Solid Waste Management Strategies via Waste to Energy (WtE) Potential Assessment in Palestine

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Tayeh, Rawan
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An-Najah National University
Global energy demand is increasing as population and living quality continue to grow. As a result, efforts were oriented toward utilizing renewable energy resources. Waste to energy is considered one of these options. Palestinian territories depend completely on imported energy (100% fossil fuel and 89% electricity are from Israel), and it suffers from municipal solid waste accumulation and environmental problems due to improper disposal methods. This research focuses on the West Bank area, in which three MSW dumping sites are currently used, which are; Zahrat Al-finjan in Jenin (88% utilization), Al-menia in Bethlehem (9% utilization), and Jericho (overloaded) dump site. This study investigates three options to adopt incineration technology as waste to energy solution using spatial analysis: building large waste to electricity plant in Zahrat Al-finjan, small size plant near Tulkarm, or adopting waste to heat solution in Zahrat Al-finjan. Results show that Tulkarm small plant is the most rational compared to other options, it will cover electricity shortage in the governorate since it will be able to incinerate 527 ton of MSW / day, so, serve some of the northern governorates in this regard. In the same manner, using Tier 1 method which is created by IPCC, the equivalent carbon dioxide emissions were calculated, the suggested plant in Tulkarm is expected to save 642,043 ktCO2e per year. Adding to all of these, many legislative and financial scenarios where considered in the analysis. Produced electricity selling price and MSW tipping fees are crucial for the plant feasibility, specifically; its SPP. At last, a full economic study was performed to investigate the feasibility of the suggested plant in Tulkarm. The investment and maintenance and operational costs were calculated. Later, ten scenarios were generated with fixed values of capacity, investment and maintenance and operational costs. Each of the scenarios considers a varying value of the Minimum Attractive Rate of Return (MARR), MSW to plant tipping fees, and generated electricity selling price. Also, it calculates the value of levelized cost of energy ($/kWh), annual net value ($/year) and net present value ($). As a result, it is seen that such huge investment in both money and technology needs to be supported by the government. The ninth and tenth scenarios had the values of MAAR equal to 10% and 5%, these two scenarios were the best among the others. It is of importance to assert on the role of the Palestinian government in such projects to assure its profitability and also share responsibility with the stakeholders of the project. The ultimate cooperation of all parties will lead to success and sustainable operation of this plant.
Solid Waste Management Strategies via Waste to Energy (WtE) Potential Assessment in Palestine