Design of Yasid Water Supply Network

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mohammad Samara
Feras Shtayeh
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 Water is a very important for humans life, because everything needs water to survive. Water is used for drinking, agricultural, industrial, and commercial uses.In order to benefit from water, it should be kept clean to prevent us from many diseases that can use it as a transporter. Also, the quantity of water that used should be economizes to prevent excessive consumption of water.Water in Palestine faces many challenges and the most important two things are increased amount of evaporation while the amount of rainfall is decreased due to climate change and the Israeli occupation that took most of the water resources in Palestine. Resulting in a heavy reliance on groundwater as the major source for different uses, especially that surface water resources are not utilized.After the Naksa at (1967) Israel took control on all water resources. This includes surface and groundwater sources in West Bank, and Israel began to identify the amount of water for Palestinian to use which is not sufficient to meet basic needs. For example; the Palestinian use for water is approximately (35-80) L/c/day and it is far below the WHO standard that assumes 100L/c/day as a minimum requirement. In contrast, the Israeli consume about 300 L/c/day which is excessively higher than Palestinians.There is big reserves of groundwater reserves in Palestine and it is approximately 1,309 Million Cubic Meter (MCM )/year, Israel use 1,046 MCM/year and let Palestinian to take 259MCM/year.This Graduation Project is going to decide all the steps that should be followed to design a Water Network for Yasid town, at the beginning a questionnaire is distributed between peoples in this town in order to know many of things e.g. consumption for each capita, water used in irrigation, number of persons in each family and so on.Questionnaire tell us about the average total amount of water consumed in these days, and from statistics the average amount of water consumed after 30 years can easily determined.From Yasids Map the total area for it can be determined, and from number of people and average amount of water consumed the density for each donum can be calculated.After densities, areas for each region, demands for each node, distances for each pipes and other information calculated all of these are input to EPANET program.Using EPANET when all Pipes in the networks have the same diameters a problem in some velocities and pressures were found.To solve this problem a change in pipe diameters must be done to achieve these two constraints.For the first one the velocity ranges from (0.1-3.0) m/s and for the second pressure is taken between (20-100) m.While design the network using EPANET most of these two constraints values was achieved.After all pipes and nodes constraints accomplished and become within the range the new network was ready and the total cost for it is calculated.The cost for pipes in the network is equal to 271,000 $ and for the reservoir is equal to 230,000 $ when it taken a 1000 m3.Finally, according to population of Yasid after 30 years and the total cost of the network the cost for each capita is equal to 93 $/capita which is near the range for donors agency that is between (100-200) $/Capita.