Smart parking system

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fatheyah faqih
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AbstractWith the increase in vehicle production and world population, more and more parking spaces and facilities are required. In this project a new parking system called Smart Parking System (SPS) is proposed to assist drivers to find vacant spaces in a car park in a shorter time.The new system uses ultrasonic sensors to detect either car park occupancy or improper parking actions. Different detection technologies are reviewed and compared to determine the best technology for developing SPS. Features of SPS include vacant parking space detection, detection of improper parking, display of available parking spaces, and directional indicators toward vacant parking spaces, payment facilities and different types of parking spaces (vacant, occupied, reserved and handicapped) through the use of specific LEDs.This report also describes the use of an SPS system from the entrance into a parking lot until the finding of a vacant parking space. The system architecture defines the essential design features such as location of sensors, required number of sensors and LEDs for each level, and indoor and outdoor display boards. Ultrasonic sensors have long been used for range measurements, tank level control, and web brake and proximity detection in difficult environments, challenging reflection surfaces or the need for extreme accuracy render traditional optical sensing devices unsuitable.These devices work on a principle similar to that of transducers used in radar and sonar systems, which evaluate attributes of a target by interpreting the echoes from radio or sound waves, respectively. Active ultrasonic sensors generate high frequency sound waves and evaluate the echo which is received back by the sensor, measuring the time interval between sending the signal and receiving the echo to determine the distance to an object. Passive ultrasonic sensors are basically microphones that detect ultrasonic noise that is present under certain conditions, convert it to an electrical signal, and report it to a LCD display.Ultrasonic sensors are used to detect movement of targets and to measure the distance to targets in many automated factories and process plants. Sensors with an on or off digital output are available for detecting the movement of objects, and sensors with an analog output which varies proportionally to the sensor to target separation distance are commercially available. They can be used to sense the edge of material as part of a web guiding system.Our proposed SPS detection system is based on ultrasonic sensors. For each individual car park, this would require one sensor fixed on the ceiling above each parking space. Ultrasonic sensors work based on echo-location. The sensor transmits a sound, which hits a solid object (car or ground) and is reflected back to the sensor. The time between the sent pulse and the returned echo is used to calculate distance. In a vacant space, the time between transmitted sound and reflection is longer than in an occupied space, hence the sensor can detect when a space is occupied.  
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