Water and Environmental Engineering

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    Toward a Better Understanding of the Nitrate Contamination of the Groundwater in the West Bank The Case Study of the Eocene and the Western Aquifers
    (جامعة النجاح الوطنية, 2019-05-05) Aljundi, Balsam
    Groundwater is the main source of fresh water for the Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza strip. Therefore, assessment and monitoring of its quality and quantity is essential. Recent studies have indicated an increasing trend in the nitrate contamination in the Eocene Aquifer (EA) and the Western Aquifer Basin (WAB). Nitrate contamination is mainly due to intense use of fertilizers, the seepage of wastewater from cesspits, and the lack of integrated wastewater systems. Elevated nitrate concentrations in drinking water may cause health problems such as methemoglobinemia in infants and stomach cancer in adults. This research aims to understand the spatial and vertical distribution of nitrate contamination in the groundwater of the West Bank by taking the EA and the WAB as case studies. A total of 16 wells within the WAB located in the northern part of Tulkarm governorate (Ash-Shaarawieh) were visited and tested to study the spatial distribution of nitrate concentration, while another six adjacent wells within the boundary of the Eocene aquifer that are located in Qabatiya town were considered to study the vertical distribution of nitrate concentration. These measurements were carried out on monthly basis between the period of September 2018 and March 2019. Results showed that there are elevated concentrations of nitrate beyond the maximum contaminant level (MCL) which equals 50 mg/l-NO3 in Ash-Shaarawieh particularly in Illar and Attil. These wells are located beneath irrigated areas and have the maximum range of nitrate concentrations resulted mainly from intensive agricultural activities (e.g. fertilizing, irrigation). While, wells that are located within the built-up areas have nitrate concentration ranges between 26 and 50 mg/l-NO3. This reflects the improper disposal of wastewater which is widely spread in these areas. For the vertical distribution, there is an inverse relation between the depth of sampled wells and the nitrate concentration in Qabatiya town. Finally, some practical management options to control the problem of nitrate pollution in the study areas were suggested. Modeling should be utilized for the selection of proper management options to control the nitrate occurrence in groundwater. In addition, more frequent and well distributed samples should be promoted through a well-developed strategy for groundwater monitoring
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    Enhancing Biogas Production by Using Slaughterhouse Wastewater and Domestic Sludge to Cover Energy Demand for Wastewater Treatment Plant in Nablus Governorate
    (جامعة النجاح الوطنية, 2017-08-24) Dababat, Salahaldeen
    In this study, enhancement in biogas production from using Co-digestion of slaughterhouse wastewater (SHW) mixed with primary sludge (PS) was evaluated, and compared with biogas production from digest the SHW, and PS individually. In order to carry out this evaluation, lab experiments were conducted under mesophilic condition (35±2°C) by using bench scale batch digesters at laboratories of An-Najah National University. In all experiments, total solids (TS), total volatile solids (VS), and pH, alkalinity (ALK), also volatile fatty acids (VFA) were measured before and after digestion process. Further to these, the daily biogas and methane (CH4) production were also measured. Results indicated that Co-digestion system achieved the maximum biogas yield which was (499.8 Nml Biogas /g VS fed), while the biogas yield for digest each of PS, and SHW in individual digester were (411.5 Nml biogas per g VS fed, and 433.8 Nml biogas /g VS fed), respectively. It was found that the implementation of the Co-digestion of SHW with PS has improved the biogas yield comparing with what can be achieved by digest SHW and PS separately. Results also revealed that the CH4 yield from the Co-digestion was the maximum value of 220.3 Nml CH4/g VS fed, while the value of 200.1 Nml CH4/g VS fed was produced from digest PS separately, and the lowest value of 186.9 Nml CH4/g VS fed was achieved in case of SHW digestion separately. A result that prove along with the accumulation of VFA in the reactor the occurrence of inhibition in methanogenesis activity when the SHW was digested as individual substrate. The biodegradability of organic matter in Co-digestion system was found greater than SHW digestion individually, since organic removal was 44.4% in case of Co- digestion system, and it was 29.1% in case of digest SHW individually, while the maximum degradation was in case of digest PS individually which was 49.0%, and this make an indication that PS sample has less complex substrate comparing with SHW and Co-digestion samples. Results proved that implementation of anaerobic digestion to digest SHW, represents an alternative for biogas production, especially when it was applied in Co-digestion system. This study results has given useful answers for improving the efficiency of West Nablus Wastewater Treatment Plant (WN-WWTP) and about the appropriateness of SHW treatment to enhance the waste biodegradation and enhance biogas production within anaerobic digestion stage in the treatment plant, without causing financial, operational, technical, and environmental impacts on the treatment system.
