Clinical Psychology

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    SELF-REPORTED CAUSES OF MENTAL ILLNESS AND THEIR ASSOCIATION WITH PATHWAYS TO HEALTHCARE AMONG PEOPLE WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS IN PALESTINE
    (2023-03-27) By Zaynab Hinnawi
    Background: Mental illness affects every segment of population, in every country including Palestine. The beliefs held by patients regarding the causes of mental illness impact their treatment-seeking behavior. No doubt that understanding the context of the beliefs held by the patients and their family members with respect to the causation and treatment of various psychiatric disorders may help seeking behavior of mentally ill subjects and their adherence to treatment. Previous studies revealed many different attributions stated by mentally-ill people. Those attributions were relevant to the culture they belong to. The aim of this study was to find out the attributions of the Palestinian patients, and the pathways followed by them to seek healthcare. Methodology: The sample of this study consisted of thirty-one stable patients who attend private clinics. The participants were with different diagnoses, and from different cities of the West Bank in addition to Jerusalem. Semi-structured interviews using an adapted version of the McGill illness Narrative interview were conducted in order to illicit illness narratives. Results: The findings of this study showed three main attributions: supranatural, psychosocial, and biomedical causes. Participants sought help through two main pathways; psychiatrists and sheikhs. Other pathways were followed but with less countable frequency. Conclusion: An important number of patients attribute their psychiatric symptoms to supranatural causes. In regard to help-seeking behaviors, many patients seek help from nonmedical pathways. Keywords: Mental health; Attribution theory; Supranatural causes; Psychosocial causes; Biomedical causes; Treatment pathways; Psychiatrists, Sheikhs.
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    THE ROLE OF ABILITY AND TRAIT EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE ON MENTAL HEALTH AMONG PALESTINIAN BATTERED AND NON-BATTERED WOMEN: A COMPARATIVE STUDY
    (2023-04-14) Carolina Hodali
    Emotional Intelligence (EI) can be understood from two perspectives; EI as a mental capacity to process emotions and EI as a cognitive, personality, and an affective attribute. Studies on EI showed the importance of studying EI and its relationship to mental health outcomes (Stress, Anxiety and Depression). Worldwide and Palestinian studies showed high prevelance and strong relationship of Gender based Violence, specifically domestic violence with mental health outcomes. The study aimed to investigate the role of Ability Emotional Intelligence (AEI) and Trait Emotional Intelligence (TEI) in mental health outcomes among Palestinian battered and non-battered women. Moreover, the study looked for differences in mean scores of AEI and TEI and Mental Health Outcomes between battered and non-battered women. The contribution of AEI, TEI and Battering in the predicition of Mental Health Outcomes, and the main effects and interaction of AEI and TEI among battered and non –battered women were measured. The target population of the study were 102 women from 14 institutions in the West Bank (61 battered, 41 non-battered), and their ages ranged between 20 until 59 years old (M = 36.90, SD = 9.68). Results showed significant differences in all Mental Health Ouctomes between battered and non-battered women while no significant differences in their Emotional Intelligence was found. The researcher also measured the relationaship between the variables by using Multiple Linear Regression Test to learn about the relationship between women’s trait EI, Ability EI, and their Mental Health Outcomes, with women’s mental health outcomes as the dependent variable. The findings showed significant partial correlation between Battering and TEI and Mental Health Outcomes. However, we found significant partial correlation only between AEI and Anxiety. Moreover, for analyzing the main effects and interaction of EI and Battering on Mental Health Outcomes (Anxiety, Stress and Depression separately), the researher used the Two Way ANCOVA test analysis. The main results showed an effect of TEI on Anxiety and Depression, while AEI affects only Anxiety. Moreover, Battering affected more Stress and Depression than Anxiety. The predictive characteristics of AEI, TEI, and Battering on Mental Health Outcomes, as well as the implication of the results, were discussed. Keywords: Battered Women; Emotional Intelligence; Gender Based Violence; Mental Health Outcomes; Palestinian Context.
