Bracing system for deep excavation

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dalia Draghmeh
baseem dweekat
hind abdelaal
amro masri
jehad alelayyan
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Chapter Tow review of excavation support systems .Excavation support systems are used to minimize the excavation area, to keep the sides of deep excavations stable, and to ensure that movements will not cause damage to neighboring structures or to utilities in the surrounding ground. There are different types of excavation support systems, such as, sheet piles, slurry-walls, Cofferdam, soil nailing, soil grouting and soil freezing. This chapter summarizes different types of excavation support systems and presents the main aspects of these systems. Chapter Three   talks about sheet pile wall as excavation support system. Sheet pile walls are constructed by driving sheets into a slope or excavation. Their most common use is within temporary deep excavations. They are considered to be most economical where retention of higher earth pressures of soft soils is required.   Chapter Four contain the conclusion and recommendations. Chapter Five discusses different types of retaining walls, which are cantilever retaining wall, gravity retaining wall; Counter fort wall .Retaining walls create level surfaces in sloping areas. Many of us live in parts of the country that are not so level. The geography and topography can range from slightly rolling to mountainous. Those of us who do live in these regions are quite familiar with retaining walls. These walls allow us to create steps or level areas on a sloped surface.    Chapter Five illustrate the other type of bracing system, it is big bolder and show the design of it.