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    EVALUATION OF A PILOT PROJECT FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE SEPARATION AT SOURCE IN BURQEEN –JENIN, 2021 ACASE STUDY
    (2022-10-11) Diala Burhan Ali Nairat
    The West Bank in Palestine generates almost (900,000 ton/year); Zahrat al-Finjan landfill, the West Bank largest sanitary landfill, receives massive amounts of municipal solid waste every day that exceeds its capacity, leading to a potential disastrous situation. As a result, a transition from a landfill-based to a more integrated waste management system is required. This study assessed the environmental, economic and social effectiveness of a pilot project for municipal solid waste (MSW) separation at source in Burqeen -Jenin in 2020 by comparing population awareness of the 3Rs (Reduce, Reuse, Recycle) principle and willingness to separate waste, weights of waste that reach landfills and costs of MSW management before and after the project application. Standardized questionnaires to 305 samples from the town were distributed at the pre/post phase of the project. Then, it was analyzed statistically using the SPSS 22 program. Joint service council (JSC)-Jenin collected and measured the waste generated before and after the project application. Waste collection service costs were calculated and compared before and after project implementation using Burqeen Municipality Archive. The findings revealed a significant increase in the local community's knowledge and awareness of SWM and the 3Rs principle, with the percentage of people who do not understand the concept of 3Rs falling from 15.4% to 5.2%. the percentage of citizens participation in waste sorting increased from 0% to 21%. The results confirmed that the separation of MSW at source reduces the percentage of waste that reaches the landfill by 22.2% after one year, and it also positively affects the municipality economic benefits were cost shifted from negative to positive. This study concluded that implementing MSW separation at source will increase population awareness of MSWM, increase municipal financial interest, and reduce waste access to landfill, and it is recommended that solid waste separation at the source be expanded. Keywords: municipal solid waste (MSW); Palestine; separation at source; waste reduction; 3Rs.
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    CATARACT SURGERY RATE EYE CARE CENTERS IN THE OCCUPIED PALESTINE: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY
    (جامعة النجاح الوطنية, 2022-07-27) Fayez Rabbaa, Ru’a
    Introduction: Nearly half of vision impairment and blindness among elderly people are due to cataract, but fortunately, this decreased vision is reversible as advancing technology allows for cataract surgery to be conducted with high accuracy and precision. Despite the fact that cataract is easily treated, cataract was reported to be the major cause of blindness in Occupied Palestine among people over the age of 55. Cataract surgery rate is one of the indicators used to measure cataract service delivery in countries. It is a quantifiable measure of the cataract surgical services accessibility to those who need it. The World Health Organization has set a cataract surgery rate of 3,000 per million people per year as the minimum rate required to eliminate blindness due to cataract. As there is limited information on the cataract surgery rate in Occupied Palestine, them this study has sought to measure the cataract surgery rate in Occupied Palestine. Methods: A retrospective records review study was conducted in 2019 and 2020 to determine the cataract surgery rate at all cataract surgery hospitals and medical centers in Occupied Palestine. Results: Cataract surgery rate decreased from 2, 297 operations per million in 2019 to 1, 885 due to corona virus pandemic in 2020. Out of 211 cataract-operated eyes with corrected visual acuity, 93.84% of them achieved good visual acuity (≥6/18), 5.21% of them had borderline acuity (<6/18–6/60). Only 0.95% had poor visual acuity (<6/60). Conclusion and Recommendations : Cataract surgery rates in 2019 and 2020 were lower than the minimum rate set by the World Health organization. Therefore, there is a need to increase cataract surgery rate across the country. Visual outcomes of cataract surgery have improved in Occupied Palestine and have been found to be very close to World Health Organization satisfactory outcomes. Keywords: Cataract; cataract surgery; cataract surgery rate; cataract surgery outcome; visual impairment; cataract blindness
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    Weight gain pattern among pregnant women, associated factors, maternal and fetal outcomes in Nablus district
    (An-Najah National University, 2019-02-13) Abo-Alrob, Arwa
