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Asem Malayshi
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A robot is a mechanical or virtual artificial agent, usually an electro-mechanical machine that is guided by a computer program or electronic circuitry. Robots can be autonomous or semi-autonomous and range from humanoids to industrial robots, medical operating robots, patent assist robots, collectively programmed swarm robots, drones, and even microscopic Nano robots.Multi-purpose industrial robots can perform a wide variety of functions independently, they can perform tasks according to the end-effector and the program loaded into the controller, as an example, they can accomplish welding, painting, pick and place, assembly, and many other operations. They can also be linked with networks, software and accessories that increase their usefulness. Multi-purpose robots exist generally in the factories where a wide range of tasks are required; they can perform operations such as loading, unloading, sorting, and handling of materials.Such a project to be done has to start from building the links that are connected together in series to form the whole shape of the robot (manipulator), each link of the manipulator is connected with the next one by a joint. There are six possibilities of a joint connecting two links (revolute, prismatic, cylindrical, planer, screw, and spherical). Revolute joint is introduced in this project. At each joint there has to be a frame which is a coordinate system that defines the motion of the link with respect to its neighbor.Every joint has to be actuated using an electrical actuator (stepper motor), this motor is connected through a mechanism such as gear or pulley mechanism to the link that this actuator is responsible of moving, for a two-neighboring links there has to be bearings that provide the smooth and approximately frictionless motion.The control process of the Multi-purpose robot includes the process by which a command from the high-level controller is provided to the system until the robot reaches the required position or orientation, the control system is responsible of moving the robot to the proper position in the proper way without any malfunction or inaccurate approach to the goal. The control system consists of the Arduino controller that transfers the control signals to the motors in order to get the required position and orientation of the end-effector. The position and orientation of the end-effector are mathematically calculated using inverse kinematic of the manipulator. Analyzing the control system function gives the behavior of the response of the system.Combining the mechanical, electrical, and control system correctly gives stability to the system and reduces the overall error of the robots response, as a result, the best function of the robot is performed.