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    Optimization of Private Sector Involvement in the Palestinian Water Sector Governance
    (جامعة النجاح الوطنية, 2017-07-25) Judeh, Tariq
    Private sector involvement (PSI) in water sector is a sensitive issue that may be affected by several factors such as: investment determinants, economic situation of the country, legal aspects, social aspects and political aspects, these factors make PSI success level varies from state to another. Palestinian water sector suffers from various problems including: variability in water quantities from one governorate to another, dependency on donor countries, week relationships between the different institutions in the Palestinian water sector, and failings in the management and development of water resources. All of these shortcomings, especially the economic ones, need to be taken into consideration. However, there are limited studies on the governance of PSI in the Palestinian water sector. This research was conducted in order to achieve the following objectives: the first one: conduct SWOT analysis for PSI in the Palestinian water sector, the second: identify the key types, areas, framework, and legal framework for PSI in the Palestinian water sector, and finally: optimize the best PSI techniques in the Palestinian water sector through qualitative analysis of collected data
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    Rooftop Rainwater Harvesting to Alleviate Domestic Water Shortage in the West Bank, Palestine
    (جامعة النجاح الوطنية, 2019-09-05) Alawna, Sandy Mofleh Ghazi
    Water is a key factor for sustainable development. In arid and semi-arid regions, water is becoming less in quantity and bad in quality. This is due to the increasing demand of water for different uses. Among which, the domestic use is the most important. This situation compiled the dire need to look for a new and sustainable water resources (e.g. rooftop rainwater harvesting, RRWH). This study aims to assess the domestic water supply-demand (DWSD) gap (deficit) in the different West Bank governorates and to evaluate the possibility of RRWH technique to bridge this gap. Moreover, to evaluate the possibility of adopting RRWH to alleviate the domestic water shortage in water poor (WP) yet highly domestic rainwater harvesting suitability (DRWHS) areas. Additionally, the potential volume for domestic water saving (PDWS) from RRWH in the different West Bank governorates were evaluated. The methodology of this study mainly rely on the geographic information system (GIS) together with MS Excel. RRWH volumes were estimated for the different West Bank governorates based on the available GIS shapefiles of buildings and long-term areal annual average rainfall. According to Palestinian Water Authority (PWA) data for the year 2017, the DWSD gap in the West Bank is nearly 32 million cubic meters (MCM). Generally, there are many strategic options for water resources management to increase water availability and to bridge the DWSD gap. In the West Bank, and given the uncertain water supply from conventional resources (e.g. groundwater), RRWH would be a strategic option to bridge the DWSD gap. The results of this study show that the RRWH volume that can be harvested from the West Bank rooftops is nearly 37 MCM. Additionally, the adoption of RRWH in the West Bank can bridge the DWSD gap in Tubas, Salfit, Ramallah & Al-Bireh and Jerusalem governorates. Moreover, the adoption of RRWH in the high to very high DRWHS areas can harvest nearly 89% of the total RRWH volume in the West Bank. Implementation of RRWH in the high water poor yet suitable areas amounted to 53% of total RRWH volume in the West Bank. This study will help potential stockholders toward adopting of RRWH as a viable water resources option to minimize the domestic water shortage mainly in the water poor areas in the West Bank.
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    Septage Characterization and Fecal Sludge Treatment in Rural Nablus
    (جامعة النجاح الوطنية, 2020-06-04) Hussein, Mohammed Abdelssalam Abdelrahman
    As urbanization continues to take place, the management of sanitation is becoming a major concern. Palestine is one of the countries that have major issues with sanitation, providing that most of the population relies on cesspits for disposal of wastewater. This work has characterized the septage, and quality of wastewater collected in cesspits in three villages near Nablus city (Qusin, Iraq Burin, and Tell), also proposed a pretreatment model. Samples were collected from the vacuum tankers used for emptying the cesspits in the three villages. They were then analyzed for pH, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Turbidity, Phosphorous, Ammonia, Nitrogen, Nitrate, Alkalinity, Conductivity, Solids parameters, Total and Fecal coliform, and Heavy metals. The concentrations of the analyzed samples were compared with the EPA guidelines and municipal wastewater and septage in other countries as compared through literature, for example; in west Nablus wastewater treatment plant the average BOD concentration of row WW was 573 mg/l, Whereas the septage had an averageBOD5 of 371 mg/l. While the average COD of municipal row wastewater and septage were 1,174 and 1,087 mg/l, respectively. Modeling and optimization of wastewater treatment processes were applied to improve the efficiency of a wastewater treatment model. The model was applied on the Septage characterized by this study (which has a high organic loading and suspended solids concentrations) to optimize a treatment process of a two-units of Sequencing Batch Reactors SBR model using GPS-X 7.0 simulator. Even though there were no fecal sludge disposal sites for the studied villages, the Septage was dumped untreated to open environment. This model was designed to meet the Palestinian regulations of type C of treated wastewater for agricultural reuse. The designed values for this model were (456, 1221, 386) mg/l for BOD5, COD, and Total Suspended Solids (TSS) respectively. The results revealed that, two-units of SBR model were operated with removal efficiencies higher than 98% for BOD, 94% for COD, and 98% for TSS. This modeling analysis was applied to define a performance measuring plan based on the most important parameters that can be reliable and applicable for any wastewater treatment plant. The produced models were feasible for construction and operation. Also, it is recommended to implement the modeled TP to examine the operation and efficiency of such TPs on the ground and to make calibration for the model if needed.