Optimization of Calcium Sulfate Scale Reduction Using Magnetic Field
Sawaftah, Nahed Thabet Yousef
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Scale formation is caused by impurities being precipitated out of the water directly on pipe surfaces or by suspended matter in water settling out on the metal and becoming hard and adherent. One of the most commonly encountered scale deposits is calcium sulfate dihydrate (CaSO4.2H2O), which is known as gypsum. In this study, magnetic treatment of water was used as a method to minimize the calcium sulfate dihydrate deposition on the pipe walls using a self-assembled magnetic device in a dynamic fluid system. The efficiency of the magnetic treatment was evaluated by measuring the concentration, electrical conductivity, pH, and TSS (Total Suspended Solids) of the magnetically treated solutions and comparing the results with untreated solutions. The efficiency of the magnetic treatment was measured via the percentage reduction in concentration, electrical conductivity, and calcium sulfate dihydrate deposition in the pipeline. The efficiency of the magnetic treatment increases as the percentage reduction increases. Variations in the efficiency of the magnetic treatment were studied for different calcium sulfate dihydrate solution concentrations; 0.086g/50ml, 0.1291g/50ml, 0.172g/50ml, and 0.2151g/50ml. The efficiency of the treatment was also studied when the number of circulations was changed from one to five circulations in the magnetic device. Different ranges of pH, basic (10-12), acidic (2-4) and neutral (6-7) were used to find the most effective pH medium. Finally, different magnetic field configurations (regular and irregular) were used to figure out which configuration had the highest efficiency. And finally different pipe materials were studied. The results obtained showed that the efficiency of the magnetic treatment improved when the amount of calcium sulfate dihydrate dissolved was increased. Different results were obtained when the number of circulations was changed from one to five, in which the five circulations had the higher percentage reduction and hence higher efficiency. The magnetic treatment had almost no effect on the pH of magnetically treated solutions. Although, the efficiency was changed when the pH range used was changed. A neat improvement in the efficiency of the magnetic treatment was noticed for irregular configuration when compared with the regular configuration. It was also obtained that the magnetic treatment was more effective when the pipe was made of conducting material such as stainless steel when compared with insulators like glass and polyethylene.