Analysis and Design of Zamzam residential building

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Helal Shakarna
Mohammad Mohannad Khalil
Hamed Odeh
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Structural systems can be classified according to five characteristics  the first one is the geometry(Planner, Curvilinear, Free Form) then by stiffness(Rigid, Flexible) and by span type(One way, Two way, Short span, Wide span)  then by materiel such as Masonry (Quarried Stone, Formed Stone, Formed Brick, Concrete Masonry Unit), Wood (Light Wood, Heavy Timber),Concrete (Cast-in-Place, Precast, Pre-stressed), Steel (Hot steel, Cold steel) and may be composite then finally by  load carrying action like Form-active (Cable structures, Tent structures, Pneumatic structures), Vector-active (Flat trusses, Curved trusses, Transmitted flat trusses, Space trusses), Section-active (Beam structures, Rigid frame structures, Beam grid structures, Slab structures), Surface-active (Plate structures, Folded plate structures, Shell). Many factors must be taken into consideration in the design of any structure; these include economic factors, most importantly the safety of their inhabitants, compatibility, serviceability, equilibrium and the most important issue is the strength limit state that structural collapse of all parts of structures (very low probability of occurrence) and loss of life can occur (a structure will not fail as long as there is a safe load path to the foundation).  However, in Palestine, this design extreme used because of most constructions is considered as a low rise building.