“Economic and Technical Analysis of a Grid-Connected Photovoltaic System and Battery Energy Storage System”

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Dawod, Hasan
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Rumors are often heard about the photovoltaic connected to battery storage systems that they cannot be applied in regions where there is an electrical grid, due to their high cost and frequent periodic maintenance. Consequently, it increases the payback period of the system cost because it has become huge, without considering its economic feasibility over the lifetime of the system and the service it provides. But when an optimal control is managed, the grid-connected PV systems with a storage system can provide economical solutions similar to the traditional (grid-connected) systems in addition to serving in meeting the critical loads. The photovoltaic system is not limited to generating energy in the presence of the sun only, it can be hybridized with a battery storage system suitable to meet the loads and is appropriately controlled. This research presents an economic and technical model for analyzing a grid-connected hybrid PV system with a battery energy storage system. A 1500 kW system was simulated in three different scenarios using the system advisor model (SAM) software, and technical and economic math. The storage system's capacity is optimized to meet the loads, two scenarios are simulated using a storage system with the same capacity as the PV system. With different charging and discharging times of the storage system and simulating peak times, different results were obtained between the two scenarios. The third scenario provided the best economic and service indicators: which doubles the power supply at noontime (from the storage system and the photovoltaic system). It is achieved a Net Present Value (NPV) of $6,352,127, Simple Payback Period (SPP) of 1.5 years, and $0.044/kWh Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE). The second scenario achieves $2,887,778 and 2.6 years of NPV and SPP, respectively, and the same LCOE as the third one. Finally, in the first scenario, it was simulated without using a battery storage system, to compare the hybrid and conventional systems with the same capacity as the PV system. Where the three scenarios produce the same amount of electrical energy but differ in managing the supply of this energy to the loads. The first scenario yielded $3,193,164, 2.3 years, and $0.037/kWh of NPV, SPP, and LCOE, respectively. The first scenario recovers the capital cost with a close period with the second scenario. It achieved an ideal LCOE due to not using a battery storage system and thus did not require a high capital cost. The second scenario shows satisfying results in addition to night loads that are met.