Formulation of Bio-Based Composites from Renewable Products: Poultry Feathers and Palm Oil
ربــعــيــة, مــحـمــد عـــزت
An-Najah National University
Plant or vegetables oils exemplify a renewable resource that can be used as reliable preliminary material to access new products with a widespread array of structural and functional variations. In the recent years, epoxidized vegetable oils (EVO) are considered new resource materials, more environmental friendly than other materials such as fossil-fuel and low cost material. Advanced materials from palm oil and chicken feathers are a great feedstock for the synthesis of advanced materials due to the colossal amounts of feathers that are wasted and affect environment. The aim of this study was to characterize the fundamental functional properties and their palm-based bio-composites, as well as carrying out epoxidation of palm oil to enhance epoxy resin and the properties of epoxidized palm oil (EPO), and then explore the possible applications for enhancing properties of epoxy resin through the addition of (EPO) and chicken feathers. Moreover, clear the environment of chicken feathers. In this study, FTIR spectrum was used to indicate the presence of the double bond group in palm oil (PO) and epoxy group in epoxidized palm oil (EPO), as well as Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) that was used to determine fatty acid composition of PO, and the percentage for each category. Moreover, a compression machine was used to determine toughness of epoxy, and an instron to determine tensile strength of epoxy was used. In this study, PO was first epoxidized to form epoxidation of palm oil (EPO). Epoxidation reaction of palm oil was carried out for four (4) days with six (6) samples for each day, and with miscellaneous temperatures (30°C, 40°C, 50°C and 60°C). Trials have been carried out to explore the effect of addition of EPO/chicken feathers on the toughness and tensile strength of epoxy(10 wt%, 20 wt% and 30 wt%) individually/ collectively . Results have shown that FTIR spectrum of PO bonding peak of HC=CH (cis) was at wave number 1647.49 cm-1, and a stretching vibration peak of =CH 3008.97 cm1, whereas for the FTIR spectrum of EPO, the unsaturation bonding peak HC=CH (cis) and stretching vibration peak of =CH for PO have been disappeared. Nonetheless, the oxirane ring peak was detected at wave number 1104.76 cm-1. Epoxidized palm oil (EPO) has been used to measure the toughen of epoxy resin cured at ambient temperature hardener. Optimum percent of conversion double bond by epoxidation reaction was 86.45% at temperature 50°C at 5 hours from the beginning of the reaction, while the toughness of epoxy increased when adding 10% and 20% EPO of the weight of epoxy, but decreased when adding 30% EPO of weight of epoxy. However, the tensile strength of the epoxy increased when adding 10% and 20% EPO blend with chicken feathers of the weight of epoxy, but decreased when adding 30% EPO blend chicken feathers of weight of epoxy. Solely, chicken feathers did not give positive results, but, when blend with epoxy, chicken feathers lessened the tensile and toughness of the epoxy. Nevertheless, the addition of EPO enhanced the tensile and toughness properties of the epoxy resin.