Analysis and Design of Two Types of Foundations of a Residual Building
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Mo’men Haj Mohammad
The foundation of structure is defined as that part of the structure in direct contact with the ground, which transmits safely the load of the structure to the ground. In general, foundation of building may be divided in to two major categories: Shallow foundation which are spread (isolated) footing, wall footing, and mat or raft foundation. In most shallow foundation, the depth of the embedment can be equal or less than three to four times the width of the foundation. Deep foundation which are pile and drilled shaft foundation. They are used when top layers have poor bearing capacity and when use of shallow foundations will cause considerable structural damage and/or instability. Foundation design involves a site investigation program to establish the most suitable type of foundation for particular structure this influenced by many factors such as: The geological condition of the soil in the site. Bearing capacity of the soil in the site. The load of the structure to be designed. The depth of foundation of adjacent buildings. Other factors related to expected settlement of the soil of the site.