Mechanical Engineering

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    PACK CARBURIZING PROCESS OF LOW CARBON STEEL USING PEAT AND DATE SEEDS
    (2022-12-22) Saleh Aziz; Motaz Abu Mwies; Fares Abu Mustafa
    In recent years, the amount of waste generated by the agricultural sector has increased, for example, in Palestine; huge quantities of date seeds and olive oil are produced, resulting in large quantities of waste such as peat and date seeds. In this project, olive peat and date seeds were converted into a carbon source and used in the pack carburizing process to increase the mechanical properties of low carbon steel. Through this project, the hardness and properties of low-carbon steel were increased by using agricultural waste that is harmful to the environment.
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    The potential of palm waste as a source of renewable energy: a case study of Palestine
    (2023-01-15) • Anas Jarrar; • Hasan Totti; • Hamzah Nada
    Energy problem has been and still haunting scientists and researchers, as well as the disposal of industrial waste. In this regard, the use of waste biomass to produce biodiesel as a sustainable energy source is expected to be a solution to these problems. This project aims to find a new source of renewable energy mainly in Palestine, and possibly worldwide. Palestine currently relies on fossil fuels as a main source of energy, but it is expected to face several challenges in its availability for several reasons. The most notable of which is the geographical factor as Palestine lacks fossil fuel sources in comparison to Saudi Arabia and the Arab Gulf countries. Another reason is the political factor as the Israeli occupation controls the sources of energy in Palestine in general and fossil fuels in particular. Palm cultivation is widespread in Jericho and the Jordan Valley, where the number of palm farms in Palestine has reached 571 farms, which contain 311,000 palm trees [1], according to the statistics of the Ministry of Agriculture in September 2021. As a living thing Palm trees excrete things they no longer need or which otherwise might be harmful to them. Thus, Palm trees will invariably need to excrete a number of things to remain healthy. According to international studies, a single palm tree produces approximately 15-20 kg of waste annually, i.e. a total of (4,665 tons annually (311 thousand * 15 kg / tree)) is being disposed in useless and environmentally harmful methods such as burning [1]. Where in this project, we searched for alternative ways to benefit from the biomass of this waste as a source of alternative energy in Palestine. Palm biomass consists of the following main components: cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin [11]. In addition, palm has a high content of volatile solids and a low percentage of moisture. Thanks to these factors and components, palm biomass is an excellent source of energy if we turn its waste into fuel, as there is a wide range of thermal and biochemical technologies used to convert the energy stored in palm biomass to several useful forms of energy. In addition to the presence of a low moisture content in palm dates, its wastes are well suited for thermal and chemical conversion technologies such as incineration, gasification and pyrolysis [7]. On the other hand, the presence of a high percentage of volatile solids in the palm biomass indicates its potential for biogas production in anaerobic digestion plants. It is possible to convert the cellulosic content in palm waste into biofuel (bioethanol) by using the fermentation process. In this project, a study was conducted on this issue in Palestine to find out how the owners of palm tree farms deal with this waste and how it is disposed of. We conducted a questionnaire that we published on 40 farmers, which constitutes 7% of the number of farm owners in the Jericho and Jordan Valley area. This questionnaire focused on collecting general information about the nature of the palm tree, such as irrigation methods and trees, their type, problems and challenges faced by this cultivation. In addition to the main points in this research such as, the methods of waste disposal, their quantity and the damages resulting from them. In this regard, farmers used to follow several methods such as burning or simply throwing them in areas close to crops or chopping them and reusing them as fodder. Then, we studied these methods to obtain results and compared between them to reach to the best economic and environmental solution for Palestine in terms of producing energy and reducing wastes and pollution. The idea was strongly supported, as the percentage of farmers who found this as a practical and efficient solution to the problem of the lack of energy in Palestine was 97.5%.
