Evaluation of Coagulation Efficiency of Moringa Oleifera for Quarry Water Treatment"
Moringa Oleifera is a highly valued plant that is distributed in the tropics and subtropics areas. It had an affirmed importance in food and pharmaceutical industries. Presently, it is considered as an alternative and safe natural coagulant instead of synthetic ones such as Aluminum Sulfate (Alum), which leaded to further related problems such environmental, disposal issues and related health effects despite its approved coagulation efficiency. The objective of this project was to exploit Moringa Oleifera coagulation activity in reducing the turbidity of quarry’s (cutting stone) water to be reused in stone’s washing. That was achieved by conducting simple pre-experiments to evaluate the coagulation efficiency of Moringa seeds and dry pods, moreover jar test analysis were applied to determine the optimum dosage of Moringa in comparison with Alum. Moringa samples were tested at two forms; directly without any treatment and extracted in Sodium Chloride solvent (NaCl). Results have shown that extracted Moringa samples had a significant coagulation activity compared with non-treated ones. On the other hand, Moringa seeds efficiency had overpassed dry pods achieving final turbidity value of 31.5 NTU with 0.6 g/L optimum dosage in a period of one day. Moreover, the turbidity removal resulted by extracted Moringa seeds was 70.2% and 71.4% for Alum at the optimum dosage. That approved the convergent coagulation activity of extracted seeds with Alum. The evaluation of Moringa coagulation activity was also applied in high turbid alimentary solution such Aloe Vera juice clarification in non-treated forms. Results have shown a turbidity reduction of 60.4% for the seeds and 30.9% using dry pods. That gave an indication that Moringa works better at high initial turbidity values. It was recommended to use Moringa seeds in a defatted form to avoid the increasment of organic load during sedimentation. Due to the various applications of Moringa, it was needed to apply a preservation method to keep its nutrients and make it available in its off seasons. Drying was applied on Moringa leaves at ambient temperature and at a range of (55-60) °C. Drying dynamics were studied by identifying the constant rate and falling rate drying periods. Results have shown that drying rate was higher at higher temperatures with shorter drying time of 2.5 hr. where four days were needed at ambient temperature. What’s more, drying rate values were higher at constant rate period with shorter time than falling rate period at both experiments. However, Physical changes were observed and it was found that color remained unchanged but the bulk density decreased.