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- ItemSimplified Conceptual Equation for Soil-Structure Interaction for Simple Structures on Dry Soils Due to Vertical Loads for Practical Purposes(2017) Abdul Razzaq Touqan; Fawzi Abu Al-Adas; Mahmud DwaikatThe non-uniform settlements represent a big challenge for the structural engineers because of the problems caused by this phenomenon, where many cracks in the walls, columns and slabs occurred due to the non uniform settlements, which ranges from small cracks to major cracks that threat the safety of the building and the residents. Along the years, the geotechnical engineers have developed many methods to find the settlements in soil. However, these methods need certain expertise in the properties and the conditions of soil and some other tests, which the structural engineers in Palestine lack of such expertise. Therefore, and because of the importance of the soil structure interaction, this paper focuses on a simplified method to estimate the settlements of soil, where by using simple equations the settlement of soil can be predicted with acceptable accuracy for the practical purposes, like design or field checks.
- ItemSearch for Resistance to Egyptian Broomrape (Orobanche Aegyptiaca) in Tomato Germplasm(2016) Mohammad Sawafta; Munqez ShtayaThis experiment was conducted to compare the level of resistance to Orobanche aegyptiaca (also known as broomrape) in a collection of sixty wild and cultivated tomato spices. One commercial susceptible variety ‘Samara’ was used as control. The experiment was performed in the framework of Complete Randomized Block Design (CRBD), with three replicates. Two plants from each accession were transplanted into open field in 2009. Three traits were studied including days to first appearance of Orobanche shoots, weakness of tomato plants (vegetative growth) and number of emerged Orobanche shoots per tomato plant. Number of Orobanche shoots per tomato plant ranged from 3.8 to 9.2 shoots compared with the susceptible check, with an average of 6 emerged Orobanche shoots per plant. The accessions were divided into three clusters. Accessions within the first cluster could be considered as the most resistant accessions in the collection since the average number of Orobanche shoots per tomato plant was low (4.49) and at the same time tomato plants were very strong (weaknesses value = 2.26). Further histological studies to understand the mechanism of resistance in these accessions would be advisable.
- ItemThe Analysis of the Water Balance of the Soil in the North of Jordan during (1970 - 2009)(2016) Mohammad ZeitounThe study aimed to identify water balance in the north of Jordan to see the periods of water surplus and water deficit. This study is beneficial for the agricultural sector through exploiting the periods of water surplus when the soil is saturated and does not suffer from a lack of moisture and when it can be useful in to depend on rain fed agriculture as a method of irrigation. It crucial to know the periods when there is water deficit to be cautious when there is a lack of moisture which may be harmful to crops consequently, avoiding this period or using other methods of irrigation to water the crops. Four climatic stations in the northern part of Jordan were included in the study, namely: (R'as Munif, Al-Baqura, Irbid and Mafraq) to provide measurements of temperature and rain for long periods of time. The amended Thornthwaite method of 1955 and rain data and annual temperature between the years (1970 – 2009) were used in the calculation of water balance. The water balance was calculated by using the amended Thornthwaite method to calculate the average of the potential evapotranspiration then to calculate water balance accordingly. The results indicated that there were two periods in terms of spatial distribution of moisture: water surplus which lasted for (3 – 5) months and water shortage which lasted for (7 – 9) months. R'as Munif station scored the highest water surplus which amounted to (418 mm) and the longest period of water deficient was scored in Mafraq which lasted for ninth months. The highest water deficient was scored in Al-Baqura station which reached to (1046mm).
- ItemScreening the Efficacy of Different Anti-biotics Against American Foulbrood in Jordan(2016) Alaa Tellawi; Fares Khoury; Nizar Haddad; Noureddine AdjlaneAmerican foulbrood disease (AFB) is considered one of the most virulent bacterial diseases of honeybee (Apis mellifera); it has a vital negative impact on the beekeeping industry worldwide. This disease is caused by a spore forming bacterium Peanibacillus larvae that affects honeybee larvae. This work includes the screening of several alternative antibiotics efficacy to AFB disease. The sensitivity of Peanibacillus larvae to seven antibiotics was investigated using disk diffusion methods (Kirby Bauer disk diffusion). The tested compounds are approved by the US - Food and Drug Administration for agricultures uses. The most active antibiotics were Novobiocin and Florfenicol followed by Oxytetracycline and Tylosin. Erythromycin and Tilmicosin had intermediate activity; Lincomycin was recorded as the lowest active antibiotic against P.larvae. The result showed that Oxytetracycline resistance is still not a problem in Jordan, unlike in the USA and some other regions. To avoid any further problems in the spread of antibiotics-resistance, it is recommended that beekeepers have to establish methods for early detection of AFB, the application of antibiotics in inadequate doses with technical supervision and using of different alternative antibiotics such as Tylosin. Further studies are needed to determine the fate of Oxytetracycline and Tylosin residues in honey under field conditions at the recommended doses for field trial, whoever we do not recommend the prophylactic use of antibiotics whereas we recommend the treatment only in diseased colonies with high honey bee population.
- ItemDeveloping Road Accidents Recording System in Palestine(2016) Yahya SarrajTraffic accidents report is considered as the main source of data in judicial, legal and engineering purposes. Developing the system of recording traffic accidents is the first stage in setting up an integrated database to provide interested parties with relevant data. This research aims at developing the recording form of traffic accidents in Palestine by assessing the existing form and checking the adopted mechanism. The existing crash form was also compared with regional and international forms. The most important information that must be available in the new form has been identified. The design of the new form was developed to ensure quicker filling-in process with less errors. Recommendations of the General Directorate of Traffic in Gaza were considered in designing the form. Fifty samples were used in the field in ordor to get practical feedback. The result was the adoption of the new form and the decision to start using it by the local traffic police. The form will be re-evaluated after one year.