    The gestational period determines the quality of human life and depends on the intra uterine condition. Healthy pregnant women with good nutritional status certainly improves the outcome of baby,During pregnancy period gaining weight is both required and expected in such critical period, weight gain occurred as a consequence for the rapid physiological changes. The aim of the study: The study aimed at identifying the patterns of GWG among pregnant women in Nablus district, to determine the related associated factors and to find out maternal and fetal outcomes during the study period. Method: A quantitative, cross sectional study approach was adopted to conduct the Study from MOH antenatal clinics in Nablus city. The sample consisted of (387) pregnant women, who were selected through random sampling. Results: result showed that (43.7%) of pregnant women participate in the study gain IGWG , (36.1%) were with AGWG and (20.3%) were classified with EGWG,there were a significant relationship between BMI and total GWG (P-value 0.00)and women attitude regard how to eat (P-value 0.003),in addition to that women with IGWG were 1.7 times to have labor and postpartum complications (OR=1.658) ,occurrence of GDM ,PIH and pre-eclampsia were higher among women with EGWG . Conclusion and recommendations: women pre pregnancy BMI, attitude regard how to eat affect women GWG which affect maternal and fetal complications, recommended weight assessment tool in MOH ANC may affect GWG and reduce the complications in addition to that empower the role of health care providers in ANC regard counseling, education and referral and provide educational classes about GWG will enhance the reproductive health in Palestine.
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    Prevalence of Depressive Symptoms and Associated Factors Among Radiographers in the West Bank Hospitals of Palestine: A Cross-Sectional Study
    (An-Najah National University, 2019-12-24) Obaid, Ahmed
    Study title: Prevalence of Depressive Symptoms and Associated Factors Among Radiographers in the West Bank Hospitals of Palestine: A Cross-Sectional Study. Student name: The study carried out by Ahmed Obaid and under supervision of Dr. Adnan Sarhan. Background: Radiographers are one of the most important and needful components of the workforce in the health care system. They fall under the category of supporting medical professions, thus, they are frontline medical service providers. They are face with occupational stressors in different ways which may contribute to diverse adverse mental effects including depression. Aim: This study aims to investigate the prevalence of depressive symptoms and explore its associated risk factors among radiographers working in West Bank hospitals. Method: A Cross-Sectional design is used for the study. Beck’s depression inventory-II Arabic version is administered to respondents and Statistical Package of the Social Science (SPSS) version 21 is used for data analysis. Results: The prevalence of depressive symptoms among radiographers was 75.69%. Multivariate logistic analysis showed that number of children is one, two to five and more than five (P<0.05, OR 22.59, 95%CI 1.98-256.60), (P<0.05, OR 12.87, 95%CI 1.51-109.43), (P<0.05, OR 5.31, 95%CI 1.01-27.79) respectively, male (P<0.05, OR 13.587, 95%CI 3.99-46.21) and bachelor’s degree (P<0.05, OR 11.10, 95 %CI 1.04-118.41) were positively associated with mild to moderate depressive symptoms. Whereas private sector (P<0.05, OR 0.116, 95%CI0.041-0.333) and experience period of more than 21 years (P<0.05, OR 0.133, 95%CI0.019-0.924) were negatively associated with mild to moderate depressive symptoms. Regarding severe depression working in private sector (P<0.05, OR 8.61, 95%CI 3.006-24.68) and working experience period of more than 21 years (P<0.05, OR 7.52, 95% CI 1.08-52.24) were positively associated with severe depressive symptoms. Whereas number of children is one , two to five and more than five ((P<0.05, OR 0.044, 95%CI 0.004-0.503), (P<0.05, OR 0.078, 95%CI 10.009=0.660), (P<0.05, OR 0.188, 95%CI 0.036-0.985) respectively, male (P<0.05, OR 0.074, 95%CI 0.022-0.250) and bachelor’s degree (P<0.05, OR 0.090, 95 %CI 0.008-0.960) were negatively associated with severe depressive symptoms. Conclusion: Depressive symptoms among radiographers found to be prevalent. Gender, number of children, experience period, educational level and working sector were associated with the generation of depressive symptoms. Efficient investigations and interventions such as mental health education courses, improving radiographer`s patient communication, keeping up with modern imaging modalities and developing coping mechanisms for radiographers aim to improve the radiographer’s mental health from the view of depressive symptoms. Studies to identify possible risk factors, causes of depressive symptoms, as well as to investigate its effects and consequences on the radiographer`s health workforce are needed.
