Design of foundation for Fattouh building in Nablus

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Nibal Awwad
Israa Hanan
Noor Suboh
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All engineered construction resting on the earth must be carried by some kind of interfacing element called a Foundation . The foundation is the part of an engineered system that transmits to and in to  the under-lying soil or rock the loads supported by the foundation and Its self-weight .                                                                                                      The resulting soil stressesexcept at the ground surfaceare in addition to those presently existing in the earth mass from its self-weight and geological history .                                                                      The term superstructure is commonly used to describe the engineered part of the system bringing load to the foundation, or substructure. The term superstructure has particular significance for buildings and bridges; however, foundations also may carry only machinery , support industrial equipment (pipes, towers, tanks)  act as sign bases, and the like . For these reasons it is better to describe a foundation as that part of the engineered system that interfaces the load carrying components to the ground .  It is evident on the bases of this definition that                 a foundation is the most important part of the engineering system.      Like  any  element  of a structure,  the  foundation  must  satisfy  certain  stability requirements .  among   the  many  requirements  for  a  solid  foundation  the  following  are important:- 1 . The  foundation  should  be  laid  at  proper  depth  below  the  ground  surface  to  avoid the  soil  lateral  expulsion  from  underneath  the  base  of  the  foundation ,  to  avoid damage  to  it  by  freezing  and  thawing ( where  it  applies )  and  to  protect  it  from  scour and  washout  by erosion  of  soil  by  water  of  soil  by  water . 2. The  foundation  should  be  resist  to  ground  water  and  any  other  aggressive  water  relative  o foundation  material 3. The  foundation  should  be  strong  in  its  details  as  well  as  whole. This  is  to  say  that the  deformations  of  the  foundations  should  be  no  longer  than  those  allowable  under the  condition  of  its  exploitation . 4. The  foundation  should  be  stable  against  any  lateral ( horizontal ) sliding, against  any rotary  movement,  and  against  intolerable  differential  settlement  to  avoid  any  distress to  the  structure . 5. The  soil-foundation  system  must  be  safe  against  rupture  of  soil    ( ground break ); this requirement  pertains  to  the  exhaustion  of  the  soil,  and  may  be  regarded  as  a natural  consequence  of  the  requirement mentioned  under  point 1  above. 6. The  foundations  must  be  designed  and  laid  with  the  view  of  future  excavations  of the  soil  around  the  foundations  for  eventual  repairs  of  foundations , for  installation  of service  ducts  and  pipes ( for example ),  and  for  foundations  of  new  additions  to  the initial  structure.  Hence  the  stability  of  the  soil-foundation  system  must  be  analyzed with no  foundation  backfill. 7. The  foundation  should  be  durable  and  function  properly  during  its  assigned  service period 8. The  foundation  should  be  economical  and  subject  to  mechanization  of  work  in laying  the  foundation.   There are three basic criteria which establish the depth to which a building foundation must be carried . These are :- 1. The construction must bear on , or in a bearing stratum of adequate capacity and stiffness to support the applied loads without failure of the soil mass and without excessive settlement . 2.The strata underlying the bearing stratum also must be of adequate capacity and stiffness to resist the bearing pressure imposed at each level.3.The foundation must bear in stable ground below the influences of erosion , frost heave , or volumetric changes in the soil due to changes in the moisture content or chemical reaction