Hydrologic and Drainage Problem of Marj Sanour

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Ahmad Atta Abd Alghany
Abdulaziz H. hussain
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    The objective of this study is to design a technical solution for the flooding problem of Marj Sanour and address other the different purposed solutions. The following chart depict the methodology and steps that were applied in context of the project. As reported by several literatures, Marj Sanour is a close karst plain. It spreads within the West Bank Mountains. The creation of this plain was a result of the cross faults, which took place in contemporary with the Jordan rift valley. The karst process had changed it to a close typical plain. The geomorphological processes closed the only outlet as a result of the instructions of the Alluvial fan of Wadi Umm Khurrameyeh and Wadi Sanour, and the differential between the lowest point in the Marj and the highest one of the outlet is 24m. As a result, a temporary plain is created in the center of the Marj whose very existence depends on the quantity of annual rainfall. Consequently, The existence of this plain has posed several risks for the farmers in terms of depriving them of cultivating the winter season. (Abu Safat, 1992)   Marj Sanour is surrounded by mountains on all sides. During winter, rain water from the mountain sides is collected as runoff in the Marj area. Thus creating a natural kind of "reservoir." This collection of water destroys the crops in the Marj or delays planting new crops. In some years, the water does not dry out early enough in summer. Therefore, farmers can not plant their crops even in summer months. This causes high economic losses to the farmers and creates an environmental and social problem that need to be solved. The plain part of the Marj is located between the 350 and 375 contour lines. Rainfall precipitate on the area from October to May and ranges between 400 to 1200 mm with an annual average of 634 mm. The flooding in Marj Sanour usually occurs when rainfall exceeds the storage capacity of the soil and when the quantities of evaporation - transpiration and water infiltration into the ground is less than rainfall quantities.     The following are the reasons for flooding of Marj Sanour, which occurs when the rainfall quantities are high:   - Region is a closed water basin without a natural outlet. - Presence of a thick layer of soil of low permeability covering the basins plain. - Lack of means and techniques to reduce the speed of runoff and benefit from water harvesting, especially in the mountainous region. Total runoff quantities depend on the annual rainfall, depth, density and water runoff. The rain water precipitation directly on the Marj Plain (plain area) reaches an estimated 64% of the total runoff quantity due to the low infiltration rate in the Marj. The total amount of evaporation and evapo-transpiration depends mainly on the total amount of water collected in flooded area.   
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