Narcotics crimes and manners of fighting it in accordance with the Palestinian Jurisprudence "comparative study"

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Yahya Eyadeh Odeh AL kordi
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This study discusses the narcotic crimes and the possible ways of fighting them according to The Palestinian legislation . It was necessary to clarify the narcotic crimes , defining them and distinguishing them from mental effects and chemical substances in chapter one. Chapter one , also, includes kinds of narcotics , classifications , limiting them according to " crimes and punishments legality" , factors of spreading , purpose of conviction which are their hazards and damages, and the international issues about smuggling and disclosure . The major aim of this study is about narcotic crimes and Procedures of contention . The study concluded that the military article about the dangerous drugs (558/ 1975) is very old and discords with the narcotic laws because it has shortcomings . On the other hand, the new one fulfills the social and national needs. The study recommended that it is necessary to establish a recent narcotic laws and mental operant. Importance of the Study This study springs from the weakness of the deterrence in the narcotic law .Also, it springs from the need for study which reinforces this deterrence and procedures in order to achieve the purpose of establishing such these laws because legislation is considered the most important field of contending these crimes . So the importance of this study emerges from the following : 1. The subject matter is very important because illegal drugs is considered an international human issue for several reasons included that the drugs and narcotics are closely related to the human hygienic , ethical considerations , force work , financial issues and the effects on the economics of the word countries as a result of the volume of the invested money on drug and narcotics trade and fighting them . 2. The effect of narcotics on the society security and stability , the contribution of the narcotics in family dissociate, social damage and the prevalence of some diseases and epidemics particularly VIH virus. Also, the association of narcotics with other crimes and the role of the occupation in borders dominant and its obstacles in national efforts in fighting this phenomenon. The study results will inform the officials about the procedures of fighting mechanisms and suitable solutions in protecting recent and future generations . 3. The subject matter has its importance from human right perspective as a result of the procedures which treat the privacy of the human being , the treatment and not punishing the addicts . 3. Lack of previous studies . So, researchers and students will be able to benefit from this recent study . Methodology Descriptive analytical method in addition to comparative and historical ones will be used . Legal statements , doctrinal writings and legal verdicts either books or thesis will be noted . Moreover, scholars opinions in the legal references will be inducted . more help will be obtained from the websites as a result of the lack of references . Study objectives The study aims at achieving the following objectives : 1. Studying the legal dimensions of the problem of narcotic crimes in the Palestinian community in order to reach the best methods for fighting them , particularly, the legislative and security methods. Benefiting the officials is a major objective . 2. Warning the Palestinian legislator for the necessity of establishing a progressive punishment law in order to bridge the gaps and modify the ordinary laws . 3. Benefiting the scholars and researchers from the study results . Statement of the problem Despite the increasing awareness of international community about the narcotic and drugs phenomena , hazards , preventative and fighting methods and limitation of prevalence, this awareness did not reach the human society ambition of terminating this epidemic which threats the individuals and societies all over the world . The narcotic dealing continues gradually as a result of the increasing of the subjects who addict these substances in the world . The problem emerges to be a human one with an international , regional and domestic dimension. The narcotic dilemma became not an individual predicament but also social, healthy, economical and security one which influence both the developing and developed countries . No country all over the world has an immunity or is being away from the negative influence of this evil and its negative side effects because of its feature of being fast transited among the world countries with their different classes . In Palestine, the most important problem about narcotics is the absence of progressive integral and deterrent law . The military Act about the illegal drugs (558/1975 ) issued by the occupying state the only legislative in the West Bank is still valid and it is considered very old law . The legislative is neither deterrent nor comprehensive . Moreover , it doesn't include the progressing law according to the technical and scientific advance . It is notable to that the Egyptian Necrotic Law (19/ 1962 ) is still valid in Gaza strip which was canceled by the military Act ( 437/1972 ) and applied the mandate Act of the dangerous drugs ( 1936) which ignored protection the Palestinian community . the Egyptian Necrotic Law reapplied by the de facto government . These reasons were called for establishing Palestinian law for narcotics which hasn't been carried out yet. As a result , illegality issues , the lack of progressive , weakness of deterrence and disunity in addition to the weakness in border dominancy and the role of the occupying state emerge . So, the reason for chosen this subject matter is my intention in benefiting from both; my legal and practical experience in the field of fighting narcotic crimes which I have worked in for fourteen years . Under these circumstances and in the light of the need for facing narcotic crimes , this study came to investigate in several questions which are : What is the influence of punishment and fighting procedures in limiting narcotic crimes? , Is the valid narcotic crime effective in achieving its goals ?, What are the best methods for narcotic crimes ? , What is the effectiveness of the international cooperation in this field ? . Furthermore , the following question emerges about the legal statements " International agreements " which the countries resort on when establishing the suitable crime legislatives and the accordance with the proposed laws ? Limitations of the study There is major limitation to this study which is narcotic crimes subject matter and the procedures of fighting such these crimes in the Palestinian legislation . The study will focus on the Palestinian laws of narcotics crimes , particularly, the military Act about the hazardous drugs ( 558/1975) which is valid in the West Bank , the Egyptian Necrotic Law (19/ 1962 ) which is valid in Gaza strip , Jordanian Punishment Law ( 16/1960), The Palestinian Penalty Procedures ( 3/2001) , Narcotic and mental Influences Law Project ( The old ) in ( 2003) and its modifications in ( 2009) and Narcotic , mental Influences Law Project ( The recent ) in ( 2014 and the Jordanian legislatives of the narcotics crimes , particularly, Jordanian Narcotic and mental Influences Law (11/1988) with its modifications in addition to clarifying some legal statements in several different legal systems . Also, the study will clarify Arabic ideal agreements and laws of the narcotic crimes especially the Arabic Agreement for Illegal trade and use of narcotics and mental influences in 1994 , Arabic Strategy for Fighting Narcotics ( 1986) and Unified Ideal Arabic Law of narcotics and mental influences in ( 1986 ) in addition to the international Agreements related to the study subject matter , particularly, The United Nation Agreement for Fighting Narcotic Trade in (1988) , the only agreement for narcotics in 1961 with its modified form of Geneva Protocol in ( 1972) , the Mental Influences Agreement in ( 1971) and the Political Declaration in 2009. Several obstacles have faced the researcher , included the following : 1. Lack of legislatives related to the study subject matter. 2. Lack of previous studies in Palestine. So, this study will be a new additive to the Palestinian legal library . On the other hands, the Arabic studies revolves around the legislatives of their countries about the narcotic crimes . The difficulties that face the researcher during the study included the following : 1. The instability of the legal and legislative situations in Gaza strip after the splitting out in 2007 which cause the researcher to limit his study to the West Bank excluding Gaza strip . In case of reconciliation , the legislatives which will be applied are those approved by Palestinian President . Appendix will be added summarizing Narcotic Law ( 19/1962) 2. The change in law of narcotics and mental influences which has approved by the Palestinian Legislation Council in primary and second approval since more than ten years . The law has not been exited since the undoing of the Council . It is worthy to note that the problem is not only limited by the change ,but also by commission which I have received from the supreme committee formed by the cabinet – as a result of my job in being legal advisor for Fighting Narcotic Department - to participate in legal committee ( Technical ) aiming to reform the law of narcotics and mental influences. 3. Arabic Office of Narcotic Affairs application from Palestine State to comment on the review of Unified Arabic Ideal Law of Narcotics and Mental Influences and its proposed modifications according to the resolution of the Arab Ministers of Justice Council ( Q 968 .D 26-29 /11/2013 ) which has requested me to complete this review as a result of my position . The subject matter of crime fighting has been discussed throughout two chapters : Chapter One : the definition of the narcotic crime fighting, and Chapter Two : procedures for fighting narcotic crime.
