water Desalination system using solar energy

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Mohammed Safi
Mohannad Sameer
Mahmoud Hanish
Mahmoud Saqqa
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Solar energy is assumed the most promising renewable resource for future generations, its world wide availability, huge daily received amounts, and negligible and controllable environmental consequences make it the dominance of all other resources. In Palestine, the average daily solar irradiation is about 5.4 kWh/m2/day, which is relatively a very good for thermal applications.The main objective of this project is to design a simple renewable energy based mechanical system that utilize solar energy for the desalination of different type of water, and to get clean water which is useful for different purposes (domestic, agricultural, washing,etc).The main concept is to use solar evacuated tube water heating collectors for rising the temperature of water stored in an insulated tank, the tank with the solar collecter were designed in a proper way to ensure high thermal efficiency, which maximize the amount of evaporized water. Then, the evaporized water is condensed and stored in another tank. However, due to the fact that the water (H2O) evaporates only leaving all contaminates and salts inside the evaporization tank, increase in its concentration by time, and increase the water evaporization temperature and/or specific heat. To solve this issue, a simple manual open valve is attached to the bottom of the conical shaped evaporization tank, and blowing down the water each 5 days in the night (at no sum time to avoid losses) makes sure to control water salts and contaminants levels and reduce its thermal efficiency negative effects. the experimental result for the desalination system was impressive due to many reason, in cloud and sometime cloudy weather the solar radiation average equal 950 w/m2 the water temperature reached 69 degree, the amount of desalinate water also was very good, during 5 day of experimental result" with and without isolation " the amount condensed water was 1.5 litter in average equal to  6-7 hours for each day , which is very good according to the system (small tank with only two evacuated tubes).This project will be very useful and essential for countryside region and for the people who have lake in fresh water resource, and it will be an easy and unexpansive (put your number for a typical family size 5 to 6 persons) way to produce high quality water by using solar energy only.