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    This Thesis is Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Pharmaceutical Sciences,
    (ِAn-Najah National University, 2019-04-16) Dass, Gada
    تشكل النباتات الطبية نافذة مهمة لدى الباحثين في مجال العقاقير الطبية للعمل على تطوير بدائل طبيعية فعالة لعلاج العديد من المشاكل الصحية مثل السكري والسمنة والإجهاد التأكسدي دون أن تحدث هذه البدائل الأعراض الجانبية التي تظهر خلال استعمال الأدوية الكيميائية وفي هذا البحث تم تسليط الضوء على نبتة الحميض لتحضير مستخلصات متنوعة من أوراقها المجففة باستخدام مذيبات مختلفة القطبية مثل الهكسان والأسيتون والميثانول والماء المقطر ومن ثم إتباع مجموعة من الفحوصات الكيميائية لتحديد نوعية وكمية المركبات الفعالة في هذه المستخلصات . وقد تم ملاحظة أن مستخلص الأسيتون كان غنيا بمركبات الفلافونيد ومركبات الفينول المضادة للأكسدة بينما ظهرت مركبات الصابونيين في المستخلص المائي. ومن ثم تم تطبيق مجموعة من الفحوصات المخبرية على هذه المستخلصات وبالتحديد على الأنزيمات الهاضمة للنشويات وأهمها أنزيمα-amylase وأنزيم α-glucosidase بالإضافة الى إنزيم lipase المسئول عن هضم الدهنيات. حيث أظهر مستخلص الأسيتون نتائج قوية في تثبيط هذه الإنزيمات الثلاثة وبالتالي يمكن لهذا المستخلص أن يشكل بالمستقبل بديلا طبيعيا للأدوية الكيميائية المستخدمة في ضبط مستويات السكر في الدم لمرضى السكري وكبديل طبيعي لعقار الاورليستات للتخلص من السمنة . وقد ترجع فاعلية هذه المستخلصات لاحتوائها على مركبات الفينول والفلافونيد.وقد تم استخدام مركب Acarbose لغرض المقارنة في الفحوصات الكيميائية على الأنزيمات الهاضمة للنشويات بينما استعملorlistat لغرض المقارنة في فحص أنزيم اللايبز لهاضم للدهنيات. بالإضافة الى الفحوصات السابقة أظهر مستخلص الأسيتون لأوراق الحميض تأثيرا واضحا على مركب DPPHالذي يعتبر من الشواذر الحرة المسببة للإجهاد التأكسدي في الأجسام الحية وقد يكون السبب أن مستخلص الأسيتون غني بمركبات الفينول و الفلافونيد المضادة للأكسدة وقد تم استخدام مركب Trolox لغرض المقارنة في الفحص المضاد للأكسدة.أما بالنسبة لمستخلص الهكسان فقد أظهر فاعلية واضحة في تثبيط الخلايا السرطانية من نوعي HeLa and MCF7 وقد تعزى هذه الفاعلية لاحتواء هذا المستخلص على مركبات ستيرويدية وتيربين نباتي والذي كان له في ابحاث سابقة تاثير واضح في تثبيط الخلايا السرطانية. وهكذا يمكن اعتبار هذا البحث على أوراق نبات الحميض تحديا بالمستقبل للصناعات الدوائية الطبيعية التي قد تصبح الخيار الأفضل للعديد من المرضى مقارنة بالعقاقير الكيميائية المرتبطة بالكثير من الآثار الجانبية على الجسم.