Chemical Engineering

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    GC-MS Analysis and Antioxidant Activity of Arum Palaestinum
    (2021-01-01) Alsaadi, Ahmad; Marwan, Alaa; Myadmah, Anwar; Kheir, Mike
    Abstract Medicinal plants are important sources of novel pharmacological compounds; Arum palestinum, which belongs to the Araceae family is used as a cancer remedy. Arum palestinum have played a major role in treating infectious diseases in recent decades as well. Natural products have emerged as promising tools for drug development despite advances in synthetic chemistry. The objectives of studying this medicinal plant are carrying out qualitative tests for phytochemicals, identification of chemical substances by MS-GC device and conducting of DPPH antioxidant test. The qualitative chemical tests that are carried out previously have given a good picture on the fact that Arum leaves contain different antioxidant phytochemicals. While the GC-MS phytochemical identification test has presented lists of chemical substances that are probably found in this medicinal plant. While the DPPH antioxidant test that applied successfully on Arum Plant has highlighted the facts of the present of antioxidant phytochemicals on this plant. The main finding of this work shows that the arum palestinum plant contain many compounds like: 3,7,11,15-Tetramethyl-2-hexadecen-1-ol, Epoxyoctane, Citronellyl propionate, 1-Pentadecyne, 1-Decanecarboxylic, 9,12,15-Octadecatrienal, 10-Undecyn-1-ol, allylpentadecyl ester and Sulfurous acid, 2-ethylhexyl isohexyl ester.
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    Optical Properties and Photoactivity of Carbon Nanodots Synthesized from Olive Solid Wastes at Different Carbonization Temperatures
    (2022-05-01) Ameera Nasasreh, Ameera; Jitan, Madleen; Nasasreh, Majd; Salman, Maha
    Carbon nanodots (CNDs) have many fascinating properties such as optical properties (UV-Visible absorption and fluorescence emission), which nominate them to be good candidates in many applications such as photocatalysts for the degradation of several organic pollutants. This study aims to synthesize CNDs from olive solid wastes at different carbonization temperatures from 300 to 900 oC and study their effect on the optical properties of CNDs such UV-Vis, fluorescence, quantum yield, and energy bandgap in addition to their influence on the photoactivity of CNDs as photocatalysts for the degradation of methylene blue (M.B). CNDs were prepared from olive solid wastes (OSWs) by pyrolysis at different temperatures (300-900°C) to be converted to carbonized material, then oxidized chemically in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). It was found that the increase in carbonization temperature of olive solid wastes leads to an increase of product yield with a maximum value at 500 °C and then decreased dramatically. On other hand, a decrease in fluorescence due to the diminishing of oxygen groups and destruction of the surface of CNDs was observed. The higher quantum yield (5.17%) and bandgap (2.77 eV) were achieved for CNDs prepared from OSWs carbonized at 300 oC. The rate and degradation efficiency of M.B were studied with different synthesized CNDs, finding that the increase in carbonization temperature leads to decreases in the rate and degradation efficiency of M.B realizes the highest values at 300 oC with a degradation rate of 0.0575 min-1 and degradation efficiency of 100% after 120 minutes of light irradiation.
