Optimization of Water Resources for Nablus Municipality
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Project Objectives In the interior scope of work that still needs to be done to implement the water resource management process in Nablus Municipality, the research objectives are: a. Studying the existing structure in water resource management, and assess if the current implemented system is optimal or not. b. Improving the efficiency of water resources system to have the optimal amount of water pumped to the people with the lowest cost (especially the cost of electricity as we will see in methodology chapter. c. Reducing the operational cost through the network. Taking into account the risk of circumstances change and bearing in mind the What If likelihoods Water Resources Management There are various problems in the water resources management, and these problems necessitate an effective optimization tool, so there is the ability to fully characterize the transactions in the network. Recently, different optimization approaches, which are mainly based on mathematical programming and on evolutionary computation, also the application of these approaches came out with many grades of success. Case Study: Optimization with Gains/Losses Network In a network, the water flows from a resources of the water to a customer through the links in the network, as also the pumping of the water attains a cost. Water networks always attain losses and gains, so researchers always attempt to catch the optimal values that deliver the least cost. As Jensen, The essential optimization framework is network flow optimization with gains and losses, sometimes called generalized network flow optimization. The general mathematical form appears below. Minimize Subject to: where Z is the total cost of flows throughout the network; Xi jkis the flow on the kth arc leaving node i toward node j; ci jkis the economic costs or loss of benefits ~agricultural, urban, and operating;bjis the external inflows to node j; aijkis the gains/losses on flows in arc ijk;uijkis the upper bound on arc ijk; and li jk is the lower bound on arc ijk(Jensen, 1980). The network analysis This network formed from three different types of nodes there are reservoirs, links and end with pressure zones. A reservoir is the source of the water carried through the network, and basically a reservoir may be built by excavation in the ground or by conservative construction methods such as brickwork or cast concrete. In addition the links that join the network parts together are mostly concrete cylinders that can carry amount of water depending on its volume. Finally the pressure zone and its the last node in the network as also its the customer who consumes water, pressure zone, as every customer, has a famine of water that should be satisfied. The water network encompasses sources of water that feeds the whole net which are the reservoirs, there are n= 12 secondary and primary reservoirs and from now the reservoir is termed as i, (i= 1,, 12). Also the reservoir has its own ceiling limit which termed as measured in m3per period. The Maximum Limit Each reservoir has its own optimized maximum value, that any pumping in the future will not exceed it,each reservoirs ceiling quantity is presented in Table (5) below: Table 5: the reservoirs in the network and the capacity of each one. I Reservoir Name MQ(m3/month) 1 Ein_ Dafna 29703 2 Northern Reservoir 32313 3 New_Reservoire 57313.75 4 Southern 80933 5 Ein_Bait_Elma 34615.53 6 Al-juneed 48678 7 Kamal_Junblat 25035.65 8 RNE4 174725.8 9 Al sumarah 53677.53 10 Al masaken 39400.8 11 Aseera 69685 In addition the network ends with destinations or what we can call customers which devours the water carried by the network, its the pressure zones, in this network there are m pressure zones and m= 26, equally from now and later the pressure zone labeled by means j as (j=1,,26). Table 6 : presure zone demand J Pressure zone Names The pressure zone j demand m3 Pressure zone Demand(m3/month) 1 NE1 21645 2 NE2 28098 3 NE3 25829 4 NE4 1540 5 W0 22663 6 W1 22771 7 W-1 23080 8 W2 64747 9 W3 40565 10 W4 19448 11 S2 29663 12 S3 14507 13 S4 13207 14 S5 16253 15 E0.1 21771 16 E0.2 35897 17 E0.3 35440 18 SE1 21226 19 SE2 9548 20 SE3 4355 21 C1 11663.8 22 NW0 11664 23 NW1 6931 24 NW2 16853 25 NW3 8800 Recommendations: Use the modeling as a guide to improve the water pumping system in order to have minimum cost with maximum satisfaction for the current demand estimates. These models can be used a first step to generate a short term plans and schedule as well as risk management. The resultant Improvement will provide a good amount of cash in the finance department, this will provide the ability for new investments in the network, expanding, changing and maintaining the network. Also there will be capability to institute quality control department, in order to have a continuous development in the future, not abandoning that these formulation will provide an efficient method for tracking, controlling and monitoring the network. We recommend the Municipality to pay more attention to customers, and try to provide them economical ways and knowledge them about the water importance in order to decrease wasting the most vital thing in the world. The most important recommendation, that all the counters on the pumps should be calibrated from time to time, and if needed, replacing with more reliable versions.