Controlled Temperature and Pressure Extraction of Vegetal Oil Using Supercritical CO2 Fluid

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Al Hindi, Sham
Bzour, Walaa
Tabanjah, Alaa
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Abstract: The attention towards super-critical fluids extraction (SFE) method had boomed since early 80’s. Super- critical fluid extraction method had been developed and used worldwide to extract oils either to produce oils with high quality, or to extract unwanted oil from certain products to make it healthier. Carbon Dioxide had taken most care over other fluids because it is widely available and cost effective. We focused on using super-critical CO2 to extract oils that are popularly known in medical remedies and home use. Our main goal was to study the effect of particle size of seeds under a certain range of pressure values on the amount of oil extracted. We faced many problems while building up the system that prevented any progress at first. As for a batch system, the most persistent problem was the leakage from different parts of the reactor, fittings and valves. On the other hand, the pressure could not help building dry ice inside the system. And finally heating methods that were not used properly due to the way that the reactor was fixed in relative to other parts of the system. After changing the cylinder, experiencing different heat methods and using an ultrasonic leakage detector device, we got over most of the problems and succeeded in extracting oil from olives, grape seeds and pomegranate seeds. Some differences were noticed with other previous researches, mainly due to the system that was used and the seeds’ structure that is mostly related to agricultural methods or climate. By studying the conditions of pressure and particle size, we made a thought of how the super-critical fluid behaves under a specific range of pressure. Olives showed an inversely proportional manner towards raising pressure. The highest percentage of oil extracted was 1.26% under 3000 psi. Grape seeds showed a proportional manner with pressure and particle size, as the largest percentage was gained under 4000 psi for a milled sample, and it equaled 1.193%. As for pomegranate seeds, it showed a constant manner under all the conditions, when a constant amount of 0.09 g of oil extracted from all samples. However, it was noticed that oil percentages were higher in seeds samples (0.6 - 0.62%) rather than the milled sample (0.44%).