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    Enhancement of porcelain and synthesis of a new composites
    (2021-12-01) Ishtaya, Majd Firas; Kabaha, Tasneem Mohammad; Idkadek, Tala Hani; Mlitat, Dania Omar
    The issue of solid waste disposal is one of the most important concerns facing us in the modern era, especially those that occupy a rather large space and are difficult to dispose of. Eggshell and damaged porcelain are wastes that are produced in large quantities every year- the quantites cannot be identified because of the large types of porcelain and different load times and different quantities according to the time loading. As for eggs, a clear study of the quantities did not find, and according to the market study that conducted, the quantities differ according to the restaurant and according to the days of the week, and that summer has more consumption than winter and other considerations-. As for dental porcelain, it has become one of the most famous and most advanced fields, so that specialists in the field are always striving to find a new developed material that meets the needs. In this project, the two previous issues were combined, so that eggshell were treated by washing them, then passing through the stages of drying and grinding. The porcelain was also treated using both nitric acid by adding nitric acid to porcelain powder then drying at 120 ˚C, and treatment by adding polyethylene glycol and water to porcelain then drying at 1100˚C for 4 h, after it was ground using the Los Angeles device. Ball milling 1 and 2 was just physical mixing between porcelain treated by nitric acid and PEG – porcelain 1 and 2, respectively, TiO2 and CaCO3-EB. As for ball milling 2 and 3 they pass through 2 stages, the first stage was to produce CaO using direct thermal process, adding NaOH drop wise to CaCO3-EB with stirring at 1300 rpm to get a precipitate when pH reaches 11.4 that indicates of getting Ca(OH)2 , the product were filtered then calcined at 650˚C for 1h. The second stage was to mix ball milling 3 by adding porcelain treated by nitric acid and PEG – porcelain 1 and 2 respectively, TiO2 and CaO-EB. FTIR (Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy) analysis was made and the results showed a bonding between treated porcelain, eggshell based calcium components and TiO2 were a different peak show a new bonding in treated porcelain. TGA (Thermogravimetry analyzer) also made for the 4 samples to analyze organic and inorganic material in different samples. The density of ball milling 1 have the higher value and also ball milling 1 have the best color compared with the other samples. Swelling test show that the samples not affected by moisture. So, in this study, synthesis of new porcelain is achieved, the best sample was ball milling 1 and 3 preference based on density, color and higher value of hardness, were the density was 1.43g/ml and hardness is 13.08N and 13.12N with the addition of KBr. New tests must be applied to confirm whether the porcelain is successful or not.
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    Organic Wastewater Treatment using Nickel Oxide and Magnesium Oxide Nanoparticles
    (2021-08-31) Zaqli, Fathi; Dradi, Husain; Abou Issa, Jamil; Sawafta, Mays
    In this study, the adsorptive removal of Alizarin red S (ARS) model molecule as organic pollutant from the aqueous solutions onto two different commercial nanoparticles of nickel oxide (NiO) and magnesium oxide (MgO), respectively, has been studied. Many factors were included in this study showing the effect of each factor on the path of the effective adsorptive process for the model molecule using the current mentioned nanoparticles, for instance initial concentration of the solution, pH of the solution, contact time, and the adsorbed quantities of the model molecule on these nanoparticles. These factors were classified under three main categories as isotherm study group, thermodynamics study group, and kinetics study group covering all the elements mentioned previously that were required to be studied and fulfilled in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the adsorptive removal of Alizarin red S. Each study group has been scoped out within an arrangement of batch mode experiments. The adsorption of Alizarin red S as organic contaminant by both NiO and MgO nanoparticles was significantly fast, clear, and effective at low concentrations reaching equilibrium within five minutes merely for the MgO nanoparticle and about three minutes for the NiO nanoparticle, where the adsorption equilibrium data fitted perfectly with the Sips adsorption isotherm model. The maximum uptake for adsorption removal was maintained at 25 mg adsorbate per g adsorbent for MgO nanoparticle while 30 mg adsorbate per g adsorbent for NiO nanoparticle. Thus, illustrating a great opportunity to divert the idea of the project into applicable industrial application using these nanoparticles for this kind of organic pollutant. The pH effect on the adsorption capacity was not related directly to each other, where the best adsorption capacity removal was at around neutral pH of seven. Also, the thermodynamic parameters such as the changes in enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs free energy were determined experimentally, indicating that the adsorption process for Alizarin red S using NiO nanoparticle was spontaneous since it was exothermic while was endothermic for MgO nanoparticle. The regeneration process has shown that the NiO can be employed effectively for the adsorption of the organic Alizarin red S contaminant repeatedly without affecting the adsorption capacity as MgO nanoparticle did, thus indicating the sustainability of NiO nanoparticle.
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    Mullein Plant : healing, phytochemicals and antioxidant tests
    (2021-01-01) Assi, Etaf; Qusini, Rola
    The mullein plant (flowers and leaves) was identified and its importance in the treatment of many diseases. The chemical properties of this plant were identified. We studied the chemical composition of mullein by using GC-MS analyzer. We conducted qualitative phytochemical tests on the mullein flower to prove the presence of active substances that contribute to the treatment of diseases such as cancer and respiratory diseases. This has been done by preparation of mullein extracts obtained from leaves and flowers of the herb. We verified the presence of phytochemicals such as alkaloids, saponins, polyphenols, and flavonoids and others. And these extracts have a strong healing effect on the respiratory and pulmonary system. It is important to introduce people to this unknown flower in Palestinian folk medicine