Analysis And Redesign Of Zawata Water Distribution Network

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Nidal Ghassan Safarini
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Lack of access to adequate, safe, and clean water has been a longstanding problem for the Palestinian population of the Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPT), though exacerbated in recent years by the impact of drought-induced water scarcity, the problem arises principally because of Israeli water policies and practices which discriminate against the Palestinian population of the OPT. This discrimination has resulted in widespread violations of the right to an adequate standard of living, which includes the human rights to water, to adequate food and housing, and the right to work and to health of the Palestinian population. The inequality in access to water between Israelis and Palestinians is striking. Palestinian consumption in the OPT is about 70 litres a day per person well below the 100 litres per capita daily recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) whereas Israeli daily per capita consumption, at about 300 litres, is about four times as much. In some rural communities Palestinians survive on far less than even the average 70 litres, in some cases barely 20 litres per day, the minimum amount recommended by the WHO for emergency situations response. Access to water resources by Palestinians in the OPT is controlled by Israel and the amount of water available to Palestinians is restricted to a level which does not meet their needs and does not constitute a fair and equitable share of the shared water resources. Israel uses more than 80 per cent of the water from the Mountain Aquifer, the only source of underground water in the OPT, as well as all of the surface water available from the Jordan River of which Palestinians are denied any share. Amnesty report TROUBLED WATERS PALESTINIANS DENIED FAIR ACCESS TO WATER.   1.2 Importance Of The Project Study:  This project is about water distribution network for Zawata village, Located to the west of the city of Nablus. Its a fact that, water is an essential part of our daily life, as it is used in about all activities humans do, such as drinking, general health or any other aspect.  The sources of water in Palestine are limited, so I chose to carry out this project because I am aware of this problem, due to the increase in demand rates, with the limited quantities which is becoming less and less every day for many reasons, these reasons include, the amounts of water is descending due to climate change, and the occupation authorities are putting limits on our share of water, as they dont permit to dig new wells in general, as part of the water war against Palestinians. To add to these problems, there is lack of awareness in the society which doesnt consume water effectively, the wear in the water networks, and other illegal losses. 1.3- Methodology: In order to analyze and redesign Zawata water network, the following tasks were conducted: 1.      The selection of the study area(Zawata) Near Nablus 2.      Collecting the information needed to this study area, such as contour maps, sources of water existing water network plan and its characteristics, socio-economic study. 3.      A questionnaire to be distributed regarding the general consumption and the facts that affects it. 4.       Building a model for the existing network, analyzing it, this will be done using EPANET program.