Enhancement of porcelain and synthesis of a new composites

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Ishtaya, Majd Firas
Kabaha, Tasneem Mohammad
Idkadek, Tala Hani
Mlitat, Dania Omar
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The issue of solid waste disposal is one of the most important concerns facing us in the modern era, especially those that occupy a rather large space and are difficult to dispose of. Eggshell and damaged porcelain are wastes that are produced in large quantities every year- the quantites cannot be identified because of the large types of porcelain and different load times and different quantities according to the time loading. As for eggs, a clear study of the quantities did not find, and according to the market study that conducted, the quantities differ according to the restaurant and according to the days of the week, and that summer has more consumption than winter and other considerations-. As for dental porcelain, it has become one of the most famous and most advanced fields, so that specialists in the field are always striving to find a new developed material that meets the needs. In this project, the two previous issues were combined, so that eggshell were treated by washing them, then passing through the stages of drying and grinding. The porcelain was also treated using both nitric acid by adding nitric acid to porcelain powder then drying at 120 ˚C, and treatment by adding polyethylene glycol and water to porcelain then drying at 1100˚C for 4 h, after it was ground using the Los Angeles device. Ball milling 1 and 2 was just physical mixing between porcelain treated by nitric acid and PEG – porcelain 1 and 2, respectively, TiO2 and CaCO3-EB. As for ball milling 2 and 3 they pass through 2 stages, the first stage was to produce CaO using direct thermal process, adding NaOH drop wise to CaCO3-EB with stirring at 1300 rpm to get a precipitate when pH reaches 11.4 that indicates of getting Ca(OH)2 , the product were filtered then calcined at 650˚C for 1h. The second stage was to mix ball milling 3 by adding porcelain treated by nitric acid and PEG – porcelain 1 and 2 respectively, TiO2 and CaO-EB. FTIR (Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy) analysis was made and the results showed a bonding between treated porcelain, eggshell based calcium components and TiO2 were a different peak show a new bonding in treated porcelain. TGA (Thermogravimetry analyzer) also made for the 4 samples to analyze organic and inorganic material in different samples. The density of ball milling 1 have the higher value and also ball milling 1 have the best color compared with the other samples. Swelling test show that the samples not affected by moisture. So, in this study, synthesis of new porcelain is achieved, the best sample was ball milling 1 and 3 preference based on density, color and higher value of hardness, were the density was 1.43g/ml and hardness is 13.08N and 13.12N with the addition of KBr. New tests must be applied to confirm whether the porcelain is successful or not.