تدور هذه الدراسة حول جرائم المخدرات وسبل مكافحتها في التشريع الفلسطيني، وقد آثرت قبل الخوض في موضوع الدراسة أن أتحدث في فصل أول عن ماهية جرائم المخدرات من حيث بيان مضمونها و تعريفها وتمييزها عن المؤثرات العقلية والسلائف الكيميائية و بيان أنواعها وتصنيفاتها وطرق حصرها إعمالا لمبدأ "شرعية الجرائم والعقوبات"، وكذلك شرح أسباب وعوامل انتشارها وعلة تجريمها الكامنة في خطورتها وأضرارها، وكذلك بيان المستجدات الدولية حول تهريبها واساليب كشفها، حيث تتمحور هذه الدراسة في ماهية جرائم المخدرات واجراءات مكافحتها. وفي ختامها توصلت إلى أن الأمر العسكري بشأن العقاقير الخطرة رقم (558) لسنة 1975 هو أمر قديم جدا ويتنافى مع الغاية المرجوة من قوانين المخدرات ، وان مشروع قانون المخدرات والمؤثرات العقلية (القديم) اعترته العديد من مواضع النقص والخلل ، وان مشروع قانون المخدرات والمؤثرات العقلية (الجديد) متطور وجاء ملبيا للحاجة الوطنية والمجتمعية ، كما أوصيت في ختام هذه الدراسة إلى ضرورة الإسراع في سن قانون المخدرات والمؤثرات العقلية الجديد والى ضرورة تطوير أجهزة المكافحة . أهمية الدراسة: تنبع أهمية البحث من ضعف الردع في قانون المخدرات وفي اجراءات مكافحة هذه الجرائم، ومن ضرورة دراسة سبل تعزيز هذا الردع وهذه الاجراءات على نحو يحقق الغاية المرجوة من قوانين المخدرات، ذلك أن التشريع يعتبر ميدانا من أهم ميادين مكافحة المخدرات، لذا تبرز أهمية الدراسة فيما يلي: 1. إن الدراسة موضوع البحث ضرورية وحيوية نظرا لانتشار جرائم المخدرات في الوقت الحاضر، فهي مشكلة إنسانية عالمية، كما ان مكافحة المخدرات وتنظيم استعمالها والاتجار فيها أمر بالغ الاهمية نظرا لارتباطه بالصحة العامة والنواحي الأخلاقية والقوى البشرية، إضافة الى الناحية الاقتصادية والتأثير على اقتصاديات الدول من حيث مقدار الأموال المستثمرة دوليا في تجارة المخدرات وفي مكافحتها. 2. خطورة جرائم المخدرات على أمن المجتمع واستقراره ومساهمة المخدرات في التفكك الأسري والدمار الاجتماعي وفي انتشار العديد من الأمراض والأوبئة وأخطرها الإيدز، وارتباط ظاهرة تعاطي المخدرات وتجارتها بالجرائم الأخرى، ودور الاحتلال في السيطرة على الحدود وعرقلة الجهود الوطنية في مكافحتها، مما سيعرف المسئولين والمعنيين باليات تطوير سبل مكافحة هذا النوع من الجرائم لتدارك المشكلة ووضع الحلول المناسبة لها حماية للأجيال الحالية والأجيال القادمة. 3. إن موضوع الدراسة في غاية الأهمية من منظور حقوق الانسان من حيث الاجراءات التي تمس الحريات الشخصية، ومن حيث علاج وعدم معاقبة مدمني المخدرات. 4. عدم وجود دراسات سابقة في موضوع البحث، مما سيمكن الباحثين والطلبة من الاستفادة من هذه الدراسة. منهجية الدراسة: سأتبع المنهج الوصفي التحليلي ، ومنهج البحث المقارن والمنهج التاريخي ، كذلك سأقوم بالاطلاع على النصوص القانونية والآراء الفقهية و الأحكام القضائية المتعلقة بموضوع الدراسة وجمع المعلومات حوله ، سواء كان ذلك كتباً أو أبحاثاً أو دراسات، وسأعمل على استقراء أراء الكتاب في الكتب القانونية ذات العلاقة ، كما سأستعين بالمعلومات المتعلقة بهذا الموضوع من خلال شبكة المعلومات"الانترنت" لندرة المراجع.