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    (جامعة النجاح الوطنية, 2022-08-31) Najjar, Alaa
    Abstract Background: COVID-19 is thought to be one of the serious public health hazard to date. Community pharmacists are one of the first line health care workers working hard during this pandemic, and their role is critical in preventing COVID-19 spread. Objective: This study aims to assess perception and practice of community pharmacists in Palestine towards COVID-19 pandemic and to evaluate the concern and worries of community pharmacists from COVID-19. Methods: A cross-sectional survey has been performed in community pharmacy in West Bank. The study was done from the 1st of February to the end of April 2021. A total of 314 respondents were selected by complex randomized method. The self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. All ethical consideration were considered. Results: The results showed that 18.2% of the participants have a high-level of knowledge about COVID-19, while 69.1% have moderate level of knowledge and 12.7% have a low level of knowledge. The result showed that 87.3% of the participants have a high-level of practice related to COVID-19, while 12.7% have a low level of practice. The result showed that 30.3% of the participants had a high anxiety level while 41.4% had a moderate level of anxiety and 28.3% had a low level of anxiety. The logistic regression showed that gender affected knowledge and gender female is a risk factor. Regarding the practice, Health status affected practice, pharmacist who have a disease that increases the risk of contracting the virus were more likely to have good practice, by same away, gender female, age more than 60, the pattern of working in the morning and evening shift, address of work (central), health status (who have a disease that increases the risk of contracting the virus) and who have been diagnosed with COVID-19 is factors affected on anxiety (P<0.05). Conclusion: Our finding revealed a satisfactory perception and practice of community pharmacist towards COVID-19. But there are high levels of concern present among Palestinian community pharmacist toward COVID-19. Keywords: COVID-19, Perception, Practice, Concern, worry, Community pharmacist.
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    (جامعة النجاح الوطنية, 2022-03-31) Zaid, Lina
    Background: This study was conducted in two phases: a systematic review and a qualitative study. The systematic review was conducted to evaluate concentrations of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in breastmilk of lactating women with epilepsy (WWE). The qualitative study was conducted to explore the perspectives of neurologists, gynecologists, psychiatrists, internists, and pharmacists about caring for WWE in Palestine. Methods: In the systematic review, the databases: MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL/EBSCO, COCHRANE, SpringerLink, ScienceDirect, Summon, WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and SCOPUS were systematically searched. In the qualitative study, a purposive sampling technique was used to recruit the participants for the qualitative study. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted neurologists (n = 6), gynecologists (n = 5), psychiatrists (n = 3), internist (n = 1), and clinical pharmacists (n = 5). The interpretive description methodology was used to thematically analyze the qualitative data. Estimated daily intake (EDI) and relative infant doses (RID) of AEDs were calculated. Results: A total of 15 records were included in this systematic review. The included studies reported levels of 8 AEDs in the breastmilk of WWE. Lamotrigine, levetiracetam, carbamazepine, topiramate, valproic acid, and gabapentin did not produce significant adverse effects that warranted discontinuation of breastfeeding. The mean EDI of AEDs ranged from 0.1 to 278.16 µg/g body weight/day and the mean RID ranged from 1.63% to 36.33%. Breastfeeding might be limited or even discontinued when signs of excessive sedation/drowsiness and/or poor weight gain are evident in infants exposed to primidone and phenobarbital, ethosuximide/primidone, or ethosuximide/phenobarbital. The following themes emerged from the qualitative data: 1) diagnosis and care for patients with epilepsy, 2) general issues in caring for patients with epilepsy, and 3) consideration of women’s issues in the pharmacotherapy of epilepsy. Conclusion: Healthcare providers and WWE might use the findings of this study to make informed decisions on the safety of breastfeeding while taking AEDs. Findings of this qualitative study showed a need to formally adopt uniform guidelines that can guide the diagnosis and care of WWE in the Palestinian healthcare system.