Design of Low cost Treatment Plant and Reuse system for Anin Village

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Mohammad Foqha
Taqreer Assaf
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The environment pollution becomes a big problem around all over the world, which resulted from many resources like water sanitation, smoke ..etc. and the scarcity of water. The scientist and civil engineering create many methods to treat and reuse the wastewater. Treatment of waste water, in addition to strong management will enhance the public health and environmental, the objective of this project is to design a low cost treatment plant for Anin village to treat wastewater for reuse it in agricultural and irrigation. The methodology was collecting the required data from statistics and distributing a questionnaire for the inhabitants and from Anin council, in order to be able to design a wastewater treatment plant, that include the dimensions of treatment units, drawing general layout of plant, and section of the units. The impact of engineering solutions is as following: New water resource will be available, and the resulted sludge could be used as fertilizers. Environmental aspects by Protect the wildlife, and reduce the pollution of groundwater, in addition to many benefits aspects. Water is the most important thing in our life. Also the disposal of wastewater produced by different sources, among which domestic, is of importance. West Bank is a catchment area of one of the most important ground water resources in the Middle East. However it is the same time a region with increasing water scarcity of renewable water sources, only a minor share is available to the Palestinian population. The average daily per capita drinking water consumption in West Bank is less than 100 liter.Large quantities of untreated sewage run on the surface and percolate into the ground thus polluting the main water resources of the region. The problem of wastewater is one of the serious problems creating un-healthy environment in Palestine. It poses a real threat to all sectors of Palestinian society. In the majority of populated areas, the primary way to get rid of the wastewater is cesspits. These are mostly emptied by vacuum tankers and septage is dumped into the nearest wadi. In addition wastewater from factories is dumped into the nearest wadi. These are causing odors and encourage insects and rodents. Wastewater is generated by residential, institution, commercial, and industrial establishment. It includes household water liquid from toilets, baths, showers, kitchens, sinks and so forth that are disposed of via sewer. As using water is increased, the amount of wastewater increase and the environmental pollution increase. This project is a BSc graduation project that is concerned with the design of a low cost wastewater treatment plant and reuse for Anin village located in the northern West Bank, Palestine. Based on the above, because of the importance of water for Palestine in general and the village of Anin in particular, it is necessary to study the possibility of providing their need of water and disposal of harmful pollutants in agriculture. Palestine and the majority of the Middle East countries suffer from water scarcity. This problem lead to make the wastewater treatment and reuse sector is becoming more essential than ever, because of rapid population growth, urbanization, and water shortage. Urban municipal facilities in Palestine are still few in number and most of them are unsustainable. The very few and old existing treatment plants are overloaded and the erection of newly ones is severely hampered due to political situations. In addition, the arid and semi arid climate conditions of the region and the rainfall variability worsen this situation. Therefore water shortage in Palestine represents a critical limitation to potential development and even to irrigation in the present time. Agriculture played an important role in the Palestinian economy and life where the availability of water is the most important factor affecting this sector. It is natural that the use of water will produce wastewater, As a result it should be considered a safe way to treat it, because it is complex compound has a negative effects in human health, animals and plants, from this point of view construction of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) the safe way to treat it. Reclaimed wastewater is becoming a new water resource or agricultural irrigation since the good-quality resources available for irrigation are decreasing. Reclaimed wastewater can be used for many purposes, including agricultural irrigation, water recharge, car washing, toilet flushing, urban lawn watering and recreational amenities, and road cleaning. Of all the users of reclaimed wastewater, agricultural irrigation has been by far the major user in many areas where wastewater is reused. This is mainly because of the large water use in irrigation relatively low quality requirement, and relatively low cost of infrastructure for the irrigation water supply. Many benefits can result from using treated wastewater in irrigation. This will preserve the scare water sources and increase the agriculture productivity. At the same time when using the nutrients available in wastewater this decreases the fertilizers costs. Another advantage of reusing treated wastewater is the reduction of environmental pollution by the prevention of ground water pollution from the infiltration of wastewater if effluent to the aquifer.There is an increase in water demand in Anin district, West Bank, due to the continuous increase in population. At the same time, there is a shortage in water supply. Wastewater treatment Plant (WWTP) and reuse for irrigation could become one of the main alternatives to lesson the problem in the shortage of water.The construction of WWTP is essential and vital for this village which has a considerable population size, In addition the wrong way of disposal of wastewater by collecting it in the cesspits, leading to dangerous affects in groundwater and springs. The objective of sewage treatment plant is to produce a disposable effluent without causing harm to the surrounding environment, and also prevent pollution; it is also to provide treated wastewater for reuse. Sewage treatment, or domestic wastewater treatment, is the process of removing contaminants from wastewater and household sewage, both runoffs (effluents) and domestic. It includes physical, chemical, and biological processes to remove physical, chemical, and biological contaminants. This BSc graduation project aimed at designing low cost wastewater treatment plant for Anin village, which will treat "domestic wastewater" to the standards for reuse in agriculture. The purposes of wastewater treatment plant are: 1. Prevention of disease and nuisance conditions. 2. To protect the environment. 2. Maintenance of clean water supply for irrigation. 3. Avoidance of contamination of water supplies. 4. General conservation of water for all uses. 5. Use the treated water in agricultural application and others.