Grid and Environmental Impact Assessment of 0.5 MWp Photovoltaic Power System Connected to Salfit Governorate Electricity Distribution Network

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Bani Nemrah, Osama
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جامعة النجاح الوطنية
The increasing demand for electrical energy associated with finding new distribution generation elaborate the choice to go toward renewable energy. With its low maintenance and operation, it is becoming more of a trend around the world. A type of renewable energy source and the photovoltaic systems installation connected to the grid are on the increase since the past decade. This increase is elaborated with changes in voltage profiles, power factor, short circuit currents, and loading in the buses and transmission lines affecting the power quality delivered to the customers. These technical changes must be considered in line with the environmental impact associated with the project area to the flora, funa, noise, waste, water, etc. Such factors must be studied to understand the impact of these projects on each element. This thesis studies the ability to establish 0.5 MW of PV connected to Salfit municipality to decide the maximum penetration level allowed to be installed. It also studies the environment and social impacts under the umbrella of the World Bank environmental and social standard- ESS compared to the original. The first case is that of full generation and full load; the second one is a full generation and half load; the third one is a half-generation and full load; and, the last one is a half-generation and half load. Half of the study considers the electrical part while the World Bank’s ESS standards are considered in studying the environmental impacts. This thesis shows changes in the voltage profiles up to 7 Volts certain line in medium voltage level and a drop in the power factor from 0.87 to 0.82 in best scenarios; with an increase in the losses associated with an increase in short circuit levels by using ETAP software for load flow analysis. Additionally, this thesis studies the feasibility of the system installed using RET screen software by establishing a net present value study and simple payback period. This, accordingly, shows that the project is financially feasible with a three-year payback period and positive net present value with a rate of return of 32.8 % and energy production cost of 44.13 $/MWh. This thesis depicts a temporally negative environmental impacts on the project area regarding the environmental elements, such as the polluted area from the dust, the noise increases during the work, implementation, transportation issues, water problems, and waste materials problems. It also establishes an environmental impact mitigation plan and monitoring plan to control and minimize the consequences associated with the system during the pre-construction stage, construction stage, and operation and maintenance stage, on the other hand the project shows a positive impact related to the employment, CO2 emission reduction by 2559.2 ton per year.