was found among hypertensive patients who were smokers (OR = 4.068, P
- ItemThe prevalence and predisposing factors of urinary incontinence in female patients visiting gynecology out patients clinics(2013-05-20) Raya, Bedar; Lana, Daraghma; Dr.Mahmoud MustafaObjectives:To determine the percentage and risk factors of urinary incontinence (UI) in general and stress UI in particular in women of north West Bank. Methods:In this cross-sectional study, 300 women aged over 25 years were interviewed and a data collection form was filled. Results:The overall prevalence of UI was 58.7% (n = 185). Among these women, 115 (38.3%) had stress, 28 (9.3%) urge and 33 (11%) mixed type UI. The prevalence rate increased with advancing age. UI was significantly associated with obesity, smoking, hypertension and hysterectomy. On the other hand, stress UI was significantly associated with episiotomy, DM, smoking, hypertension and obesity. Overall, 123 (70%) women stated that UI have negative impact on the quality of life, but only 20 (10.7%) sought medical attention. Conclusions:UI affect approximately half of North West Bank women. The results emphasize that UI is a major health problem that many women are ashamed to talk with their physicians about it, so preventive measures should be taken and women should be educated about this problem.
- ItemPharmacist's knowledge, certainty and risk of error in active pharmaceutical ingredients and pharmaceutical excipients: a study from Palestine(2013-05-20) Mohammed Al-Rjoub; Mohammed M Al-Horoub; Wasif Al-Hroub; Bisan Al-Rjoub; Bashaaer Abd Al-NabiPurpose: Pharmaceutical products contain active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and pharmaceutical excipients which could be contraindicated in some patients or could cause serious adverse effects. The aim of this study was to investigate community pharmacists’ knowledge of adverse effects and contraindications of pharmaceutical products, certainty and risk of error. The study also investigated the association of different factors with knowledge, certainty and risk of errors. Methods: The knowledge of community pharmacists was assessed in a cross-sectional design using a multiple-choice questions test on the adverse effects and contraindications of APIs and excipients. Self-rated certainty scores were also recorded for each question. Knowledge and certainty scores were combined to estimate the risk of error. Results: 129 community pharmacists completed the study and the response rate was 41%. The mean score of pharmacists was 11.0/15.0 (±2.3) and 9.3/15.0 (±2.7) in MCQs related to APIs and excipients, respectively. Scores in MCQs related to APIs and excipients positively correlated (Pearson’s r = 0.353, p<0.001). Knowledge on APIs was associated with the year of graduation and obtaining a license to practice pharmacy. Knowledge on excipients was associated with the degree obtained. There was higher risk of error (p<0.01) in questions related to excipients as compared to questions related to APIs. Conclusions: The knowledge of community pharmacists who participated in our study was found to be insufficient with high risk of errors. Our study suggests a need for improving the knowledge of community pharmacists on the safety issues of medications and pharmaceutical excipients.
- ItemPattern of fine needle aspiration breast lesion, results in north west bank-a cross sectional study(2013-05-20) An'am Dweikat; Dr. Rami ZaghaWorldwide, breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed life-threatening cancer in women and is the second leading cause of cancer death among women after lung cancer. Breast cancer detection, treatment, and prevention are prominent issues in public health of medical practice. The aim of the study was revealing the pattern of FNA results of breast lesions and assessing the ability of this modality to detect benign Vs malignant lesions. Common benign pattern of this tests are consistent with international results.
- ItemThe relation between serum prostate specific antigens values and serum testosterone level in health men.(2013-05-20) Haythem Abu khadija; Osama Mareshdeh; Osama Mareshdeh; Dr. Mahmoud Mustafa , Dr.Basma DamiriBackground: PSA is present in small quantities in the serum of men with healthy prostates, but is often elevated in the presence of prostate cancer or other prostate disorders. Prostate epithelium which is under direct effect of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), which is a metabolite of testosterone, secrete PSA, there is a known relation between testosterone and PSA in case of prostate cancer, in which there is increase in level of PSA. Thus, it is logically to expect relation between testosterone level and PSA value which is the most common marker for prostate cancer, When the PSA below 4 ng/ml . Objectives:To evaluate the relationship between the levels of total testosterone and total prostate specific antigen (PSA) in men with PSA values ˂ 4ng/ml in North West Bank, and also to see relation of PSA and testosterone changes with age. Material and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted,the study comprised 388 participants with mean age 51+6 years (yr) who visited outpatient urology clinics between January 2013 and June 2013. The men were divided into two subgroups; men with PSA ≤2.5 (group 1, 361 men), men with PSA values >2.5 ng/ml (group II, 27 men). The relationship between levels of PSA and testosterone were investigated in both groups and in men as whole. Results:In all sample the mean value for serum PSA values and total testosterone level were 1.1± 0.8ng/ml and 3.8±2.3 ng/ml respectively. No correlation was detected between serum PSA and testosterone levels neither in the subgroups (group I, r= 0.06, p=0.24, group II, r= 0.24, p=0.21) nor in men as a whole (r=0.05, p=0.34).There is significant positive relation between PSA and age (r= 0.2, p ˂ 0.01) and significant negative relation between Testosterone and age (r= - 0.29, p ˂ 0.01). Conclusions:No impact of testosterone hormone on PSA level in men with PSA ˂4ng/ml. Therefore, high serum testosterone level may not mandate adjustment of PSA values. Serum sex hormone showed significant decrease of testosterone with age after 40 years. Further studies including larger number of people should be carried out to confirm the findings of this study.
- ItemThe Prevalence of Inherited Color Vision Deficiency Among Male School Children Aged 14-18 in the Palestinian Governorate of Nablus(2013-05-20) Ammar Aghbar; Mu'ath Salman; Dr.Abdul Fattah Arafat , Dr.Mazen Khwaire Dr. Liana Al-LabadiBACKGROUND: Inherited color vision deficiency (CVD) is one of the most common inherited vision disorders. It is a sex-linked recessive trait with a prevalence that is both racial and gender dependent. The frequency of color vision deficiency in Palestine has not been studied previously. This study surveyed the prevalence of inherited CVD among male-school students aged 14-18 in the Palestinian governorate of Nablus. METHODS: Six hundred thirty-four male subjects (N=634) aged 14-18 from Palestinian Governorate of Nablus were randomly selected and screened using Ishihara pseudoisochromatic plates. Subjects who failed Ishihara screening were tested further with a computer software of Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue test. RESULTS: Out of the 634 male participants, 597 were included and (48males) 8.0% of them demonstrated red-green CVD. 5.4%, 2.3% and 0.3% of the 48 males exhibited deutan, protan and total color vision defects, respectively. CONCLUSION: The results show that the prevalence of red-green CVD among the male school children from Palestinian Governorate of Nablus is not significantly different from that of male populations in nearby and Western countries. Key words: Color vision deficiency, Ishihara color test, Prevalence, Redgreen defects, Palestine, Males, Nablus.