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    Modelling and simulation of Pneumatic dough slicing machine
    (2022-12-20) MAJDI ABDULLAH; AHMED YAHYA
    The Palestinian market and the West Bank and Gaza Strip are thriving opportunities for doing business, despite the unique challenges that arise from the Israeli side. In particular, the West Bank economy has shown growth in the past years before a more recent downturn. However, the Palestinian market is still lagging behind other countries in the Middle East, North Africa and emerging countries. Due to the small size of the local market, however, many large holding companies dominate certain sectors. These sectors are growing rapidly both horizontally and vertically which include; Stone, marble, textile, clothing, food processing, engineering, metallurgical, chemical, pharmaceutical, veterinary, construction, handicraft, paper, printing, furniture, leather, shoe and plastic industries. However, the bakery sector still relies on traditional manual machines that suffer from many malfunctions. An in-depth investigation of the bakeries available in the West Bank reveals that they operated under a single system and that the process of cutting the dough was either manually and/or electrically. here. This project aims to develop these bakeries to keep pace with the development of the global trend, and the ability to design different machines, whatever the idea. This development will be by converting the dough divider from a manual and/or electric machine to a pneumatic system. Where the necessary calculations for the design of the basic mechanical parts in this project were explained. Thus, the design is theoretically complete to obtain an integrated machine that serves these factories at the lowest costs and the highest possible quality. The machine will also be designed on special software, including Solid Work, so that the machine is seen before it is laid on the ground to avoid all possible errors.
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    Automatic Burgar Machine
    (2023-01-15) Yazan Haj-Hasan; Omar Zaatar
    Because of the booming fast food and restaurant industry in Palestine, butchers are seeing an increase in demand for burgers in particular. The manual force makes around 100 burgers per hour with low quality, varying weight, and low precision, but the machine produces about 500- 2000 burgers per hour with high accuracy and weight, and there is also a significant cost for importing such burger making machine from other countries such as China, Germany, and Turkey. Manufacturing such a machine domestically will be far less expensive and easier to maintain in the Future. In order to satisfy the needs of the local market for such machines, a model of an affordable burger-making machine is designed and fabricated in this project, the model was produced for the benefit of a local Butchery shop in Qalqilya city called (The butchery of Qalqilya), who provided the financial support under ABET agreement template. In this project, the design and manufacturing of the Automatic Burger Machine was completed, several problems were overcome, and the market was researched in West Bank cities, including butcheries and restaurants because they are the main targets customers. Solidworks program was used in the conceptual design then it was also used for the final Design for Manufacturing model. The Design of the final model was completed and delivered to a local manufacturing company (National manufacturing Company) to fabricate the machine under an agreement signed by the beneficiary (Butchery of Qalqilya) and the manufacturer; the agreement gave the project team the permeation to participate in the manufacturing process, and assembly of the control system for the machine. The obtained machine is able to produce high quality packed burger pieces with an adjustable production rate varying from 300-1000 piece per hour. The machine is standardized to give 100g burger with 13cm diameter and 8mm thickness, this standard size can be easily customized by changing the moulds size
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    Experiment and Simulation: The Use of SolidWorks in the Evaluation of Different Types of Turbine Winds in Palestine.
    (2022) Mohammad Sayyed; Taysir Surakji; Mosab Abu Haniyeh
    The traditional energy sector in Palestine suffers from many problems, shortages, and high prices. As a result, alternative energy sources have become the ideal solution to save energy, reduce costs, and self-reliance, one of the alternative energy sources is wind energy, despite the low wind speed in Palestine. However, it can be used to a large extent in many fields. Where electrical energy plays an important role in the life of the individual and society, and indeed in all aspects of life in the country. Without electrical energy the economy and industries can’t be developed, and therefore this prompts to search for alternative renewable energy sources than traditional energy sources. This study aims to solve the problem of electrical energy in Palestine especially in the city of Hebron. This study was conducted in the city of Hebron because it contains suitable wind capabilities to build these turbines and to obtain the necessary energy through renewable energy sources available in Palestine due to the availability of the appropriate climate and weather. Two different types of turbines will be studied and the type most suitable for Palestine's weather and wind speed available, and which of these types will be the most efficient, will be studied. This research has been studied and implemented based on a SolidWorks program. Initially, a 3D design was made in SolidWorks for two types of wind turbines, namely: the horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) and the vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) of the Savonius type. Simulations were performed on each of the above types with different wind speeds (0.5-4.5) m/s. After simulation, it was found that Savonius turbines have the greatest ability to generate power at low wind speeds commensurate with the wind speed in the city of Hebron. Keywords: Horizantal Axis Wind Turbine; Vertical Axis Wind Turbine; Solidworks; Simulation; Hebron-Palestine.