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    THE EFFICACY OF A COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL THERAPY PROGRAM IN REDUCING DEPRESSION AND IMPROVING SELF-EFFICACY AMONG STUDENTS WITH LEARNING DISABILITIES
    (2023-08-23) Mayar Esam Adnan Athamleh
    Background: Learning disabilities are a type of neurodevelopmental condition. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), the underlying aspects include deficits in learning skills, leading to decreased self-efficacy and future despair. Previous research has shown that cognitive-behavioral treatment improves self-efficacy and decreases depression in students with learning disabilities. As a result, this study aimed to investigate the impact of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) on reducing depression and increasing self-efficacy among students with learning difficulties. Methodology: The quasi-experimental method with a pre-test-post-test control group design was used in the current study to test the effect of the independent variable (a Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) group program) on the two dependent variables (reducing depression and improving self-efficacy) among students with learning disabilities. The design of two equivalent groups was used; control and experimental groups, the sample comprised 12 children who exhibited learning disabilities, with an age range of 12 to 13 years because their brain is still developing and deserves to be studied. Whereas the CBT program was applied to the experimental group. Meanwhile, the control group did not receive any intervention. Pre-test and post-test were conducted for the two groups to assess depression and self-efficacy before and after applying for the therapeutic program, and scores were compared and analyzed. Results: The results showed that CBT is effective in developing self-efficacy and reducing depression. This study examines the correlation between the level of depression and learning disabilities in children, upon the results of utilizing the level measure of depression as the primary metric and self-efficacy in children with learning disabilities, which was used as a pre-measure before applying the program for children with learning disabilities and as a measure after therapeutic intervention. Conclusions: The findings of the study lead us to consider the efficiency of cognitive-behavioral therapy and the significance of its continuity in lowering depression and increasing self-efficacy among students with learning disabilities, and can be used to train teachers and educational counsellors in schools and guide parents in developing a CBT intervention plan for children with learning disabilities. Keywords: Self-efficacy; Learning Disability; Depression; Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT)
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    THE SOURCES OF PSYCHOLOGICAL DISTRESS AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO RESILIENCE AND BURNOUT AMONG HEALTHCARE PROVIDERS IN PALESTINE
    (2023-06-01) Fatena Ahmad Anis Mahamid
    The aim of this study is to investigate the level and the relationship between psychological distress, burnout and resilience among health care workers in occupied Palestine. The study also attempts to discover the effects of some demographic variables, i.e., gender, age, monthly income, years of experience, and employment on psychological distress, resilience, and burnout. The study was conducted using the available sample of 153 health care workers in medical centers, hospitals, and emergency departments, in occupied Palestine. Samples indicated that 34.8% of respondents were male, and 56.2% were female. The results of the study revealed that the degree of psychological distress and resilience among health care workers in occupied Palestine were high, while burnout was very high. The results also indicated that psychologicaldistress has effect on burnout.The results also showed that there were differences in the total score of resilience and burnout among health care workers on the variable of age in favor of +50 years old statistically significant differences were present in the total score of psychological distress and burnout. In conclusion, the study recommends holding more rehabilitation workshops for healthcare providers on a continual basis in order to offer the latest developments in their field. This may encourage and help them to perform their work in a more positive manner. Keywords: Healthcare providers, psychological distress, resilience, burnout.
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    DIFFERENCES IN SEVERITY OF DEPRESSION SYMPTOMS IN OVERWEIGHT AND OBESE PALESTINIAN ADOLSCENTS. EFFECTS OF WEIGHT, SEX AND AGE
    (جامعة النجاح الوطنية, 2022-09-29) Agbaria, Hadeel
    Background: Depression is of the most significant obesity- related psychological disorders. Previous studies have found a bi-directional relationship between obesity and depression symptoms among children and adolescents. Most of these studies were conducted in Western countries. Their findings regarding the effects of gender and age on this relationship were inconsistent. This study has examined the relationship between weight and depression symptoms in addition to the effects which gender and age have on depression among Palestinian children and adolescents. Methodology: Data were collected from 90 Palestinian school students aged 9-16. Of these, 30 had normal weight, 30 had over-weight and 30 were obese (defined by CDC curves). About half of the participants were girls, and about half of them had an obese family member. After a school nurse measured their BMI, the participants completed depression, demographic and weight test questionnaires. Results: After data analysis, it was found that over-weight and obese participants exhibited worse depression (of all types) than those with a normal weight but the differences between them were insignificant. The only gender effect found was in the mood and body image scale. Of all obese participants, the girls exhibited worse symptoms than boys. In contrast, only the overweight participants showed a small opposite trend. Regarding age, effects were found only in depression total scale and in inactivity symptoms. In these scales, of all overweight participants, adolescents exhibited worse symptoms than children, while the opposite trend was found among obese participants. Conclusion: These findings showed that over-weight and obese Palestinian children reported suffering from depression and thus interventions should take this into account. In particular, it seems that over-weight boys or adolescents need more direct help/ intervention to lose weight while obese girls or children who feel more helpless about their weight need more medical and emotional support. Keywords: Depression; over-weight; obesity; body-image; weight-stigma; adolescents; collective culture; gender-roles.