Performance Assessment of Hybrid Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment in The West Bank
جامعة النجاح الوطنية
The Constructed wetlands (CWs) are considered inexpensive and common used technology for treating wastewater worldwide. This research focuses on evaluating the performance efficiency of four selected constructed wetlands in Sarra, Hajjah, Misillya, and BietHasan villages. The wastewater samples had been collected from the studied plants between 10:00 am and 13:00 pm overtime (October/ 2018 to February/2019). The samples had been taken three times over the period. The collected samples had been analyzed for EC, pH, BOD5, COD, T. Phosphorus, T. Nitrogen, TDS, TSS, E. coli, T. coliform. Dissolved Oxygen and temperature of the wastewater had been recorded in the site at the same time of the samples collection. The overall removal efficiency in terms of the organic pollutants removal (BOD5, COD, TSS) was higher performance in Sarra treatment plant then Misillya treatment plant, and Hajjah treatment plant, respectively. However, BeitHasan treatment plant achieved lower performance. Although Sarra and Hajjah wetland plants in terms of removing the organic pollutants (BOD5, COD, TSS) showed overall good performance and achieved above 90%; the effluent characteristics of (BOD5, COD, TSS) from both of them failed to meet good quality grade (met with Grade C-D) compared with the Palestinian obligatory technical specifications (PSI 34-2012). The reduction of the organic pollutants (BOD5, COD, TSS) from effluent of BietHassan plant failed to meet with the (PSI 34-2012). Furthermore, the effluent characteristics of Misillya plant failed to meet with the (PSI 34-2012) in terms of the BOD5, but COD, TSS met with Grade D (low quality) of (PSI 34-2012). In terms of the treatment stages of Sarra and Hajjah plants; VF CW beds achieved higher performance compared to the other treatment stages, while in Misillya plant recirculation stage achieved higher performance. The poor performance efficiency of Misillya CW beds may be due to uncompleted maturity of the beds which mean it's still not reached the steady-state. The analysis of data showed promotion in the performance efficiency of Sarra, Hajjah, BietHasan wetland plants is necessary could be achieved by maintenance of the reed beds to avoid clogging and management of the dominant plant (reed common) by harvesting and replanting of plants, as well as the removal of the undesirable vegetation.